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From the collection of the 


o Prelinger h 
v Uibrary 


San Francisco, California 


Kansas Historical 

NYLE H. MILLER, Managing Editor 

JAMES C. MALIN, Associate Editor 

Volume XX 

(Kansas Historical Collections) 
VOL. xxxvn 

Published by 

The Kansas State Historical Society 

Topeka, Kansas 



Number 1-February, 1952 



and the Pacific Railroad Reports Robert Taft, I 

With the following illustrations: 

John Mix Stanley's "Prairie Indian Encampment," cover, 

portrait of Stanley and his "Saint Paul" (1853), 
"Herd of Bison, Near Lake Jessie" (1853), 
"Fort Union, and Distribution of Goods to the Assinni 1 - 

boines" (1853); 
Gustavus Sohon's "Fort Benton Head of Steam Navigation 

on the Missouri River" (Probably 1860-1862), 
"Mode of Crossing Rivers by the Flathead and Other 

Indians" (Probably*1860-1862); 
John E. Weyss' "Brownsville, Texas" (1853); 
Arthur Schott's "Military Plaza San Antonio, Texas" 
(1853?), between pp. 16, 17. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, 
Treasurer, Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual 
Address of the President, THE KAW OR KANSA INDIANS, Frank 
Haucke; Memorials to Milton R. McLean and Charles H. 
Browne; Election of Officers; List of Directors of the Society, 

Kirke Mechem, 24 




Number 2-May, 1952 






Edited by Joyce Farlow and Louise Barry, 108 


Compiled by Helen M. McFarland, Librarian, 134 





Number 3-August, 1952 




Patricia M. Bourne and A. Bower Sageser, 183 

With a sketch of the Bourne Lister Cultivator, p. 185. 


September, 1862- July, 1865. .Edited by Joyce Farlow and Louise Barry, 187 




Number 4 November, 1952 


1880-1890: A Factor in Adjustment to a New Environment, 

George L. Anderson, 233 


CENTRAL KANSAS, 1859-1867 Sister M. Evangeline Thomas, 252 

With Father Dumortier's map of Catholic mission stations in the St. Mary's 
area (1866), facing p. 264. 





Number 5 February, 1953 



Minnie Dubbs Millbroo^ 305 

LIGHT ON THE BRINKLEY ISSUE IN KANSAS: Letters of William A. White to 

Dan D. Casement James C. Carey and Verlin R. Fosterling, 350 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, 
Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual Address of the Presi- 
dent, DANIEL WEBSTER WILDER, by William T. Beck; Election of Offi- 
cers; List of Directors of the Society Nyle H. Miller, 354 





Number 6-May, 1953 


ASPECTS OF THE NEBRASKA QUESTION, 1852-1854 James C. Malin, 385 

CAPT. L. C. EASTON'S REPORT: Fort Laramie to Fort Leavenworth 

Via Republican River in 1849 Edited by Merrill J. Mattes, 392 

With the following illustrations: 

Captain Easton's map of 1849, facing p. 400; 
Sketches of Fort Leavenworth (1849), facing p. 418, 
and Fort Laramie (1849), facing p. 417. 

KANSAS NEGRO REGIMENTS IN THE CIVIL WAR .... Dudley Taylor Cornish, 417 

Compiled by Helen M. McFarland, Librarian, 430 





Number 7-August, 1953 



Part One, The Contemporary Phase James C. Malin, 465 

With a sketch of the ruins of the Free-State Hotel, Lawrence, cover. 


Edited by Philip D. Uzee, 495 

of Father Maurice Gailland, S. J., 

Edited by the Rev. James M. Burke, S. /., 501 

With the following illustrations: 

Chapel of the Pottawatomie Indian Mission at St. Marys and 
portrait of the Rev. Maurice Gailland, S. J., facing p. 512; 
Pottawatomie Indians at St. Mary's Mission in 1867 and 
St. Mary's Mission, 1867, facing p. 513. 





Number 8 November, 1953 


IMPROVEMENTS Thomas LeDuc, 545 

Two, The Historical Phase Concluded James C. Malin, 553 

With the following illustrations: 

Portraits of Judge Samuel D. Lecompte, facing p. 592, 

and Col. Daniel Read Anthony, facing p. 593; 
Photographs of the original recommendation of the Douglas 

county grand jury, May, 1856, concerning the Emigrant 

Aid Company hotel and the two newspapers at Lawrence, 

between pp. 592, 593. 


With a reproduction of a painting of the American packet ship 
Roger Stewart, cover. 









February 1952 

Published by 

Kansas State Historical Society 


p| CACC KJf^TF ^ decreased printing appropriation will make it 
r LC/\^L INv^ I L necessary to publish The Kansas Historical Quarterly 
with fewer pages for several issues. The same standards will be maintained. 
It is hoped that the situation which caused this reduction will be remedied in 
the next session of the legislature. 

Volume XX, now being published, will consist of eight numbers, covering 
the years 1952-1953. The index for this volume will appear as part of the 

November, 1953, issue. 



Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor 




and the Pacific Railroad Reports Robert Taft, 1 

With the following illustrations: 

Portrait of John Mix Stanley, and his 
"Saint Paul" (1853), 

"Herd of Bison, Near Lake Jessie" (1853), 
"Fort Union, and Distribution of Goods to the Assinni- 

boines" (1853); 
Gustavus Sohon's "Fort Benton Head of Steam Navigation 

on the Missouri River" (Probably 1860-1862), 
"Mode of Crossing Rivers by the Flathead and Other 

Indians" (Probably 1860-1862); 
John E. Weyss' "Brownsville, Texas" (1853); 
Arthur Schott's "Military Plaza San Antonio, Texas" (1853?), 

between pp. 16, 17. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, 
Treasurer, Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual 
Address of the President, THE KAW OR KANSA INDIANS, Frank 
Haucke; Memorials to Milton R. McLean and Charles H. 
Browne; Election of Officers; List of Directors of the Society, 

Kirke Mechem, 24 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and 
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis- 
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be 
sent to the secretary of the Historical Society. The Society assumes no respon- 
sibility for statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


John Mix Stanley's "Prairie Indian Encampment.' 
Courtesy Detroit Institute of Arts. 


Volume XX February, 1952 Number 1 

The Pictorial Record of the Old West 



(Copyright, 1952, by ROBERT TAFT) 

IN the preceding number of this series, many of the illustrators of 
the Pacific railroad Reports were considered. Two, however, re- 
main to be discussed, those who were present on Gov. I. I. Stevens' 
survey of the northern route. 1 The principal artist of this survey, 
John M. Stanley, deserves more than mere mention for at least two 
reasons: he is represented in the reports of the surveys by more 
plates than any other artist, and in the second place, no early West- 
ern artist had more intimate knowledge by personal experience of the 
American West. 

Born in New York state in 1814, he spent his boyhood there. 
When he was 20 he moved to Detroit and the following year he be- 
gan painting portraits and landscapes. No record of any artistic 
training exists, but from 1835 until 1839 he apparently made his 
living as an itinerant artist in Detroit, Fort Snelling (where he 
painted Indians), Galena and Chicago. He then moved East. No 

DR. ROBERT TAFT, of Lawrence, is professor of chemistry at the University of Kansas 
and editor of the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. He is author of Photog- 
raphy and the American Scene (New York, 1938), and Across the fears on Mount Oread 
(Lawrence, 1941). 

Previous articles in this pictorial series appeared in the issues of The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly for February, May, August and November, 1946, May and August, 1948, May, 
August and November, 1949, February, May and August, 1950, August and November, 
1951. The general introduction was in the February, 1946, number. 

1. The survey of the 32d parallel under Capt. John Pope completed the survey on this 
route begun by Lieutenant Parke from Fort Yuma to Fort Fillmore. Captain Pope began 
his survey near the latter place on February 12, 1854, and traveled eastward across much 
country that was unknown. The survey was completed at Preston, Tex. (near present 
Denison), on May 15, 1854 (Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most 
Practicable and Economic Route for a Railroad From the Mississippi River to the Pacific 
Ocean, v. 2). As can be seen by an inspection of a map, most of Pope's route lay through 
Texas. No illustrations accompany Pope's report but a contemporary report by a private 
concern covered a somewhat similar survey of a route through Texas and west, and the 
report is accompanied by 32 interesting illustrations, see A. B. Gray, Survey of a Route 
for the Southern Pacific R. R. on the 32nd Parallel for the Texas Western R. R. Company 
(Cincinnati, 1856). The plates are by Carl Schuchard. Schuchard, a German, was 
born in 1827 and was a mining engineer who joined the '49 rush to California. Later 
he became a surveyor, settled in Texas where he lived for a number of years, but spent 
much of his later life in Mexico where he died on May 4, 1883. Schuchard's original 
sketches for the report cited above were destroyed in a fire in the Smithsonian Institution, 
apparently the same fire that destroyed a number of Stanley paintings (see p. 10). I am 
indebted to Llerena Friend of the Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas, for 
information concerning Schuchard. 


definite record of his wanderings exists for the next few years, but 
in the early spring of 1842 an advertisement of the firm of Fay and 
Stanley appeared in Washington ( D. C. ) papers. Although positive 
proof that the Stanley of this firm was John M. Stanley is lacking, 
the circumstantial evidence is excellent. The advertisement an- 
nounced that Fay and Stanley were prepared to take daguerreotype 
likenesses and would offer instruction and complete outfits for the 
practice of the art. Evidently in his three years in the East, Stanley 
if it be granted that he was the Stanley of our interest had ac- 
quired a knowledge of the new art, for it had been introduced into 
this country in the fall of 1839. Certain it is that Stanley later made 
use of daguerreotypy on one of his Western expeditions. 2 

Sometime during the summer or fall of 1842, Stanley decided to 
go to the Indian country with Sumner Dickerman of Troy, N. Y., for 
the express purpose of painting the American Indian of the West. 
Whether he was influenced by his predecessor, Catlin, who had 
achieved by 1842 a considerable reputation with his collection of 
Indian paintings, is unknown. Dickerman's part in the enterprise, 
too, is not known with certainty. He probably helped to finance the 
expedition and certainly he was the companion and helper of Stan- 
ley for several years. 3 

In the fall of 1842 the two arrived in Fort Gibson (in present 

2. The information on Stanley thus far given in the text is based on an account 
given by Stanley's son, L. C. Stanley, and published by David I. Bushnell, Jr., in "John 
Mix Stanley, Artist-Explorer," Annual Report Smithsonian Institution . . ., 1924, pp. 
507-512, subsequent reference to this biographic material is indicated by L. C. S. Stan- 
ley's manuscript account of bis father is said to be in the Burton Historical Collections, 

The advertisement of Fay and Stanley appeared in The Independent, Washington, on 
March 15, 1842, p. 3, and in many subsequent issues between this date and May 31, 1842. 
The same advertisement, with minor variations, also appeared in the National Intelligencer, 
Washington (see, for example, the issue of March 29, 1842, p. 3). The Independent of 
March 18, 1842, p. 3, had a brief comment on the firm of Fay and Stanley and identified 
Fay as one who had a "long and respectable connection with the Press of South Carolina" 
but made no direct comment on Stanley. Mention is made of "a competent artist" in the 
account which may or may not mean Stanley. Further circumstantial evidence that it 
was John M. Stanley who was concerned is borne out by the fact that the firm of Fay and 
Stanley became Fay and Reed in the advertisement of the firm for June 3, 1842, in the 
Independent (p. 4, c. 5). As will be pointed out shortly in the text, Stanley was in the 
Southwest in the year 1842 and the change in the firm may have arisen from Stanley's 
withdrawal for this trip. Comment and letters in Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg (Nor- 
man, Okla., 1941), M. G. Fulton, editor, v. 1, p. 188, also suggest that Stanley, a friend of 
Gregg's may have had a knowledge of daguerreotypy in 1846; Stanley's subsequent use 
of the daguerreotype in 1853 will be discussed in the text which follows. For the intro- 
duction of daguerreotypy in the United States, see Robert Taft, Photography and the Ameri- 
can Scene (New York, 1938), ch. 1. 

3. L. C. S. identified Dickerman only by the two words "of Troy." W. Vernon Kinietz, 
John Mix Stanley and His Indian Paintings (Ann Arbor, 1942), p. 17 (Footnote 3), states 
that Stanley's will assigned Dickerman a one-fourth interest in Stanley's Indian Gallery 
to be described later in the text. Dickerman was born in 1819. He is listed as a resident 
of Troy in the city directories from 1836 to 1843. He was a Civil War veteran and lived 
in Maryland for some years after the war. He returned to Troy in 1881 where he died 
on July 21, 1882. See Troy Daily Times, July 22, 1882. I am indebted to Fanny C. 
Howe, librarian, Troy Public Library, for this information. I have also corresponded with 
Kate L. Dickerman of Troy, who wrote me on March 21, 1951, that Sumner Dickerman 
was her uncle and that she remembered him relating stories of his adventures in the 
Indian country with Stanley. Miss Dickerman, age 90, also wrote me that Stanley 
painted portraits of her aunt and other members of the family which hung for many 
years in the Dickerman home. Miss Dickerman, the last of her family, stated that no 
records of Stanley or Dickerman in the Indian country were available in the family. 


Oklahoma) and Stanley immediately set up a studio. Fort Gibson, 
established in 1824, was an important post on the early Southwest- 
ern frontier and in many respects an ideal one for Stanley's purpose. 
Through it passed an almost continuous stream of frontiersmen, 
border characters, and Indians of many tribes. Located in the 
Cherokee country it was easily accessible to Seminoles, Creeks, 
Osages, Chickasaws, many of whom had been forced to migrate by 
the government in the years preceding Stanley's first visit. Visits, 
too, from the native Plains Indians farther west were also frequent 
and Stanley never lacked for subjects. Four of these visitors, two 
Pawnee Pict chiefs and the wife and child of one of them, were 
among Stanley's early subjects. Stanley wrote concerning them: 

On the arrival of the two chiefs and this woman at Fort Gibson, we took 
them to our studio for the purpose of painting their portraits. They very 
willingly acceded to my wishes, and manifested by signs that they wanted some- 
thing to eat. We accordingly had as much meat cooked as would appease the 
appetite of six men, which they ate in a short time, and then asked for more. 
We again provided about the same quantity, which, to our astonishment, they 
also devoured. It was the first meat they had eaten for some five or six days. 4 

But Stanley's great opportunity came the following spring when 
a grand Indian council was called to convene at Tahlequah by the 
celebrated Cherokee, John Ross. Tahlequah, the capital of the 
Cherokee Nation, was only some 20 miles from Fort Gibson, but 
Stanley moved his studio to the Indian town and during the four- 
weeks' session of the council and the succeeding summer months, 
was exceedingly busy recording the scenes and the participants of 
the Indian gathering. 

By June 1, 1843, several thousand Indians from a wide circle of 
the Indian country were present, and an observer of the scene has 
left us the following interesting account of the events witnessed: 

Every variety of dress can be seen here from the well dressed person down 
to the almost naked Osage. Plumes and feathers are worn with profusion and in 
every shape that can be imagined; hand kerchiefs of every color, silver bands 
for the arms, head and breast; medals, beads and hunting shirts of every shape 
and color; in truth, I cannot give you anything like a correct idea of the great 
variety of dress worn by the tawny sons of the forest. We have almost as great 
a variety in the color of persons as we have in dress. Where nature has not 
given the color, paint is used to supply the deficiency. Besides the various 
Indian Tribes there are persons from almost every nation. Here are Germans, 
Scotch, Irish, English, Spanish and various other nations. I have no doubt if 
strict inquiry was made, not excepting some of the sable sons of Africa. 5 

4. Catalogue of Pictures in Stanley and Dickerman's North American Indian Portrait 
Gallery; J. M. Stanley, Artist (Cincinnati, 1846), pp. 21, 22. 

5. Arkansas Intelligencer, Van Buren, June 24, 1843, p. 2. Van Buren, located only 
some half-dozen miles from Fort Smith, which in turn was only some 50 miles below Fort 


Stanley painted one such meeting of the council, the painting 
being one of the few surviving Stanley pictures. It is now owned 
by the National Museum and has been called by one authority "one 
of the most valuable and important Indian pictures in existence." 6 

Late in the fall of 1843, Stanley accompanied Gov. P. M. Butler, 
the U. S. agent to the Cherokees, to a council held for the Comanche 
and other "wild prairie Indians" who had been for some years a 
source of trouble near the boundary of the Texas Republic and the 
United States. Texas commissioners were supposed to be present 
but failed to appear, but the council was held on "the head-waters 
of the Red River" (probably near the present southwestern corner 
of Oklahoma ) and Stanley was able to secure a number of Coman- 
che Indian portraits and landscape views. 7 

It seems probable that from the fall of 1842 until late in April, 
1845, Dickerman and Stanley lived continuously in the Indian coun- 
try. In the fall of 1845 they were in Cincinnati where Stanley was 

Gibson on the Arkansas river, was thus an important post near the early Southwestern 
frontier; its newspaper is an invaluable source of information on the early history of this 

Mention is made of the presence of Stanley and Dickerman in the Indian country in 
the Arkansas Intelligencer a number of times, including issues of July 15, 1843, p. 2; Sep- 
tember 23, 1843, p. 2 (which stated that Stanley had just returned from the Creek Busk 
which he painted, the painting being listed in the Stanley catalogue); October 28, 1843, 
p. 2, and other issues specifically cited later. 

The observer of the council stated that when his account was written ( June 1 ) the 
number of persons present for the council were estimated at "two to five thousand." 
In Stanley's catalogue, Portraits of North American Indians, published by the Smithsonian 
Institution, December, 1852 (usually found as part of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions, v. 2, 1862), p. 18, the number present at the council is estimated at 10,000. I have 
seen other estimates as high as 20,000. In this catalogue Stanley has dated the painting 
of most of his pictures. It is apparent from these dates he was busy with the painting of 
the council and with portraits of visitors to the council during June, July, August and 
September of 1843. On p. 18 of this source, Stanley states that the council was in session 
for four weeks during June, 1843. Stanley's painting of the council, "International Indian 
Council," is now in the National Museum. Reproductions may be found in the Bushnell 
article cited in Footnote 2 and in the Kinietz book cited in Footnote 3. 

6. Bushnell, loc. cit., p. 511. 

7. In the "Preface" to the proposed Indian portfolio by Stanley now in the Museum 
of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City (for a discussion of this port- 
folio see F. W. Hodge, Indian Notes, v. 6, No. 4, Museum of the American Indian, Heye 
Foundation, New York, October, 1929), the statement is made that Stanley accompanied 
Butler on two expeditions to the prairie tribes of Texas. The first was probably made in 
the early spring of ] 843 as brief mention is made on Butler's return from this council in 
the National Intelligencer, April 27, 1843, p. 3 (reprinted from the Shreveport Red River 
Gazette of April 12). The second trip of Stanley with Butler to the headwaters of the 
Bed river is identified in the same "Preface" as taking place in the winter of ] 843-1 844 
for Butler was reported as preparing to meet the Prairie Indians on the Red river on No- 
vember 25, 1843, in the National Intelligencer, November 18, 1843, p. 3, and later his 
return from the council is reported in the Arkansas Intelligencer, December 30, 1843, p. 2, 
and January 6, 1844, p. 1. 

In both of these accounts mention is made of Stanley's presence at the council. In fact, 
Stanley made badges, at the suggestion of Butler, to designate each of the tribes presented, 
a courtesy which greatly pleased the Indians. One Comanche woman thought so much of 
Stanley that she gave him her prized riding whip. Additional information on this 
council will also be found in Niles Register, Baltimore, January 13, 1844, p. 306, and 
January 27, 1844, p. 339. Stanley's paintings (in his catalogue of 1852) of the Comanche 
Indians which were undoubtedly secured on this expedition are dated "1844" which must 
mean that Stanley completed them at Fort Gibson after his return from the last expedition 
in December, 1843. 

P. M. Butler received his title of governor from the fact that he was governor of South 
Carolina from 1836 until 1838. He was agent to the Cherokees from 1838 to 1846 and 
was killed in battle in the Mexican War in 1847. See Dictionary of American Biography 
v. 3, pp. 365, 366. 


actively engaged in finishing some 83 paintings preparatory to public 
exhibition. 8 

The gallery was opened for public exhibition on January 19, 1846, 
and the Stanley portraits were on display in Cincinnati until Febru- 
ary 14. Advertisements of the event announced "Season tickets ad- 
mitting a gentlemen and one lady $1, can be procured at the door. 
This collection can be seen by gas light as well as day light/' 9 

It was but natural that the gallery should be compared with 
Catlin's. Comment on this comparison is not extensive but the 
Cincinnati Gazette, January 21, 1846, stated: "Of the artistic merits 
of these pictures, in our judgment, they are fully equal to any of 
that class we have ever seen not excepting those by Catlin; nor 
are we alone in our estimate in this respect" ( see, also, p. 9 ) . 

Stanley soon became restless after his gallery was completed and 
leaving its future exhibition to Dickerman, he again started west. 
He was in St. Louis in the spring of 1846, and a few weeks later was 
in Independence, Mo., ready to start out over the Santa Fe trail for 
new scenes. 10 He joined Col. S. C. Owen's train which included the 
famous Josiah Gregg, whose Commerce of the Prairies published in 

8. The departure of Stanley and Dickerman from the Indian country of the Southwest 
is reported in the Arkansas Intelligencer, May 3, 1845, p. 2, and the Arkansas Banner, 
Little Rock, May 21, 1845, p. 3. In the first of these reports it was stated that the partners 
were leaving for "the mouth of the Yellowstone on the Upper Missouri, where they were 
to continue their painting of Indian portraits and scenes." I have found no evidence that 
this contemplated plan was carried out. In fact, the reference which follows, if correct, 
would seem to be good evidence against such a possibility. 

The Cincinnati Gazette, January 21, 1846, reported: "Messrs. Stanley & Dickerman 
the proprietors of these pictures, are already most favorable known to many of our citizens, 
by a residence of some months in our city, during which time they have been elaborating 
these pictures from the numerous sketches and materiel gathered during their three years 
residence and travel among the tribes of the 'far West.' " I am indebted to Prof. Dwight 
L. Smith of the department of history, Ohio State University, Columbus, who searched 
the Gazette and Cists' Western General Advertiser for January and February, 1846, seek- 
ing items concerning the first exhibition of Stanley paintings. The Cincinnati catalogue 
cited in Footnote 4 was used in connection with this exhibition and lists 100 paintings and 
34 sketches. One of the paintings was "John M. Stanley, the Artist, Painted by Mo9ney." 
The copy of the catalogue I have used (in the New York Public Library) bears evidence 
that the last two pages were inserted after the original publication in 1846. Several of the 
paintings, for example, are of incidents in the Northwest in 1847, and the last two pages 
are unnumbered while the remaining pages ( 34 ) are numbered. The first 34 pages cata- 
logued 83 paintings, and an advertisement in the Cincinnati Gazette January 26, 1846, 
stated there were 83 paintings in the gallery. It is obvious then that the New York Public 
Library copy of this catalogue was one used for exhibitions after 1846. 

9. Cincinnati Gazette, January 20, 26, 1846; February 14, 1846. The Cherokee Ad- 
vocate, Tahlequah, of March 12, 1846, p. 3, noted the various comments in the Cincinnati 
papers on the Stanley and Dickerman gallery and was moved to make their own comment: 
"We perceive from Cincinnati papers that Messrs. Stanley and Dickerman have been 
exhibiting recently in that city their extensive collection of Indian portraits and it will 
afford pleasure to their numerous friends in this country, to learn that they are receiving the 
meed of praise from an intelligent public, which their merit as artists and gentlemen so 
richly deserves." 

10. Cist's Western General Advertiser, Cincinnati, January 28, 1846, stated that Stan- 
ley "proposes in April next to resume his interesting employment in other and yet un- 
explored fields of labour" and in Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg (Norman, Okla., 1941), 
edited by M. G. Fulton, v. 1, p. 188, is a letter of Gregg's dated April 17, 1846, which 
mentioned Stanley and indicates that Gregg was expecting Stanley to be in St. Louis at or 
before the time Gregg's letter was written. An editorial note (p. 188) states that Gregg and 
Stanley were fellow-residents of Independence, Mo. If Stanley was a resident of Independ- 
ence it could not have been a matter of more than a few months. 



1844 has become a Western classic. Gregg continued with the train 
only a hundred miles or so and then turned back to join another 
venture but the train also contained another writer whose diary 
many years later also became well known. Susan Magoffin's diary, 
like Gregg's Commerce of the Prairies, is among the most valued 
written records of the Santa Fe trail. Susan, a young bride of 19, 
noted in her diary on June 20, 1846, that Stanley was a member of 
the same train, after wishing that an artist could portray the many 
interesting and novel scenes as the train lay encamped at Council 
Grove (in present central Kansas). 11 

Unfortunately, if Stanley made any sketches along the Santa Fe 
trail, they have been lost. Before he started on the overland expedi- 
tion, however, he had made an excursion from Independence to the 
Kansas river where he painted Keokuk, the celebrated chief, and 
others of the Sac and Fox tribe. 12 

Owen's train reached Santa Fe on August 31, 1846. The Mexican 
War was then only several months old and Col. Stephen W. Kearny 
and his troops, who reached Santa Fe at about the same time as the 
Owen train, promptly took over the city from the Mexican govern- 
ment and planned to go on to California to aid in its conquest. Re- 
organization of Kearny's troops was made at Santa Fe and a scien- 
tific staff was added which included Stanley as the artist of the 
expedition. 13 

Kearny's troops left Santa Fe on September 25 for the long over- 
land trip to California, which was reached in December. On Decem- 
ber 6 a pitched battle between the troops and Mexicans some 40 
miles east of San Diego caused severe casualties, hardships and 
sufferings, but reinforcements appeared at an opportune moment 
and the goal of San Diego was reached on December 12. Stanley 
managed to retain his sketches during the six days of battle and 
hardship and was taken abroad the U. S. sloop Cyane at San Diego 
where he was able to prepare some of them for publication and to 
finish others in oils. A number of his sketches were doubtless 
among those reproduced lithographically in the official report of 

11. Down the Santa Fe Trail and Into Mexico The Diary of Susan Shelby Magoffin 
(New Haven, 1926), edited by Stella M. Drumm, p. 19. For Gregg's departure with 
Owen's train, see Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg (previously cited), v. 1, pp. 192 
(footnote), 197 and 202 (Footnote 7). 

12. Stanley's catalogue of 1852, pp. 35-40. 

13. National Intelligencer, November 14, 1846, p. 3, reported that Kearny left Santa 
Fe for California on September 25, and that the scientific staff of the expedition included 
"Mr. Stanley employed at Santa Fe as the artist of the expedition." W. H. Emory's official 
report of the Kearny expedition (House Ex. Doc. No. 41 [serial No. 517], p. 45, 30 Cong., 
1 Sess. [1848]) stated that the party as organized at Santa Fe included "J. M. Stanly, 


Kearny's long march to the sea. 14 The plates in general are very 
crudely done in black and white, the most interesting one being 
"San Diego from the Old Fort." The Cyane with Stanley aboard 
arrived in San Francisco in the early spring of 1847, and here Edwin 
Bryant, the author of the well-known What I Saw in California, in- 
cluded Stanley's sketches in the California sights that came before 
his eyes. Writing in 1848, he stated: 

Mr. Stanley, the artist of the [Kearny] expedition completed his sketches 
in oil, at San Francisco; and a more truthful, interesting, and valuable series 
of paintings, delineating mountain scenery, the floral exhibitions on the route, 
the savage tribes between Santa Fe and California combined with camp-life 
and marches through the desert and wilderness has never been, and probably 
never will be exhibited. Mr. Stanley informed that he was preparing a work 
on the savage tribes of North America, and of the islands of the Pacific, which, 
when completed on his plan, will be the most comprehensive and descriptive of 
the subject, of any that has been published. 15 

These paintings, valuable in their time and day, would now be 
priceless but apparently with two exceptions they all have disap- 
peared, most of them in a fire which in 1865 destroyed some 200 
of Stanley's paintings. The exceptions noted above are "Indian 
Telegraph" (smoke signal) and "Black Knife" (Apache) both por- 
traying incidents of Kearny's overland march to California. 16 

After finishing the sketches and paintings of the Kearny expedi- 
tion in 1847, Stanley spent the next several years in further wander- 
ings making sketches for his proposed Indian portfolio. He was in 

14. Twenty-three plates of scenery and Indian portraits in black and white, three 
of natural history and Indian hieroglyphics, and 14 botanical plates appear in the official 
report. Apparently all were after sketches by Stanley although nowhere is there direct 
statement of this fact save in the case of the 14 botanical plates. Both senate and house 
printings of the report exist: W. H. Emory, Notes of a Military Reconnaissance, From Fort 
Leavenworth, Missouri to San Diego, California (Washington, 1848), 30 Cong., 1 Sess., 
Senate Ex. Doc. No. 7 (serial No. 505), and 30 Cong., 1 Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 41 
(serial No. 517). The lithography of the plates in both printings I have examined were 
by C. B. Graham although Charles L. Camp, Wagner's the Plains and the Rockies (San 
Francisco, 1937), p. 112, reports that in the senate edition he examined the plates of 
scenery were lithographed by E. Weber and Co.; a point which illustrates the fact made 
previously that general conclusions on plates cannot be based on the examination of single 

There is, of course, the possibility that some of the views in the Emory report were 
not based on Stanley's original sketches. Ross Calvin in Lieutenant Emory Reports (Albu- 
querque, 1951), states (pp. 3, 4) that some of the illustrations "are so inaccurate as to 
make it clear that the draughtsman never beheld the scenes he was attempting to depict" 
but does not explain the discrepancy further. Calvin's statement still does not preclude 
the possibility that all the original drawings were made by Stanley as has already been 
observed in the text, the plates reproduced in this report are extremely crude. The 
lithographer may well have been the cause of the inaccuracies. 

15. Edwin Bryant, What I Saw in California (New York, 4th ed., 1849), pp. 435- 
436. Bryant had ample opportunity to observe "the desert and wilderness" for he made 
the overland crossing himself and was made alcalde of San Francisco in the spring of 
1847 by General Kearny. Bryant's book is one of the most interestingly written of all the 
early accounts of the overland trail. Bryant (1805-1869) lived in California for some 
time but spent his last years in Kentucky. For an obituary, see San Francisco Bulletin, 
January 3, 1870, p. 2. 

16. The "Indian Telegraph" was either repainted or painted for the first time in 1860 
(Kinietz, op. cit., p. 33) and therefore was not one of the paintings seen by Bryant. It is 
now owned by the Detroit Institute of Arts. "Black Knife" was among the original paint- 
ings of 1846 and was one of those that escaped the disastrous fire of 1865. It is owned by 
the National Museum. Both of these paintings are reproduced in black and white in the 
Kinietz book. 


Oregon by July 8, 1847, and was busily occupied for some months 
making portraits of the Northwestern Indians. Late in November, 
he started for the famous Whitman Mission to paint the portraits 
of Dr. and Mrs. Whitman. When within six miles of the mission, 
he was met by two friendly Indians who informed him of the Whit- 
man massacre and warned him that his own life was in danger. 
With the aid of an Indian, he made his way with great caution to 
Fort Walla Walla where he was one of the first to report the mas- 
sacre. 17 Stanley continued in the Northwest until the summer of 
1848 and his extensive Indian gallery acquired many additions. 

About August 1 he took ship for the Hawaiian Islands the 
Sandwich Islands. His painting career was again resumed on the 
Islands where portraits of Kamehameha III and his queen were 
made and which are still on display in the Government Museum, 
Honolulu. Stanley lived in Honolulu for over a year but on No- 
vember 17, 1849, he sailed for Boston. 18 

Upon Stanley's return to the United States, his Indian gallery was 
enlarged and he seems to have spent most of 1850 and 1851 in dis- 
playing the gallery in a number of Eastern cities. 19 Early in 1852 
he took his collection of Indian paintings to Washington where he 
made arrangements with Joseph Henry, secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, for their free display in the library room of the 

17. For an extended account of Stanley in the Northwest, see Nellie B. Pipes, "John 
Mix Stanley, Indian Painter," The Oregon Historical Quarterly, Salem, v. 33 (1932), Sep- 
tember, pp. 250-258. 

18. In The Polynesian, Honolulu, August 19, 1848, p. 55, there was record of the 
arrival of the American brig Eveline at the port of Honolulu "13 days from Columbia 
River"; George M. Stanley was listed as one of the passengers. I believe that this is a 
record of John M. Stanley's arrival in Honolulu for in a succeeding issue of this paper 
there is an account of John M. Stanley's artistic activities with the comment that he "re- 
cently arrived from Oregon." Ibid., September 16, 1848, p. 70. Additional comment 
on Stanley's activities in the Islands will be found in the Sandwich Island News, Honolulu, 
August 21, 1848, p. 187; The Polynesian, April 14, 1849, p. 190. 

Stanley left the Islands for the United States on November 17, 1849, for a letter 
from one Charles Jordon Hopkins of King Kamehameha's retinue, written November 16, 
1849, stated that Stanley was to sail on the following day and directed that Stanley be 
paid $500 for his portraits of the king and queen. The letter bears the receipt of Stanley 
for this sum. A copy of a letter in the Hawaiian archives, dated February 4, 1850, is 
directed to Stanley in Boston, expressing the hope he had a pleasant return voyage. I am 
indebted to Mrs. Dean Acheson of Washington, D. C., Stanley's granddaughter, for copies 
of these letters. 

19. In the New York Tribune, November 28, 1850, p. 1, there appeared for the first 
time the advertisement: 

"INDIANS Will be opened at the Alhambra Rooms, 557Vz Broadway, on THURSDAY 
Oil Paintings consisting of Portraits, life size of the principal Chiefs and Warriors of fifty 
different tribes roving upon our Western and South-wessern [sic] Prairies, New-Mexico, 
California and Oregon, together with landscape views, Games, Dances, Buffalo Hunts and 
Domestic Scenes, all of which have been painted in their own country during eight years 
travel among them, the whole forming one of the most interesting and instructive exhibitions 
illustrative of Indian life and customs ever before presented to the public. 

"Descriptive Lectures may be expected at 3 P. M. on Wednesday and Saturday; also, 
each Evening at 7% o'clock. Open at 9 A. M. to 10 P. M. 

"Single Tickets 25 cents. Season Tickets $1. Can be obtained at the principal Hotels 
and at the Door. STANLEY & DICKERMAN, Proprietors." 

This advertisement ran for a week but comment and other small advertisements indi- 
cated that the gallery was on exhibit in New York for at least two months and probably 
longer. See New York Tribune, January 21, 1851, p. 5, January 23, p. 5, January 24, p. 1. 


institution. Here they remained for over a dozen years, the gallery 
being gradually enlarged by Stanley until it numbered some two 
hundred paintings. The gallery attracted considerable public in- 
terest, not only among visitors to Washington but among residents 
of the city and among members of congress. 20 

Stanley's purpose in bringing his gallery to Washington for free 
display was primarily to interest members of congress in its pur- 
chase and thus to establish a national gallery. He had spent ten 
years of his life in travel, adventure, toil and labor in securing the 
150-odd paintings that made up the collection at the time of its 
first display in the capitol. The private exhibition of the gallery, 
although it may have given him a living, did not return him any- 
thing on the investment he had made, which in 1852, Stanley esti- 
mated was $12,000. This sum included nothing for time and labor, 
but had been spent for materials, transportation, insurance and 
traveling expenses. 

Catlin had urged the purchase of his Indian gallery by congress 
without success and had taken it abroad where it was rumored it 
was to stay. Stanley felt that his collection was more representative 
of the Western Indians and certainly he had traveled far more ex- 
tensively in the American West than had Catlin. Capt. Seth East- 
man, himself an Indian artist of note, saw Stanley's gallery when it 
was brought to Washington in 1852 and wrote Stanley "that I con- 
sider the artistic merits of yours far superior to Mr. Catlin's; and 
they give a better idea of the Indian than any works in Mr. Catlin's 

With such encouragement, Stanley was able to bring his gallery 
to the attention of the senate committee on Indian affairs, who rec- 
ommended its purchase for $19,200. The question of its purchase 
was debated in the senate and although strongly urged by Senator 
Weller of California and Senator Walker of Wisconsin, the purchase 
bill was defeated 27 to 14 when it came to a vote in March, 1853. 21 

20. The first notice I have found of Stanley's gallery in Washington occurs in the 
National Intelligencer, February 24, 1852, p. 1, which stated that the gallery had been 
2?3 br u 8ht to , this cit y-" Henf y reported to the board of the Smithsonian on March 
22, 1852, that Stanley had deposited his gallery of Indian portraits in the institution and 
that they "had attracted many visitors" (32 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Misc. Doc. No. 108 
(serial No. 629), p. 108. See, also, Henry's comment on Stanley's gallery in 32 Cong., 
2 Sess., Sen. Misc. Doc. No. 53, p. 27. Henry stated here that there were 152 paintings in 
the collection which is the number listed in the catalogue of 1852; note the comment of 
Senator Weller, however, as given in Footnote 21. L.C.S. mentions the display of the 
gallery in Eastern cities during 1850 and 1851. 

21 ; , Fo Eastman's comment, see letter of Eastman's dated January 28, 1852, and 
quoted by Kinietz, op. cit., p. 17. For Eastman (1808-1875) as a painter of the American 
Indian, see David I. Bushnell, Jr., "Seth Eastman, Master Painter of the North American 
Indian, Smithsonian Misc. Collections, v. 87 (1932), April, 18 pages. 

Senator Weller of California introduced the matter of the purchase of the Stanley 
gallery to the senate on December 28, 1852, where the matter was referred to the com- 
mittee on Indian affairs, The Cong. Globe, 32 Cong., 2 Sess. (1852-1853), p. 158 Weller 


Stanley continued to urge the purchase of the gallery even after 
the initial defeat of the first measure and apparently it was dis- 
cussed in congress a number of times but all such attempts failed. 
The Smithsonian itself was asked to buy this collection but lack of 
funds prevented such a move. Stanley added to the gallery, how- 
ever, and by 1865 it numbered some 200 portraits. A fire on Janu- 
ary 24, 1865, in the wing of the institution which housed the gallery 
caused the destruction of all but five of the paintings. Not only did 
Stanley suffer a heart-breaking loss but the nation suffered an irrep- 
arable loss in its historical portraiture. 22 

Stanley's career before 1853 has been described in some detail to 
show his importance as a Western illustrator and to show that he 
was by far the best equipped both by ability and experience, of any 
of the artists that accompanied the Pacific railroad surveys. 23 

Early in 1853 Isaac I. Stevens, an army engineer and assistant in 
charge of the coast survey office in Washington, applied to Presi- 
dent Franklin B. Pierce for the governorship of the newly organized 
territory of Washington, which had been formed from the northern 
half of Oregon territory. In his application to President Pierce, 
Stevens stated that if the President could find anyone better quali- 
fied for the place, it was the President's duty to appoint that person. 
Evidently Pierce thought Stevens the best qualified, for one of his 
first acts as President was to send Stevens' name to the senate for 

stated that there were 154 paintings in the collection, 139 in substantial gilded frames. 
The committee to whom the matter was referred examined the exhibit and were very 
favorably impressed but they failed to arouse enough enthusiasm among the rest of the 
senators when the matter came to a final vote on March 3, 1853, ibid., p. 1084. Senator 
Weller apparently quoted Stanley when he reported Stanley's investment as $12,000 "in 
addition to time and labor." 

The National Intelligencer item cited in Footnote 20 stated Stanley's hope when it re- 
ported that the gallery "may become the foundation of the great national gallery." 

22. The annual reports of the Smithsonian Institution from 1852 to 1866 contain 
frequent mention of the Stanley gallery and the facts stated above come from this source. 
That Stanley was hard pressed financially is all too evident in his request of the institution 
for an allowance of $100 a year to pay the interest on money that Stanley had borrowed 
so that he would not have to sell the gallery privately (Annual Report of the Smithsonian 
Inst. for 1859 [Washington, 1860], p. 113). The destruction by fire and the fact that 
the gallery had grown to 200 paintings is reported in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian 
Institution for 1864 (Washington, 1872), p. 1J9. 

23. Some idea of Stanley's method in the field can be gathered from a memorandum 
which he prepared for Stevens on plans for the work of the artists of the surveys (see 
Reports, v. 1, Stevens Report, pp. 7 and 8). Stanley stated in part: "Sketches of Indians 
should be made and colored from life, with care to fidelity in complexion as well as feature. 
In their games and ceremonies, it is only necessary to give their characteristic attitudes, with 
drawings of the implements and weapons used, and notes in detail of each ceremony rep- 
resented. It is desirable that drawings of their lodges, with their historical devices, 
carving &c, be made with care." 

That Stevens was more than satisfied with his selection of Stanley is indicated in a 
letter of October 29, 1853, after Stanley's part in the survey was virtually complete. The 
letter reads in part: "The chief of the exploration would do injustice to his own feelings 
if he omitted to express his admiration for the various labors of Mr. Stanley, the artist of 
the exploration. Besides occupying his professional field with an ability above any com- 
mendation we can bestow, Mr. Stanley has surveyed two routes from Fort Benton to the 
Cypress mountain, and from St. Mary's valley to Fort Colville over the Bitter Root range 
of mountains to the furtherance of our geographical information, and the ascertaining of 
important points in the question of a railroad; and he has also rendered effectual services 
in both cases, and throughout his services with the exploration, in intercourse with the 
Indians." Reports, v. 1, Stevens report, p. 67. 


confirmation as governor of the new territory. Stevens' commis- 
sion was issued March 17. The duties of the position were arduous 
enough, for, in addition to the governorship, Stevens was also 
superintendent of Indian affairs for the territory. Not satisfied 
with his dual role of governor and Indian commissioner, Stevens 
also applied to Secretary of War Jefferson Davis for the position 
as head of the northern railroad survey, and received the commis- 
sion for this task on April 8. 24 

Such combined responsibilities would have given pause to most 
men but not to Governor Stevens. Stevens was exceedingly ener- 
getic, able and ambitious and doubtless would have become a 
figure of greater national importance had it not been for the bullet 
which ended his life when, as major general, he personally led 
a charge against Confederate forces at the battle of Chantilly, 
September 1, 1862. 

However, as soon as Stevens' appointment as head of the north- 
ern survey was confirmed, he started with characteristic thorough- 
ness and vigor to make his plans for the survey. His chief assistant 
was Capt. George B. McClellan, who achieved greater prominence 
than his chief in the Civil War, and who was directed to start the 
survey from the Pacific coast side. Stevens organized his own 
party to begin the survey at the eastern terminus of St. Paul and 
on May 9, 1853, left Washington for the West. His companion as 
he left Washington was John M. Stanley whom Stevens with good 
judgment had selected as the artist for the expedition. 

How extensive Stevens had made his plans and carried them 
through since he received his appointment on April 8, can be 
judged by the comment of the St. Paul correspondent to the New 
York Tribune. Writing on May 25, two days before Stevens and 
Stanley arrived in the frontier town, he stated: 

Gov. Stevens is said to be a regular go-ahead man and so far the work shows 
for itself. His men, baggage, and about 150 mules have already arrived, and 
the work has been going on for over a week. How he has managed so to 
expedite his affairs is a problem. 

The shipments of merchandise and emigration to St. Paul this spring have 
been enormous; so that many of our merchants, who purchased even in the 
winter, have not yet received their supplies. The Governor has crowded them 
off and hurried his effects along. It is not easy to define how much the people 
of the West admire such a character. Ten years is a lifetime here, and twenty, 
time out of memory. 25 

24. In the above discussion I have followed Hazard Stevens, The Life of Isaac Ingalls 
Stevens (Boston, 1900), v. 1, ch. 15. For his appointment as survey head, see v. 12 of the 
Reports, p. 31. 

25. New York Tribune, June 3, 1853, p. 5. 


Stevens and Stanley arrived in St. Paul on the evening of May 
27. The camp established by Stevens' vanguard was about an 
hour's ride from St. Paul. Some idea of the drive and intensity of 
the survey's commanding officer is revealed when he recorded in 
his official diary: "Starting from St. Paul at 3& a. m. on the 28th, I 
reached our camp in about an hour, and had the pleasure of rousing 
the gentlemen of the expedition from their sleep." 26 

Completion of organization for the start of the survey required 
over a week and in that interval Stanley was busy. A sketch of 
St. Paul (reproduced between pp. 16, 17) and one of the celebrated 
"Minne-ha-ha, or the Laughing Water" made immortal by Long- 
fellow are among Stanley's efforts which have survived as illus- 
trations in the official report. 

At St. Paul, too, an assistant artist, Max Strobel, was employed to 
aid Stanley. Before the expedition started, a St. Paul reporter saw 
some of Strobel's efforts and wrote: "I have already seen some of 
the Artist's work, and can promise the public when Gov. Steven's 
Report is made up and given to the world, there will be something 
as pleasing to the eye as to the mind." 27 Strobel, however, could 
not stand the intense pace and effort upon which Stevens insisted 
and turned back from the expedition before it was long on its way 
westward. 28 Little else is known about Strobel, although one of his 
sketches ( a view of St. Paul ) is known in lithograph. A comment, 
"Mr. Strobel is a very accomplished artist and on his return [from 
the Stevens survey] has rendered valuable service to Minnesota by 
his sketches of the Minnesota river from Lac qui Parle to Traverse 
des Sioux," shows that he is worthy of inclusion in our group of 
Western artists. In the fall of 1853, he joined Fremont's expedition 
at Westport and apparently withstood the hardships of that winter 
overland journey. None of his work on this expedition, or that made 
subsequently, is known at present. 29 

Stevens had his organization of the survey completed by June 6 
and his command started the westward journey in various groups. 
The general route of the expedition was that made famous by their 

26. Reports, v. 12, p. 36. 

27. New York Tribune, June 3, 1853, p. 5. This account lists Stanley and Strobel 
as artists and although in the quotation above the plural artists' is employed, it must apply 
to Strobel's work as it was written before Stanley reached St. Paul. 

28. Ibid., August 3, 1853, p. 5. Strobel was not the only one who turned back as a 
result of Stevens' drive and insistence upon his way of doing things. This same account 
stated that there were over 25 who had returned and Stevens' official account also de- 
scribed his difference of opinion with members of the survey resulting in withdrawal from 
the expedition. Stevens mentions Strobel's discharge because he was "inefficient," Reports, 
v. 12, p. 55. 

29. For the comment on Strobel see New York Tribune, August 3, 1853, p. 5; for a 
reproduction of Strobel's view of St. Paul, see I. N. Phelps Stokes and Daniel C. Haskell, 
American Historical Prints . . . (New York, 1933), plate 85a with comment on 

jge 111; for Strobel with Fremont, see S. N. Carvalho, Incidents of Travel and Adventure 
' Far West (New York, 1859), p. 29. 


predecessors 50-years earlier, Lewis and Clark; a route which has 
been concisely summarized as "up the Missouri and down the 
Columbia." It is true that little of the journey was by water as 
of necessity it could not be from the nature of the survey and the 
starting point, St. Paul, was some distance from the Missouri river. 30 
The expedition, however, headed westward across Minnesota terri- 
tory and into present North Dakota where the route of the expedi- 
tion roughly paralleled the Missouri. 

Much of the country traversed was mapped for the first time and 
even after Lewis and Clark's trail was actually picked up, the only 
guide to the region were the notes of those classic early explorers. 
Fort Union, the famous frontier outpost on the Missouri, and 715 
miles distant from St. Paul, was reached on August 1. 

Stanley has left us some notable illustrations of a number of the 
incidents in the seven or eight weeks of this part of their Western 
journey, some 13 plates in the official report representing his work. 
Three of these illustrations are of particular interest: "Herd of 
Bison, Near Lake Jessie" (reproduced between pp. 16, 17), "Camp 
Red River Hunters," "Distribution of Goods to the Assiniboines" (re- 
produced between pp. 16, 17 ) . 

The first of these illustrations is particularly important as it is one 
of the few pictures still extant made by an actual observer of the 
enormous number of buffalo on the Western plains before the day of 
the railroad. A writer to whom Stanley talked concerning this pic- 
ture recorded Stanley's comments in this paragraph: 

The artist in sketching this scene, stood on an elevation in advance of the 
foreground, whence, with a spy-glass, he could see fifteen miles in any direction, 
and yet he saw not the limit of the herd. 

Who can count the multitude? You may only look and wonder! Or, if you 
seek to estimate the "numbers without number," what sum will you name, ex- 
cept "hundreds of thousands?" 

And Stevens who, unlike Stanley, had never seen the buffalo in 
their natural range, was also greatly impressed. 

About five miles from camp [he wrote] we ascended to the top of a high hill, 
and for a great distance ahead every square mile seemed to have a herd of 
buffalo upon it. Their number was variously estimated by the members of the 
party some as high as half a million. I do not think it is any exaggeration to 

30. Actually Stevens instructed one group of his expedition to ascend the Missouri 
from St. Louis to Fort Union and to make meteorological, astronomical and topographical 
observations above St. Joseph, Mo. Nine of the survey made the river trip, see Reports, 
v. 12, pp. 79-82. The general course of the Stevens party through present North Dakota 
was such, as one of the party stated, "to turn the Great Bend of the Missouri, and to 
cross its tributaries, where the least water was to be found." New York Tribune, Sep- 
tember 13, 1853, p. 5. Roughly it would correspond to a route that would follow north 
of U. S. 52 from Fargo to Minot and then U. S. 52 westward. Jessie lake (Griggs county), 
for example, which is mentioned later in the text was on the Stevens route as was the 
Butte de Morale, of which Stanley made a sketch which was reproduced in the Reports. 
The Butte de Morale is some seven miles from Harvey, N. D., almost in the center of the 


set it down at 200,000. I had heard of the myriads of these animals inhabiting 
these plains, but I could not realize the truth of these accounts till to-day, when 
they surpassed anything I could have imagined from the accounts which I had 
received. The reader will form a better idea of this scene from the accompany- 
ing sketch taken by Mr. Stanley on the ground, than from any description. 31 

The party at the time these vast herds of buffalo were first 
encountered was traveling westward through present east-central 
North Dakota (Griggs county) and were approaching the Mis- 
souri river country proper. 

A few days after Stanley sketched the buffalo (July 10), the 
survey encountered a large train of Red river hunters who were 
coming southward on a hunting and trading expedition from their 
settlement, Pembina, almost on the Canadian border. The Red 
river hunters were Europeans: Scotch, Irish, English, Germans, 
with Indian wives and their half-breed children. Over thirteen 
hundred persons were in the train and they carried their belongings 
in the well-known Pembina carts, two-wheeled affairs, and housed 
themselves at night in over a hundred skin lodges. 

The men dress usually in woollens of various colors [wrote Stevens]. The 
coat generally worn, called the Hudson Bay coat, has a capot attached to it. 
The belts are finely knit, of differently colored wool or worsted yarn, and 
are worn after the manner of sashes. Their powder horn and shot bag, at- 
tached to bands finely embroidered with beads or worked with porcupine quills, 
are worn across each shoulder, making an X before and behind. Many also 
have a tobacco pouch strung to their sashes, in which is tobacco mixed with 
kini-kinick, (dried bark of the osier willow scraped fine,) a fire steel, punk, 
and several flints. Add to these paraphernalia a gun, and a good idea will be 
formed of the costume of the Red river hunter. 

The women are industrious, dress in gaudy calicoes, are fond of beads 
and finery, and are remarkably apt at making bead work, moccasins, sewing 


Stanley's sketch shows their camp but only a few of the hunters 
and one of their carts although Stevens noted that there were over 
800 of the carts in their train. The camp was visited with interest 
by the members of the survey and at evening when the two expedi- 
tions camped together a band of Chippewa Indians who were 
traveling with the hunters entertained the whites with a prairie 
dance. The caravans passed on, the survey forging northwestward, 
the hunters, in part at least, going on to St. Paul for trade. 33 

81. The first quotation on the buffalo is from Stanley's Western Wilds (see Footnote 
46), p. 8; Stevens' comment from Reports, v. 12, p. 59. 

32. The date was July 16; Stevens in ibid., pp. 65, 66. 

33. The St. Paul correspondent of the New York Tribune reported the arrival of 133 
carts of the hunters in that frontier town on July 20, see New York Tribune, August 3, 
1853, p. 5. Mention is made of their meeting with the Stevens party. 

An excellent description of the Pembina carts and of the Red river colonists may be 
found in a letter to the New York Tribune, July 27, 1857, p. 5. 


The survey was now nearing Fort Union and four days before 
their arrival at the post, they reached an encampment of some 
1,200 Assiniboines. Stevens, in his role of Indian commissioner, 
met them in council, heard their speechs and complaints and dis- 
tributed to them supplies from his store of goods carried for such 
purpose. Stanley was one of the group selected by Stevens to the 
council and he took the opportunity to add to his store of sketches. 34 

As the survey neared the famous frontier outpost of Fort Union, 
Stevens ordered a dress parade of his forces as they marched upon 
the fort. A Philadelphia Quaker, who was a member of the survey, 
wrote home the day after their arrival (August 2). Unfortunately 
Stanley made no sketch of the event but the Quaker's lively account 
still conveys after nearly a hundred years, some of the color and 
interest of the grand entry. 

We arrived here yesterday afternoon [he wrote] and were received with 
a salute of 13 guns. During the march in, the Governor took his horse, the 
first time in several days, and rode at the head of the column. An American 
flag, made on the way, to the manufacture of which I contributed a red flannel, 
was carried in the forward rank, and flags, with appropriate devices, represent- 
ing the parties carrying them, were respectively carried by the various corps. 
The Engineer party, a large locomotive running down a buffalo, with the 
motto "Westward Ho!" Our meteorological party the Rocky Mountain, 
with a barometer mounted, indicating the purpose to measure by that simple 
instrument, the hight of those vast peaks, with inscription "Excelsior/' The 
astronomical party had a device representing the azure field dotted with 
stars, the half -moon and a telescope so placed as to indicate that by it could 
these objects be entirely comprehended. Teamsters, packman, hunters, &c, 
also carried their insignia, and thy brother acted as "aid" to the Governor 
in the carrying of orders. 35 

The survey remained at Fort Union for over a week while ani- 
mals were rested, supplies added, and plans made for the weeks 
ahead. Stevens offered any member of his party an honorable dis- 
charge at this post and a return to St. Louis but so interested had 
they become and so accustomed to Stevens intensity, that not a man 
took up the offer. Here at Fort Union, too, we have the first direct 
statement of Stanley's activities with the daguerreotype. "Mr. 
Stanley, the artist," wrote Stevens, "was busily occupied during our 

34. Stevens, Reports, v. 12, pp. 73-76. Included in the panorama of Stanley's Western 
Wilds (see Footnote 46), p. 10, was a painting of the Assiniboine council; the illustration 
in the text depicts the distribution of goods. Another member of Stevens' party also wrote 
an interesting account of the Assiniboine council, see New York Tribune, September 13, 
1853, p. 5. 

35. Ibid. Stevens, Reports, v. 12, p. 78, also makes brief comment on the entry to 
Fort Union. The writer of this letter was probably Elwood Evans, as he was a native of 
Philadelphia and accompanied Stevens' expedition. See Hubert H. Bancroft's Works, v. 31 
p. 54. 


stay at Fort Union with his daguerreotype apparatus, and the In- 
dians were greatly pleased with their daguerreotypes/' 36 

Doubtless he made daguerreotype views of the fort itself but no 
record of these or of his original sketches is now available. The 
fort itself appears in the background of one of Stanley's illustrations 
of the official report and is among the few views of this famed out- 
post now extant (reproduced between pp. 16, 17). 

Fort Benton, also on the Missouri, the next stopping place on the 
route of the survey, was reached on September 1, some three weeks 
being required to make the trip from Fort Union. Stanley's activi- 
ties in this interval are represented by nine illustrations, including 
several Indian councils, and a view of Fort Benton. The last view 
shows the general character of the country around Fort Benton. 
Indian tepees beyond the fort, however, are drawn taller than the 
fort itself possibly an error of the lithographer so that the fort 
suffers by comparison. (A much more interesting view of Fort 
Benton itself was made by Gustav Sohon (reproduced between 
pp. 16, 17), who also contributed to the Stevens report, but whose 
work we shall discuss later. ) 

It was at Fort Benton, however, that Stanley's most interesting 
experience of the entire trip was begun. Stevens continually stressed 
the importance of satisfactory relations with the Indians through 
whose country the railroad might pass. To this end, the many coun- 
cils and distribution of goods with the tribes encountered had been 
made. At St. Louis he had induced Alexander Culbertson who had 
lived in the Indian country for 20 years, to accompany him and had 
appointed him special agent to the Blackfoot Indians. 37 The move 
was an exceedingly fortunate one in several ways, for Culbertson's 
experience and the fact that his wife was a Blackfoot saved the 
survey several times from difficulties with the Indians. Stevens, 
Stanley, Culbertson and others left the main command at Fort Ben- 
ton to visit the Piegans, one of the tribes of the Blackfoot confed- 
eracy, who were reported encamped some 150 miles north of the 
fort. They had not gone far when a messenger from the fort over- 
took them to announce that an advance party from the Pacific coast 
detachment had arrived from the west. Stevens and Culbertson 
turned back to arrange further plans for the survey but Stanley 

36. Reports, v. 12, p. 87. Another comment on Stanley's use of the daguerreotype will 
be found in this same volume, p. 103. 

37. Letter of Stevens dated "Fort Benton, Upper Missouri, September 17, 1853," 
and published originally in the Washington Union for November 23; see, also, New York 
Tribune, November 24, 1853, p. 6. 




A pencil sketch by H. K. Bush-Brown, 1858. 
Courtesy Library of Congress. 

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volunteered to proceed to the Piegan village as Stevens was intent 
on inviting all the Blackfeet to a grand council at Fort Benton. 

With an interpreter, three voyageurs, and a Blackfoot guide ob- 
tained at the fort, Stanley pressed further north in search of the 
Indian camp. On the third day after leaving Stevens, Stanley wrote 
in his report: 

The first rays of the sun found us in the saddle, prepared for a long march. 
But one day more remained for me to find the Piegan camp. The night had 
been clear and cold, silvering the scanty herbage with a light frost; and while 
packing up, the men would stop to warm their fingers over a feeble fire of 
buffalo-chips and skulls. After a short march of twelve miles, we reached the 
divide between Milk and Bow rivers. 

At 1 o'clock I descended to a deep valley, in which flows an affluent of 
Beaver river. Here was the Piegan camp, of ninety lodges, under their chief 
Low Horn, one hundred and sixty-triree miles north, 20 west, of Fort Benton. 

Little Dog conducted me, with my party, to his lodge, and immediately the 
chiefs and braves collected in the "Council Lodge," to receive my message. 
The arrival of a "pale face" was an unlocked for event, and hundreds followed 
me to the council, consisting of sixty of their principal men. 

The usual ceremony of smoking being concluded, I delivered my "talk," 
which was responded to by their chief saying, "the whole camp would move at 
an early hour the following morning to council with the chief sent by their 
Great Father." The day was spent in feasting with the several chiefs, all seem- 
ing anxious to extend their hospitality; and while feasting with one chief, 
another had his messenger at the door of the lodge to conduct me to another. 38 

Early the next morning, the Piegans broke camp and "in less than 
one hour the whole encampment was drawn out in two parallel 
lines on the plains, forming one of the most picturesque scenes I 
have ever witnessed/' wrote Stanley. Stanley reported, too, that he 
had been able to secure a number of sketches while on the northern 
trip, the most interesting of those surviving being "Blackfeet Indians 
[hunting buffalo] Three Buttes." 39 

38. Reports, v. 1, Stevens report, pp. 447-449. The portion quoted has been con- 
densed somewhat. Stevens also described Stanley's excursion, see ibid., v. 12, pp. 107, 114, 
115. The location of the Piegan camp given by Stanley would indicate that he went well 
north of the U. S. -Canadian border into present Alberta. 

39. Ibid. Evidently this sketch was also used in the Stanley panorama (Stanley's 
Western Wilds, p. 15), and Stanley had also apparently planned to use it in his projected 
portfolio (letter press of portfolio p. 8, see Footnote 7). Other views included in the 
panorama which belong to the same group of sketches were a view of Fort Benton, "Cutting 
Up a Buffalo," and "A Traveling Party [of Blackfeet]." 

Stevens, in a letter dated "Sept. 16, 1853, Fort Benton, Upper Missouri" (reprinted 
from the Boston Post in the National Intelligencer, November 26, 1853, p. 2), wrote a 
friend that Stanley was at the time of writing in the midst of the Blackfeet and went on 
to say: "We have traversed the region of the terrible Blackfeet, have met them in the 
war parties and their camps, and have received nothing but kindness and hospitality." 
Stanley, too, reported concerning the Blackfeet: "During my sojourn among them I was 
treated with the greatest kindness and hospitality, my property guarded with vigilance, 
so that I did not lose the most trifling article." Reports, v. 1, p. 449. 

Evidently Stevens' employment of Culbertson and his Blackfoot wife was a master 
stroke, for the Blackfeet usually gave trouble to whites entering their territory. The 
liberal distribution of goods and presents, in one case amounting to a value of $600, to 
Indians encountered, was also no doubt a contributing factor to amicable relations. 



Stanley was gone for 11 days on this side excursion, and shortly 
after his return to Fort Benton the survey again started westward. 
The detailed description of the remaining journey becomes com- 
plex, as there were many side excursions and a number of divi- 
sions made of the party. Stevens, too, was anxious to assume his 
territorial duties, so with several of his party, including Stanley, 
he left the main command and pressed on to Fort Vancouver ( pres- 
ent Vancouver, Wash.) which was reached on November 16. As 
they left Fort Benton on September 22, the last thousand miles of 
the journey were covered in about seven weeks. Their route in 
general from Benton was southwest to Fort Owen ( present Stevens- 
ville, Ravalli county, western Montana), northwestward to the 
Coeur D'Alene Mission (present Cataldo, Idaho, on U. S. 10), 
northward to Fort Colville (near present Colville, Wash.) and 
then down the Columbia to Fort Vancouver, Stevens and Stanley 
descending the Columbia in a canoe from Fort Walla- Walla ( some 
25 miles west of the present city of Walla- Walla) to Vancouver. 
Captain McClellan's party working eastward was met on October 
18 at Fort Colville where Stevens remained several days discussing 
and planning with McClellan the future work of the survey. Sev- 
eral days had also been spent at the Coeur D'Alene Mission just 
before McClellan was met. One of the most attractive of the many 
illustrations in the official reports is Stanley's sketch of the mission. 40 

The last stage of the survey is illustrated by some 30 Stanley 
sketches in addition to the sketch of the mission. 41 Among the more 
interesting of these views are"Fort Owen," "Fort Okinakane," "Hud- 
son Bay Mill," "Chemakane Mission," "Old Fort Walla Walla" and 
"Mount Baker." 

Very shortly after the arrival of Stevens and Stanley at Fort 

40. The site of the Coeur D'Alene Mission was established by Father De Smet about 
1845; it was designed and built by Father Anthony Ravelli, S. J., and opened for services 
in 1852 or 1853; its use was discontinued in 1877 but the old mission was restored in 1928. 
It is known locally at present as the Cataldo Mission. See the Rev. E. R. Cody, History 
of the Coeur D'Alene Mission (Caldwell, Idaho, J930). I am also indebted to the public 
library of Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, for information about the mission. 

41. The number varies depending upon whether one is using the 1859 or 1860 print- 
ing of the final Stevens' report. Some of the differences to be noted are: ( 1 ) the lithography 
in the 1859 printing (Supplement to v. 1) was by Julius Bien of New York in the two 
copies I have seen; in the 1860 printing (v. 12, pt. 1), the lithography was by Sarony, 
Major and Knapp; (2) the plate numbers and page insertions of the plates are different, 
in general, in the two printings; (3) "Crossing the Hell Gate River Jan. 6, 1854," is 
credited to Stanley in the 1859 printing; to Sohon (as it should be) in the 1860 printing; 
(4) "Main Chain of the Rocky Mountains as Seen From the East . . .," is credited 
to Stanley in the 1859 printing; to "Stanley after Sohon" in the 1860 printing; (5) "Source 
of the Palouse," is uncredited in the 1859 printing; "Source of the Pelluse," is credited to 
"Stanley after Sohon" in the 1860 printing; (6) "Big Blackfoot Valley/' is credited to 
Stanley in the 1859 printing; to Sohon in the 1860 printing. 

As is to be expected since the plates for the Stevens' report were lithographed by two 
firms, the same title will show illustrations differing more or less in detail. In the copies 
I have seen the coloring is superior in the Sarony, Major, and Knapp printings but even 
lithographs from the same house will differ in brilliance of color depending upon how much 
the stones were used and inked. 


Vancouver, Stanley was dispatched to Washington with the pre- 
liminary Stevens reports of the survey. The return trip was made 
by ship down the coast to the Isthmus, across the Isthmus, and then 
on the Star of the West to New York City, where Stanley arrived 
on January 9, 1854. He then went on to Washington. 42 

Stanley's return to Washington marked the end of his Western 
adventures. The remainder of his life was spent as a studio artist 
in Washington, Buffalo, and lastly in Detroit, where he died in 
1872. 43 

One additional episode in Stanley's life, however, should be de- 
scribed, because previous biographers of Stanley have overlooked 
it and because it is important in the story of Western illustration. 
It was over a year after Stanley^ return to Washington in January, 
1854, before work was begun preparing the field sketches as illustra- 
tions for Stevens' final report. 44 

Stanley did use his field sketches almost immediately for the 
preparation of a huge panorama of Western scenes for public exhi- 
bition. By summer the panorama was well under way and Stanley's 
studio was "Daily the resort of our most distinguished citizens who 
express the greatest admiration of this grand panoramic work." 45 
The work, consisting of 42 episodes, went on display in Washington 
on September 1. Two hours were required to view it. A 23-page 
handbook, Scenes and Incidents of Stanley's Western Wilds, describ- 
ing the panorama, which was primarily a depiction of the northern 
survey route, could be purchased at the door of the National The- 
atre for ten cents after the admission fee of 25 cents had been paid. 
The Washington papers were generous and fulsome in their praise 
of these Stanley pictures. In addition to display in Washington 

42. Stanley's arrival in New York is given in the New York Tribune, January 9, 1854, 
p. 5, where an "M. Stanley" is listed among the passengers of the Star of the West and 
in the next column under "Oregon" it specifically stated that J. M. Stanley, the artist of 
Stevens' survey, arrived on the "Star of the West." Stanley was back in Washington by 
January 19, 1854, as Stanley's report of his visit to the Piegans is dated "Washington City, 
January 19, 1854" (see Footnote 38). 

43. For the remainder of Stanley's life see Kinietz, op. cit., and obituaries in the 
Detroit Free Press, April 11, 1872, p. 1, and the Detroit Advertiser and Tribune, April 10, 
1872, p. 4. 

44. The National Archives (Washington) in their file of material on the Pacific rail- 
road surveys has a letter by Stanley, dated April 3, 1855, to Lt. J. K. Warren who with 
Capt. A. A. Humphreys was in charge of the preparation of the reports for publication 
by the War Department, stating that it would take Stanley 5% months to complete the 
necessary illustrations, a list of 57 proposed illustrations on the list are those which finally 
appeared in the report. Apparently Stanley had a few illustrations ready at the time the 
letter was written for he so stated. Stevens in a letter to Capt. A. A. Humphreys of the 
War Department dated September 26, 1854 (also in the National Archives), directed that 
Stanley be paid $125 a month for his work of preparation, "a small compensation however in 
view of his ability and experience." Apparently, too, this rate of pay was Stanley's compensa- 
tion while on the actual survey. See Hazard Stevens, op. cit., v. 1, p. 306. This sum was 
probably the standard rate of pay for Charles Koppel also received $125 a month while on 
Lieutenant Williamson's survey. See 33 Cong., 1 Sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 29 (serial No 695) 
p. 113. 

45. Daily Evening Star, Washington, August 9, 1854, p. 3. 


and Georgetown, it was exhibited in Baltimore for three weeks, and 
finally it was reported in the Washington press to be on the way to 
Boston and to London for exhibition. 46 

Like most of Stanley's original work it has disappeared. It would 
be priceless at the present day. 

The last of the Pacific railroad survey artists we can mention but 
briefly. He was Gustav Sohon, one of the enlisted men who brought 
supplies from the Pacific coast to the Indian village of St. Marys, 
west of the Rockies, for the Stevens party proper in the summer of 
1853. Later he accompanied Lt. John Mullan, who under Stevens' 
orders surveyed the mountains on the northern route for possible 
passes in the winter of 1853-1854, and from this time until 1862 he 
was frequently associated with Mullan in the Northwest. Some ten 
or a dozen of his sketches are included in the final Stevens report, 
but by far the most interesting of Sohon's work now available was 
reproduced in a report by Mullan published in 1863. Included 
among these illustrations were "Walla-Walla, W. T. in 1862," "Fort 
Benton" (not dated but probably 1860-1862), the most satisfying 
illustration I have seen of this famous frontier post and head of 
steamboat navigation on the Missouri ( reproduced between pp. 16, 
17); "Coeur D'Alene Mission in the Rocky Mountains," a different 
view than Stanley's illustration of 1853, and "Mode of Crossing 
Rivers by the Flathead and Other Indians," showing the use of hide 
"bull-boats" ( reproduced between pp. 16, 17 ). A number of Sohon's 
original Indian sketches are now in the United States National Mu- 
seum. They are stated to be "the most extensive and authoritative 
pictorial series on the Indian of the Northwest Plateau in pre-reser- 
vation days." 47 

The only other government report for this period that can ap- 
proach the Pacific railway Reports from the standpoint of Western 
illustration is the Emory account of the United States-Mexico bound- 
ary survey, and to conclude this chapter of our story, brief comment 

46. Many comments and advertisements on Stanley's Western Wilds appeared in the 
Washington Star from August 9, 1854, to January 18, ]855. A copy of the handbook of 
Stanley's Western Wilds is in the collections of the Library of Congress. According to the 
Washington Star of December 14, 1854, p. 3, it was written by Thomas S. Donaho. 

47. For Sohon (1825-1903) see John C. Ewers "Gustavus Sohon's Portraits of Flat- 
head and Pend D'Oreille Indians, 1854." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 110 
(1948), November, 68pp. The above quotation is from this source. For Mullan's report 
see Capt. John Mullan, Report on the Construction of a Military Road From Fort Walla- 
Walla to Fort Benton (Washington, 1863). The excellent lithography in the Mullan book- 
was by Bowen and Co. For comment on the Sohon illustrations in the Stevens report, see 
Footnote 41. No trace of the original Stanley and Sohon sketches for the Stevens report 
has been found. They are not in the National Archives although a letter in the Archives 
from Stevens to Capt. A. A. Humphreys, dated March 11, 1858, requested that all of the 
sketches of Stanley and Lieutenant Mullan (presumably those of Sohon) to be used in 
the report be sent to Stevens. Humphreys has a notation dated March 12, 1858, on the 
Stevens letter stating that the sketches requested had been sent Stevens. What happened 
to them subsequently I have been unable to determine. 


on the illustrations will be made. The survey began initially in the 
spring of 1849 and as a result of a series of obstacles was not com- 
pleted until the fall of 1855. 

The report, in three volumes, was published in 1857-1859. The 
first volume includes the general account and details of the survey 
and the last two volumes deal with the botany and zoology of the 
region transversed. These two volumes are illustrated with many 
wonderful plates including a number of hand-colored plates of 

Part one of the first volume includes the illustrations of most gen- 
eral interest and here will be found 76 steel engravings, 12 litho- 
graphs (a number colored) and 20 woodcuts. These elaborate illus- 
trations are primarily the work of two artists who accompanied the 
survey, Arthur Schott and John E. Weyss (or Weiss). 

The survey in its final stages worked in two parties, one traveling 
west and the second, starting from Fort Yuma (Arizona), traveling 
east. Weyss accompanied the first party, which was under the im- 
mediate command of Emory; Schott, under Lt. Nathaniel Michler, 
was with the second. 48 

Among the most interesting of the illustrations in this volume are 
"Military Plaza San Antonio, Texas/' by Schott (reproduced be- 
tween pp. 16, 17), "Brownsville, Texas," by Weyss (reproduced 
between pp. 16, 17), and "The Plaza and Church of El Paso," by A. 
de Vaudricourt who was with the survey in 1851. 

Schott was a resident of Washington for many years after his 
return from the survey. He was an ardent naturalist and his name 
appears frequently in the reports of the Smithsonian Institution in 
the 1860's and 1870's. His death occurred in 1875 at the age of 62. 49 

48. The official title of the report is United States and Mexican Boundary Survey 
Report of William H. Emory, 34 Cong., 1 Sess., House Ex. Doc. 135 (Washington, 1857), 
vols. J and 2 (in two pts.). Mention of Weyss (sometimes spelled Weiss in the report) 
and of Schott as members of the survey and of their responsibility as illustrators is made on 
pp. 15, 24, 96 and 124 of v. 1. The engravings were by the Smillies (see Footnote 53) and 
W. H. Dougal; the lithography by Sarony, Major and Knapp. The list of illustrations on 
pp. X and XI calls for 74 steel engravings but in the copy I examined there were two 
number 32's and 33's of different titles (two not included in the list) making a total of 
76 engravings. 

W. H. Dougal (1822-1894?), the engraver of some of the plates in the Emory report, 
should be included in our list of Western artists, for he visited California himself in 1849 
and 1850 and made a number of sketches which have been reproduced with a brief 
biographical account of Dougal's life in Off for California (letters, log and sketches of 
William H. Dougal), edited by Frank M. Stanger (Biobooks, Oakland, Cal., 1949). 

49. For mention of Schott, see Annual Report of Smithsonian Institution for 1866, 
p. 27; for 1867, p. 48; for 1871, p. 423; for 1873, p. 390; for 1877, p. 44; see, also, 39 
Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Misc. Doc. No. 21, v. 1, January 16, 1867, pp. 7-1 J. Schott appears 
in Washington city directories from 1858 until his death in 1875. He must have been 
a remarkable man for he is listed at various times as a naturalist, engineer, physician and 
referred to as a well-known professor of German and music. His death, at the age of 
62, occurred in Washington (Georgetown), D. C., on July 26, 1875. See National Republi- 
can, Washington, July 28, 1875, p. 2, and Georgetown Courier, July 31, 1875, p. 3. 
S. W. Geiser, Naturalists of the Frontier (Dallas, 1948), p. 281, gives a very brief sketch 
of Schott. 


Weyss later became Major Weyss during the Civil War, serving 
as a member of the staff of engineers of the Army of the Potomac. 
After the war he again turned to employment in Western surveys 
and according to Wheeler was "for many years connected with 
Western explorations and surveys under the War Department." 
Several plates in the report prepared by Wheeler were based on 
sketches by Weyss. He died in Washington, D. C., on June 24, 
1903, at the age of 83. 50 

There is little biographic data available on A. de Vaudricourt. 
The San Antonio Ledger, October 10, 1850, described him as an 
"accomplished and gentlemanly draughtsman and interpreter who 
has made a number of beautiful sketches of the most striking parts 
of our country. . . ." He was connected with the survey for 
less than a year and he then disappears from view. 51 

Actually there were at least two other artists on these Mexican 
boundary surveys, John R. Bartlett and H. C. Pratt. Some of their 
work is reproduced in Bartlett's account of the survey. Bartlett, 
who was U. S. commissioner for the survey for several years, was 
an amateur artist, but Pratt, who accompanied him, was a profes- 
sional and is reported to have made "hundreds" of sketches and 
some oil portraits of Indians. Bartlett, however, in his report, em- 
ployed his own sketches very nearly to the exclusion of those of Pratt. 
As a probable result, the illustrations ( 15 lithographs and 94 wood- 
cuts ) , with two exceptions, are of no great interest. The excep- 
tions are a double-page lithograph of Fort Yuma, Ariz, (by Pratt), 
and of Tucson, Ariz., and surrounding desert by Bartlett. 52 

50. See The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union 
and Confederate Armies (Washington, 1891), Series I, v. 36, pt. 1, p. 294, for Weiss 
(note change of spelling) in the Civil War where it is stated that Weyss was commissioned 
by "the governor of the State of Kentucky." 

The comment by Wheeler will be found in George M. Wheeler, Report Upon United 
States Geographic Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian (Washington, 1889), 
v. 1, p. 52. I am indebted to Meredith B. Colket, Jr., of the Columbia Historical Society, 
Washington, for locating the death date of Weyss which he found in certificate No. 149,509, 
bureau of vital statistics, District of Columbia health department. A death notice of Weyss 
will be found in The Evening Star, Washington, June 24, 1903, p. 5. 

51. The quotation concerning Vaudricourt is reprinted in the National lintelligencer 
for November 2, 1850, p. 3. Ibid., September 24, 1850, p. 4, reported that Vaudricouit 
was head of the topographic party of the survey that was to work from Indianola (Texas) 
to El Paso, and the same newspaper July 22, 1851, p. 1, reported that Vaudricourt had 
severed his connection with the survey. Bartlett (see Footnote 52) v. 2, p. 541, also made 
mention of Vaudricourt and stated that Vaudricourt left the survey soon after they reached 
El Paso. Harry C. Peters, America on Stone (Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1931), 
p. 392, lists an A. de Vaudricourt who made a lithographic illustration for Bouve and Sharp 
of Boston in 1844-1845, but gives no further information concerning him. 

52. For Bartlett (1805-1886), see Dictionary of American Biography, v. 2, pp. 7, 8, 
and his report, Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, 
California, Sonora, and Chihuahua, Connected With the United States and Mexico Bound- 
ary Commission During the Years 1850, '51, '52, '53 (New York, 1854), two volumes. 
Bartlett, Emory and others become involved in a serious contretemps and their differences 
required many written words of discussion, explanation and recrimination. Bartlett, in his 
own report, makes mention of his own and Pratt's sketches in v. 1, p. 357, and v. 2, pp. 541, 
545 and 596. Pratt (1803-1880) is listed by D. T. Mallett, Mallett's Index of Artists 
(New York, 1935), p. 352, as a landscape painter. Contemporary mention of Pratt's 
Indian portraits made on the survey will be found in the San Diego Herald, February 14, 
1852 (reprinted in the National Intelligencer, March 20, 1852, p. 3). 


The two views here reproduced from the Emory report ( those of 
Brownsville and San Antonio, Tex.) are copies of steel engravings 
by the celebrated American engravers, James Smillie and James D. 
Smillie. 53 

The Brownsville engraving is based on a sketch by John E. Weyss 
and, I believe, can be safely dated 1853. Weyss joined the survey 
in that year and was a member of the party which passed Browns- 
ville. 54 

Arthur Schott's interesting and well-known view of the "Military 
Plaza, San Antonio" is more difficult to date. Schott was probably 
in southern Texas as early as the fall of 1851 and he seems to have 
passed through San Antonio as late as the fall of 1855, and may have 
been there at times between those two dates. In the absence of 
conclusive evidence, it seems best for the present to date the view 

1853 with an uncertainty of plus or minus two years. 55 

53. For the Smillies (father and son), see Dictionary of American Biography, v. 17, 
pp. 232, 233. 

54. Emory's Report, v. 1, pp. 15, 58, 60, 6J. 

55. When Emory was appointed to the survey in September, 1851, he almost imme- 
diately left Washington for Texas. He reported (ibid., p. 10), ". . . after a dreary 
march across the prairies and uplands of Texas, [I] reached El Paso in November [1851], 
and resumed my duties in the field on the 25th of that month." According to Bartlett, 
Personal Narrative, v. 2, p. 596, Arthur Schott accompanied Emory at this time. Whether 
San Antonio was visited on the way to El Paso is uncertain. Emory and his party met 
Bartlett at Ringgold Barracks in December, 1852. Emory and his group then returned east 
through Texas by wagon train. Ibid., pp. 513, 532. When the survey was reorganized in 
the spring of 1853, Schott was in the field with the survey in southern Texas by April, 
1853. Emory's Report, v. 1, pp. 15, 16. Apparently he was in Texas before the opening 
of the survey's work in the spring, as there is a record of botanical collections made by 
Schott at Indianola, Tex., in January and February, 1853, as there is also for the years 

1854 and 1855. W. R. Taylor, "Tropical Marine Algae of the Arthur Schott Herbarium," 
Field Museum of Natural History, Publication 509, Chicago, 1941, pp. 87-89; Botanical 
Series, v. 20, No. 4. In none of those years is the evidence clear cut that Schott was 
actually at San Antonio, something over 100 miles northwest of Indianola. In the fall of 
1854 Schott was assigned to Lt. N. Michler's command which commenced the survey east- 
ward from San Diego on November 16, 1854. Emory's Report, v. 1, pp. 24, 101. Michler's 
party on their return passed through San Antonio from the west in November of the fol- 
lowing year. Ibid., pp. 124, 125. 

The only other attempt to date the original sketch on which Schott's view of San 
Antonio is based, as far as I know, is that given by I. N. P. Stokes and D. C. Haskell, 
American Historical Prints (New York, 1933), p. 112. Stokes and Haskell assign it the 
date "1852-53" but the evidence for the assignment of the date is not given. Correspondence 
either directly or indirectly with the Texas Historical Association, the Barker Texas History 
Center, the San Antonio Public Library, and others, has not given positive evidence for a 
specific date. I am indebted to Llerena Friend of the Barker Texas History Center, and 
E. W. Robinson and Col. M. L. Crimmins of San Antonio who considered the matter for me. 

The Annual Meeting 

THE 76th annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society 
and board of directors was held in the rooms of the Society on 
October 16, 1951. 

The meeting of the directors was called to order by President 
Frank Haucke at 10 A. M. First business was the reading of the 
annual report by the secretary. 


At the conclusion of last year's meeting, the newly elected president, Frank 
Haucke, reappointed John S. Dawson and T. M. Lillard to the executive com- 
mittee. The members holding over were Robert C. Rankin, Milton R. McLean 
and Wilford Riegle. After the death of General McLean, April 17, 1951, Mr. 
Haucke appointed Charles M. Correll for the unexpired term. 


The 1951 legislature granted a number of increases for the biennium that 
began July 1. They include: salary for an additional cataloguer in the library; 
an increase of $1,000 a year in the contingent fund; $2,000 for repairing and 
restoring oil paintings; $1,500 for modern light fixtures in the reading rooms; 
an increase of $1,000 a year in the Memorial building contingent fund; $4,000 
for painting; $6,000 for repairing the heating system; $2,200 for miscellaneous 
repairs; and salary for an additional janitor. Our request for $6,000 a year 
to continue the Annals of Kansas was disallowed in the budget and it re- 
quired a good deal of lobbying on the part of friends of the Society to restore 
the appropriation. The microfilming fund, at our request, was reduced $2,000 
a year. The appropriation for printing was reduced $4,845 for the biennium. 
Although the senate voted unanimously to give the Society an increase in this 
fund, the bill was killed by the house committee. 

At the Old Shawnee Mission, the contingent fund was increased $1,000 a 
year; and at the First Capitol of Kansas there was an increase of $100 a year. 


The sum of $23,500 was appropriated for the purchase of the "Old Kaw 
Mission" building at Council Grove, and $2,500 a year for maintenance and 
the salary of a caretaker. The secretary of the Historical Society was named 
custodian of the property. 

The bill which authorized this purchase was sponsored by Sen. W. H. 
White of Council Grove and Rep. L. J. Blythe of White City. Upon informa- 
tion supplied by the Historical Society, the introduction to the bill read as 

WHEREAS, the town of Council Grove was the most important point on the 
Santa Fe trail between the Missouri river and Santa Fe, New Mexico, taking 
its name from the agreement made there in 1825 between the federal govern- 
ment and the Osage Indians; and 

WHEREAS, Council Grove is notable historically as a camping place for 
Fremont's expedition of 1845 and for Doniphan's troops bound for the Mexican 



war in 1846 and as supply headquarters for the Overland Mail beginning in 
1849; and 

WHEREAS, The area centered at Council Grove became a reservation for 
the Kansas Indians in 1846; and 

WHEREAS, In 1850, the Methodist church established a manual training 
school for the Kansas Indians at Council Grove in a building erected by the 
federal government; and . . . 

WHEREAS, Said building and the grounds on which it is situated would pro- 
vide, if acquired by the state, an outstanding and beautiful monument to 
commemorate the history of the Santa Fe trail and the Indians for whom the 
state of Kansas was named; and 

WHEREAS, The present owner of said "Old Indian Mission" and the site on 
which it is located is willing to sell the same to the state of Kansas for his- 
torical purposes at a reasonable price: Now, therefore, 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas., etc. 

The money for the purchase of the building became available July 1. A 
caretaker had been employed and had just moved into the building when the 
July floods came. The first floor, the installations in the basement, and the 
grounds were badly damaged. On July 25, a formal request was presented 
to the governor for assistance from the emergency fund. The amount 
needed, as estimated by a responsible local contractor, was $2,155. This 
request was passed over without recommendation by the committee in 
charge of the fund. A renewal of the request was made September 28. Since 
the Society is without funds, it is hoped that some action will be taken to 
make these repairs possible. 


During the year, 3,044 persons did research in the library. Of these, 935 
worked on Kansas subjects, 1,219 on genealogy and 890 on general subjects. 
Many inquiries were answered by letter, and 219 packages on Kansas sub- 
jects were sent out from the loan file. A total of 5,184 newspaper clippings 
were mounted, covering the period from July 1, 1950, through June 30, 1951. 
These were taken from seven daily newspapers which are read for clipping, 
and from 700 duplicate papers turned over by the newspaper department. 
Two thousand, six hundred ninety-five pages of clippings from old volumes 
were remounted and are ready to be rebound. Thirty-two pieces of sheet 
music have been added to the collection of Kansas music, The Kansas Call by 
Lucy Larcom, published in 1855, being of outstanding interest. 

Gifts of Kansas books and genealogies were received from individuals. 
Dr. Edward Bumgardner gave a unique work which he has compiled, en- 
titled Trees of a Prairie State. This is a two-volume set, one volume con- 
taining the text and the other photographs of trees. Typed and printed 
genealogical records were presented by the Children of the American Colonists, 
the Topeka Town Chapter of the Colonial Dames of America, the Daughters 
of the American Revolution and the Daughters of Colonial Wars. Gifts from 
the Woman's Kansas Day Club included books, manuscripts, clippings, 
museum pieces and pictures. 


During the year, 692 pictures were added to the picture collection. Of 
unusual interest are 136 pictures of early Manhattan, the gift of R. L. Fred- 
rich through the Woman's Kansas Day Club; a picture of the Kansas race 



horse Smuggler from Mrs. Samuel J. Kelly of Olathe; 15 pictures of Silkville 
from Harold S. Sears of Nanton, Canada, whose grandparents were members 
of the Silkville colony; 16 copies of pictures of early Caldwell made from the 
originals, lent through the courtesy of Mrs. Jessie Wiley Voils, a Kansas writer 
now living in New York; 18 pictures of Louisville, Pottawatomie county, and 
vicinity from Charles Darnell, Topeka, and several photographs of the 
Kanopolis dam from the U. S. National Park Service. 


The following public records were transferred during the year to the 
archives division: 

Source Title Dates Quantity 

Governor's office Correspondence Files 1947-1949 24,400 mss. 

Board of Agriculture 

.Correspondence Files 

Minutes and Corre- 
spondence State 
board of Housing . 

Statistical Rolls of 

Statistical Rolls of 
Cities . 

1921-1944 5,600 mss. 

1933-1944 1,200 mss. 

1944 1,714 vols. 

. . 1950 1,375 vols. 

Commission of Revenue 
and Taxation, Ad 
Valorem Division . 

State Labor Depart- 

Applications for 

Emergency Warrants 

Correspondence Em- 
ployment and Payroll 
Reports, Factory 
Inspection Reports . . 


c. 1,630 
case files 

. 1927-1941 116,000 mss. 

State Library 

Appearance Docket, Order 
Book, and Claim Register, 
Court of Industrial 
Relations 1920-1924 3 vols. 

.Stub Book of State 
Militia Commissions 
Issued by the Governor 1864 1 vol. 

Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Commissioner. 

Awards and Orders 
in Docketed Cases 

1927-1945 9,600 mss. 

These records total 3,093 volumes and about 158,000 manuscripts. The 
large groups of papers from the Labor department, which fills 44 transfer 
cases, has not yet been examined in detail. Much of this material probably 
will not be of permanent value and will be destroyed. 


Installation of the new stacks was completed last winter. For the first 
time in 45 years the archives are now in place on permanent shelves where 
they are readily accessible. 

The floods of last July resulted in only one known instance of damage to 
state records. The Board of Engineering Examiners reported that eight 
transfer cases of engineering applicants' folders, 1931-1948, which had been 
stored in the basement of the Merchants' Moving and Storage Company, 
were ruined by water seepage. Fortunately, the board had microfilmed these 
records in 1949, and had deposited the film negative with the archives di- 
vision for safe-keeping, so that no serious loss was caused by the destruction 
of the original documents. 

Microfilming of Insurance department records was completed during the 
year. This group now totals 517 rolls, or approximately 51,700 feet of film. 
The annual statements of insurance companies, 1870-1943, is by far the 
largest series, amounting to 406 100-foot rolls. An old Adjutant General's 
record, "Enrollment of Soldiers Under an Act of 1883," also was microfilmed 
this year, as were four series of census records for 1855, 1865, 1870 and 1875. 
Microfilming of archives during the year totaled 279 reels. 


Accessions during the year were four manuscript volumes and approximately 
475 individual manuscripts, in addition to several documents which were 
lent for microfilming. 

Dr. Edward Bumgardner of Lawrence presented a group of autograph 
letters written between 1893 and 1947 by such prominent Kansans as William 
Allen White, A. W. Benson, Charles F. Scott, George McGill, U. S. Guyer and 
Errett P. Scrivner. Dr. Bumgardner also gave an album containing the auto- 
graphs of all the governors of Kansas from Robinson to Am, including the 
signatures of two territorial governors, Reeder and Shannon. 

From Miss A. Blanche Edwards of Abilene the Society received a collection 
of letters written to her father, J. B. Edwards, between 1905 and 1932. These 
letters are concerned with the early history of Abilene and with recollections 
of "Wild Bill" Hickok. Miss Edwards also gave 11 photographs, including 
several of "Wild Bill" and members of his family. 

An unusual collection, received through the Oklahoma City libraries from 
Mrs. Walter M. Robertson of Oklahoma City, is a group of 2,500 waybills of 
the Central Branch Union Pacific railroad for 1879. These waybills are 
mounted in a large unbound book measuring 16 by 12 inches and six inches 

Harold S. Sears of Alberta, Canada, gave two interesting records. One 
is a cash and day book kept by his father, Charles Sears, from 1858 to 1889, 
containing a statement of his relations with E. V. de Boissiere, the founder 
of Silkville. The other is the cash and day book of Silkville and the De Bois- 
siere Odd Fellows Orphans' Home and Industrial School, 1884-1896. De Bois- 
siere, a wealthy French industrialist and humanitarian, attempted to establish 
a silk industry in Kansas shortly after the Civil War ended. He bought a 
4,000-acre tract in Franklin county where he succeeded in growing cocoons 
and producing a fine quality silk which won first honors at the Philadelphia 
Centennial in 1876. Unfortunately the market was not profitable, except, so 
he said, for the commission merchants, and he was never able to establish 


the business on a paying basis. In 1892 de Boissiere gave the property to the 
Kansas Grand Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, as a home and 
industrial school for orphans of deceased members. 

Vera Smith of Topeka presented a group of letters of Corydon Carlos Olney, 
describing his experiences in the Civil War as a member of the First New York 
dragoons. Olney came to Kansas after the war, settling in Ottawa county. 

The Society bought a collection of 51 letters written in 1865 by John 
Merrill of Hixton, Wis. Morrill was then serving with the 48th regiment of 
Wisconsin Volunteers, which was stationed in Kansas near Olathe and at 
Fort Lamed. This collection included a rare issue of a soldiers' newspaper, 
The Plains, dated Fort Larned, November 25, 1865. 

Several manuscript collections were microfilmed. Edgar B. Corse of 
Greensburg and Mrs. Benjamin O. Weaver of Mullinville lent a group of 
14 papers relating to the history of Greensburg and the Greensburg Town 
Company, 1884-1888. Mrs. Weaver and the Kiowa County Historical Society 
also sent a diary and account book of W. S. Winslow of Mullinville, covering 
the period 1890 to 1908. Sarah and Ed Francis of Topeka lent a small 
group of papers of Edmund Francis, written at New Orleans in the 1860's. 
A roster and history of Company K, llth Kansas Volunteer regiment, 1862- 
1865, was lent by George E. Grim of Topeka. Records of Wabaunsee com- 
munity, including records of Wabaunsee township, 1858-1922, records of the 
First Church of Christ, 1857-1917, and a teacher's record book for 1876- 
1877, were filmed through the courtesy of H. E. Smith of Wamego. G. H. 
Dole of Pullman, Wash., sent a typed copy of the autobiography of Artumus 
Wood Dole, 1835-1902, in which he related his experiences in Kansas from 
1856 to 1867. A diary of R. B. Landon, 1881-1916, which includes a number 
of photographs of persons and scenes in western Kansas, was lent by Mrs. 
Mabel Plumer of Downs. Correspondence and business papers of Silas Dins- 
moor, now in the possession of Dartmouth College, also were filmed. Dins- 
moor was born in New Hampshire and was graduated from Dartmouth in 
1791, but spent most of his life on the frontier in Mississippi, Louisiana, Ken- 
tucky and Ohio. The Dinsmoor papers were discovered in Topeka and the 
Society was instrumental in arranging for their transfer to Dartmouth. 

Additional manuscripts were received from Paul Adams, Topeka; Mrs. 
H. D. Ayres, Wichita; Will T. Beck, Holton; Margaret J. Brandenburg, Wor- 
cester, Mass.; George H. Browne, Kansas City, Mo.; W. S. Campbell, Norman, 
Okla.; the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pa.; Charles M. 
Correll, Manhattan; Mrs. Karl E. Gutzmer, Newton; Frank Hodges, Olathe; 
Tracy F. Leis, Denison, Tex.; Mrs. Neil Little, West Lafayette, Ind.; Wilbur 
N. Mason, Kansas City, Mo.; Theodore W. Morse, Mound City; Wayne W. 
Polk, Sidney, Iowa; Case Broderick Rafter, Washington, D. C.; J. C. Ruppen- 
thal, Russell; Burton Sears, Evanston, 111.; the estate of William Elmer Smith, 
Wamego, and the Woman's Kansas Day Club. 


Approximately two and one-half million photographs have been made by 
the microfilm division since its establishment in 1946. Over half a million 
were made the past year: 289,751 of archives and 213,823 of newspapers. 

Because of the poor condition of the files of early Caldwell newspapers, 
published during the years the city was a cow town, the following were 


microfilmed: The Weekly Advance, March 1, 1894-December 27, 1901; 
Commercial, May 6, 1880-May 3, 1883; Free Press, September 19, 1885-May 
15, 1886; Industrial Age, July 29, 1887-January 11, 1889; Journal, May 17, 
1883-February 22, 1894; News, January 5-December 28, 1893; Post, January 
2, 1879-May 10, 1883; Standard, February 7-September 11, 1884; Weekly 
Times, June 5, 1886-July 2, 1887. Another famous southern Kansas news- 
paper, the Oklahoma War Chief, published for the purpose of opening Okla- 
homa for settlement, was filmed. The newspaper was issued at Wichita, 
Caldwell and elsewhere and is dated from January 12, 1883, to August 12, 

The microfilming of the Salina Journal, including the Republican and Re- 
publican-Journal, is practically completed. Earl C. Woodward, business man- 
ager of the Journal, sent all the Journal's files to the Historical Society. They 
were collated here with the Society's own files and 206,001 pages were 
microfilmed during the year. Thus the entire Salina Journal, from 1871 
through 1950, will soon be available- on microfilm. 


Eighty-five hundred certified copies of census records were issued during 
the year, an increase of more than 40 percent over the preceding year. 
March, 1951, with 1,018 records issued, was the biggest month since January, 
1942, early in World War II. The copies, which are furnished the public 
without charge, are used to establish proof of age for war work, social security 
or other retirement plans. 

During the year, 3,642 patrons called in person at the newspaper and 
census divisions. They consulted 3,692 single issues of newspapers, 4,545 
bound volumes of newspapers, 820 microfilm reels and 13,315 census vol- 

The Society's annual List of Kansas Newspaper and Periodicals was not 
published this year due to the severe cut in the printing appropriation. It is 
hoped that sufficient money will be available to issue the publication next 

The Society's collection of original Kansas newspapers, as of January 1, 
1951, totaled 54,134 bound volumes, in addition to more than 10,000 bound 
volumes of out-of-state newspapers dated from 1767 to 1951. The Society's 
collection of newspapers on microfilm now totals 3,076 reels. 

As a gift to the Society, one of our members, George H. Browne of Kansas 
City, Mo., paid for the microfilming of all the early Lecompton newspapers 
which are held here and at the Library of Congress. The Congressional 
Library microfilmed its holdings. The issues in the Historical Society col- 
lection which are not duplicates of the Library of Congress holdings were 
microfilmed here. The two films were then spliced together, with the issues 
and pages in consecutive order. The resulting film filled one reel and con- 
tained the following: The Lecompton Union, April 28, 1856- July 30, 1857, 
and the National Democrat, July 30, 1857-March 14, 1861. 

Publishers of the following Kansas daily newspapers are regularly donating 
microfilm copies of their current issues: Angelo Scott, lola Register; Dolph 
and W. C. Simons, Lawrence Daily Journal-World; Dan Anthony, III, Leav- 
enworth Times, and Arthur Capper, Henry Blake, Milt Tabor and Leland 
Schenck, Topeka Daily Capital 


Among the most interesting single issues of newspapers received during 
the year were a copy of The Plains, published at Fort Lamed, November 25, 
1865, and a photostat copy of the Wallace News, dated at Fort Wallace, 
Kan., December 27, 1870. The latter was edited by passengers on a Kansas 
Pacific train snowbound at Wallace, but the actual printing seems to have 
been done when the train reached Denver. 

Two bound volumes of early newspapers published by A. Sellers, Jr., and 
dated from 1866 to 1874, were received from M. Beatrice Skillings of Mc- 
Pherson. In the volumes were files of the Pottawatomie Gazette, Louisville, 
July 17, 1867-May 20, 1868; Wabaunsee County Herald, Alma, April 1, 1869- 
March 9, 1871; Wabaunsee County News, Alma, May 15, 1872-December 30, 
1874, and the Arcola (111.) Record, March 29, 1866-April 18, 1867. The 
Illinois collection may be unique, for the available newspaper catalogues do 
not show these issues anywhere else in the United States. 

Among the donors of miscellaneous newspapers were: E. A. Menninger, 
Stuart, Fla.; Otto J. Wullschleger, Marshall county; W. G. Clugston, Frank 
Green, Charlotte Leavitt, Walter Saar, Winter Veterans Administration Hos- 
pital, Topeka; Mrs. D. W. Smith and Frank Barr, Wichita, and the Woman's 
Kansas Day Club. 


The work of compiling the Annals has now been completed. Beginning 
with the year 1886, where Wilder's Annals left off, this day-by-day history 
of the state has been carried down through 1925. The rough manuscript 
of these 40 years runs to 4,000 typed pages, more than a million and a quarter 
words. This completes the first and most tedious part of the task. Miss 
Jennie Owen and her assistant, James Sallee, are now rechecking and revising 
this manuscript. Before it can be published, of course, it must be greatly 
condensed. In rechecking, it will be possible for Miss Owen to recommend 
many of the necessary cuts. 

The Annals was authorized by the 1945 legislature. For a time, until Miss 
Owen became familiar with the task, she worked alone; however, in the past 
five years she has had eight different assistants. During this time, thousands 
of newspaper volumes have been read, and notations made for the compila- 
tion. Chief sources were the Topeka Daily Capital, Topeka State Journal, 
Wichita Eagle, Wichita Beacon, and the Kansas City Star and Times. All 
other dailies, and many of the weeklies were used for supplementary material 
and checking. In addition, hundreds of other sources were consulted, includ- 
ing, for example, official reports of state departments. 

During the past year, the period from 1919 to 1925, inclusive, was com- 
piled. Many Kansas events of those years made copy of nationwide signifi- 
cance. Governor Allen's handling of a coal strike, together with his industrial 
court, and William Allen White's campaign against the Ku Klux Klan, kept 
Kansas in the headlines. The Non-Partisan league was in the news, as were 
Minnie J. Grinstead, who in a "voice like a Kansas cyclone" seconded the 
nomination of Calvin Coolidge for president; Glenn L. Martin, who predicted 
planes would fly from New York to Europe in less than a day, and Amelia 
Earhart, who was licensed to fly. Dorothy Canfield's Brimming Cup was a 
best seller; Tom McNeal authored When Kansas Was Young; Georgia Neese 
(Clark) and Sidney Toler (Charley Chan) were on the stage in New York; 
Zazu Pitts, Phyllis Haver and Charles (Buddy) Rogers were getting favorable 


notices, but Roscoe (Fatty) Arbuckle's films were being banned in his native 
state. William Allen White won a Pulitzer prize. Longren, Beech, Cessna 
and Stearman built airplane factories. The Victory highway was under 
construction. The Meadow Lark was named the state bird. The University 
of Kansas acquired "Phog" Allen. Women and girls went all out for the 
Gloria Swanson bob, and nearly everybody played Mah Jongg. 


The attendance in the museum for the year was 48,862. This is the 
largest number of visitors ever recorded and is an increase of nearly 3,000 
over last year. Many school groups came from over the state. On April 20, 
the Santa Fe and Rock Island railroads happened to bring special trains of 
school children to Topeka at the same time, and for a few hours the museum 
was jammed with nearly 2,000 boys and girls. 

There were 39 accessions. Among the most attractive was a collection 
of dishes from the William Allen White home in Emporia. Among them is 
the gold-band white china which was used by Mr. and Mrs. White at their 
wedding breakfast. A few years ago, when Mrs. White promised this china 
to the Society, she remarked that "This set is all the dishes we had in the 
world." Also in the White collection are a copper coffee-pot and a hot water 
pitcher, some large cups and three beautiful pieces of Irish lusterware. 

A case of dental instruments, used by Dr. Eben Palmer in his practice from 
1871 to 1907, was donated by his son, F. R. Palmer of Topeka. 

There used to be a time when no parlor was complete without a collection 
of souvenir plates on which pictures of local scenes and buildings were re- 
produced. The plates have again become popular. During the past year 
a number, both old and new, have been added to the museum collection. 


Extended research on the following subjects was done during the year: 
Biography: Mary Ellen Lease; Joseph L. Bristow; Jotham Meeker; Francis 
Huntington Snow; "Wild Bill" Hickok; William Allen White; Edward Hogue 
Funston; John Brown; Jedediah Strong Smith. General: History of Sumner 
county and Caldwell; Civil War west of Missouri; Emporia Methodist Church; 
civil service; removal of Indians from Ohio; history of American historical 
periodicals since 1895; prices and inflation in the Revolutionary period; 
Indian agents chosen by religious groups; music in Kansas; border troubles,; 
Fort Leavenworth; labor speeches of Clyde Reed; military order of the Loyal 
Legion; Paxico community; Valencia; Smoky Hill trail; Silkville; floods, 
bridges; Topeka parks; Indian legends; Kansas points of interest. 

October 1, 1950, to September 30, 1951 


Books 770 

Pamphlets 1,642 

Magazines (bound volumes) None 


Separate manuscripts 158,000 

Manuscript volumes 3,093 

Manuscript maps None 


Reels of microfilm 321 

Private manuscripts: 

Separate manuscripts 475 

Volumes 4 

Reels of microfilm 5 

Printed maps, atlases and charts 364 

Newspapers (bound volumes) 670 

Reels of microfilm 412 

Pictures 692 

Museum objects 35 

Books, pamphlets, newspapers (bound and microfilm reels) 

and magazines 447,863 

Separate manuscripts (archives) 1,790,611 

Manuscript volumes (archives) 58,317 

Manuscript maps (archives) 583 

Microfilm reels (archives) -\ 682 

Printed maps, atlases and charts 11,782 

Pictures 25,195 

Museum objects 33,506 


The 19th bound volume of The Kansas Historical Quarterly, which is now in 
its 20th year, will be ready for distribution soon. Features for the year include: 
Alberta Pantle's "History of the French-Speaking Settlement in the Cottonwood 
Valley," Dr. James C. Malin's "The Motives of Stephen A. Douglas in the Or- 
ganization of Nebraska Territory," and the delightful journal of Mrs. Stuart 
James Hogg, "A British Bride in Manhattan, 1890-1891." Dr. Robert Taft's re- 
vised manuscript, based on "The Pictorial Record of the Old West" series in 
the Quarterly, will shortly be issued by Scribner's in book form. Thanks are 
due to Dr. James C. Malin of the University of Kansas, associate editor of the 
Quarterly, who continues to take time from his busy schedule to read articles 
submitted for publication. 


During the past year sight-seers from 28 states and a number of foreign 
countries visited the Mission. There has been a noticeable increase in the 
number of school classes and other groups brought on conducted tours. Many 
boy scout troops and similar organizations visit the buildings to learn how 
Indian boys and girls lived and were taught a hundred years ago. 

Although the Mission was operated by the Methodist church, it was pri- 
marily a manual labor school and was supported by the federal government. 
Other Missions also gave similar instruction, among them the near-by Friends 
Mission, where there was at one time a teacher of agriculture by the name of 
Calvin Austin Cornatzer. Recently a picture of his wife, Emily Smith Cornat- 
zer, was presented to the Mission by a granddaughter, Mrs. H. D. Ayres of 
Wichita. Mrs. Ayres also donated to the museum a wood bread-mixing bowl 
and a chest of drawers which had belonged to her grandparents and were 
used at the Friends Mission. 




During the past year the outbuildings were painted and minor repairs were 
made on the Capitol building. The number of visitors for the year was 2,787. 
The July floods, which closed the highways during most of the tourist season, 
were apparently responsible for this unusually low figure. 


The various accomplishments noted in this report are due to the Society's 
splendid staff of employees. I gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness to 
them. Special mention, perhaps, should be made of the heads of depart- 
ments: Nyle H. Miller, assistant secretary; Helen M. McFarland, librarian; 
Edith Smelser, custodian of the museum; Mrs. Lela Barnes, treasurer; Edgar 
Langsdorf, archivist and manager of the building; and Jennie S. Owen, annal- 
ist. Attention should also be called to the work of Harry A. Hardy and his 
wife, Kate, custodians of the Old Shawnee Mission, and to that of John 
Scott, custodian of the First Capitok 

Respectfully submitted, 

KIRKE MECHEM, Secretary. 

At the conclusion of the reading of the secretary's report, Frank 
A. Hobble moved that it be accepted. Motion was seconded by 
Joseph C. Shaw and the report was accepted. 

President Haucke then called for the report of the treasurer, 
Mrs. Lela Barnes: 


Based on the audit of the state accountant for the period 
August 22, 1950, to August 21, 1951. 


Balance, August 22, 1950: 


U. S. savings bonds, Series G 



Reimbursement for postage . . 

Interest on bonds 

Books . 








Balance, August 21, 1951: 


U. S. savings bonds, Series G 









Balance, August 22, 1950: 

Cash $144.03 

U. S. treasury bonds 950.00 



Bond interest $27.31 

Savings account interest 1.28 



Disbursements : 

Books $49.74 

Balance, August 21, 1951: 

Cash $122.88 

U. S. treasury bonds 950.00 




Balance, August 22, 1950: 

Cash $66.00 

U. S. treasury bonds 500.00 



Bond interest $14.40 

Savings account interest .64 



Balance, August 21, 1951: 

Cash ..-. $81.04 

U. S. treasury bonds 500.00 



This donation is substantiated by a U. S. savings bond, Series G, in the 
amount of $1,000. The interest is credited to the membership fee fund. 


Balance, August 22, 1950: 

Cash (deposited in membership fee fund) $671.19 

U. S. savings bonds (shown in total bonds, member- 
ship fee fund 5,200.00 


Interest (deposited in membership fee fund) 




Disbursements : 

Three pen and ink drawings of Shawnee Mission 

bldgs. by Harry Feron $17.50 

Balance, August 21, 1951: 

Cash $783.69 

U. S. savings bonds, Series G 5,200.00 


~ $6,001.19 

This report covers only the membership fee fund and other custodial funds. 
It is not a statement of the appropriations made by the legislature for the 
maintenance of the Society. These disbursements are not made by the treas- 
urer of the Society but by the state auditor. For the year ending June 30, 
1951, these appropriations were: Kansas State Historical Society, $97,251.44; 
Memorial building, $12,784.80; Old Shawnee Mission, $5,526.00; First Capitol 
of Kansas, $2,250.00. 

On motion by Wilford Riegle, seconded by Robert T. Aitchison, 
the report of the treasurer was accepted. 

The report of the executive committee on the audit by the state 
accountant of the funds of the Society was called for and read by 
John S. Dawson: 


September 26, 1951. 
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society: 

The executive committee being directed under the bylaws to check the 
accounts of the treasurer, states that the state accountant has audited the 
funds of the State Historical Society, the First Capitol of Kansas and the Old 
Shawnee Mission from August 22, 1950, to August 21, 1951, and that they 
are hereby approved. JOHN S. DAWSON, Chairman. 

On motion by John S. Dawson, seconded by Robert Stone, the 
report was accepted. 

The report of the nominating committee for officers of the 
Society was read by John S. Dawson: 


September 26, 1951. 
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society: 

Your committee on nominations submits the following report for officers 
of the Kansas State Historical Society: 

For a one-year term: William T. Beck, Holton, president; Robert Taft, 
Lawrence, first vice-president; Angelo Scott, lola, second vice-president. 
For a two-year term: Nyle H. Miller, Topeka, secretary. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN S. DAWSON, Chairman. 

The report was referred to the afternoon meeting of the board. 
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 


The annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society con- 
vened at 2 P. M. The members were called to order by the presi- 
dent, Frank Haucke. 

The address by Mr. Haucke follows: 

Address of the President 


MY paper today is on the Kaw Indians: The Indians who gave 
our state its name, and for whom our famous river was 
named; and the tribe that gave to this nation a vice-president. His- 
torians do not credit them with being the most colorful or spectac- 
ular tribe to dwell within our state, yet they left their mark on 
Kansas history. As long as Kansas exists the memory of the Kansa 
or Kaw Indians will live. 

These Indians were known by some 50, and perhaps even more, 
versions of the name Kansa, which means wind people or people 
of the south wind. Kaw was the word used by the early French 
traders as sounding something like that used by the Indians them- 
selves. Since about 1868 it has been the popular name of this group 
of Indians. 

There is a difference of opinion as to whether the Kaw Indians 
lived in what is now Kansas in the aboriginal period of American 
history. Some historians hold that they originated east of the Al- 
leghenies and were drifting west when they first became known to 
white men. The earliest recorded notice of the Kaw Indians was 
by Juan de Onate in 1601. In 1702 Iberville estimated that they 
had 1,500 family units. From this, the tribe has diminished until 
today there are fewer than 25 full bloods. 

It is known that the Kaw Indians moved up the Kansas river in 
historic times as far as the Big Blue. In 1724 de Bourgmont spoke 
of a large village. Native narrators gave an account of some 20 
villages along the Kansas river before the Kaws moved to Council 
Grove in 1847. 

In 1724 de Bourgmont set out from New Orleans for the Kansas 
river to visit the Padoucas, or Comanche Indians, who were not 
friendly to the fur trade. He was met by a party of Kansas chiefs 
and was escorted to their village. The grand chief informed de 



Bourgmont that the Kaw Indians would accompany him on his 
journey. The French remained for some time with the tribe before 
setting out on their journey. The Kaws supplied them with wild 
grapes during their stay, from which the French made wine. 

In 1792, when the Spaniards owned Louisiana, they thought 
some of developing an overland trade between New Mexico and 
Louisiana. Pedro Vial was sent from Santa Fe to Governor Caron 
at St. Louis to open communications for that purpose. In his daily 
account of the journey, he reports that when his party reached the 
great bend of the Arkansas river they were made captive by the 
Kaw Indians and taken to their village on the Kansas river. 

Lewis and Clark recorded in 1804 that the Kaws lived in two 
villages with a population of 300 men. These explorers reported 
that their number had been reduced because of attacks by the Sauk 
and Iowa Indians. Two years later they found that the lower vil- 
lage had been abandoned and that the inhabitants had moved to 
the village at the mouth of the Big Blue. The Kaws were furnishing 
traders with skins of deer, beaver, black bear, otter, raccoon; also 
buffalo robes and tallow. This trade brought the tribe about $5,000 
annually in goods sent up from St. Louis. 

The first recorded official treaty with the Kaws was in 1815, at 
St. Louis. This was a treaty of peace and friendship. In it the 
Kaws were forgiven for their leanings toward the British in the 
War of 1812. One of the signers of this treaty was White Plume, 
who was just coming into prominence and who later became one 
of the great chiefs of the tribe. He was the great-great-grandfather 
of Charles Curtis. 

On August 24, 1819, Maj. Stephen Long met with the Kaws 
and Osages on Cow Island east of the present Oak Mills, Atchison 
county. Secretary of War John C. Calhoun had sent out an ex- 
ploring expedition with Major Long commanding. They went up 
the Missouri in a steamboat and were to ascend the Kansas river to 
the Kaw village, but found it unnavigable. A messenger was sent 
ahead to summon the Kaw tribe to council at Cow Island. When 
the Indians assembled, they were more interested in the demonstra- 
tions made by the steamboat than in the council. The bow of this 
boat was in the shape of a great serpent with a carved head as high 
as the deck. Smoke and fire were forced out of its mouth, which 
greatly interested the Indians. The council and entertainment con- 
tinued for some time. The Indians admitted their depredations, 
promised peace and accepted their presents. Rockets were fired 
and the flag of the United States was raised. 


The Kaw tribe signed a treaty at Sora creek (Dry Turkey creek), 
August 16, 1825, giving consent to a survey of the Santa Fe trail. 
They promised unmolested passage to citizens of the United States 
and the Mexico Republic. The tribe received $500 in cash and 
$300 in merchandise. The place of the treaty was about five miles 
west of present McPherson. 

The Kaw Indians ceded to the United States on June 3, 1825, a 
vast tract of land which extended along the Missouri river from the 
mouth of the Kansas river to the northwest corner of the state of 
Missouri; thence west to the Nodeway river in Nebraska; thence to 
the source of the big Nemaha river; thence to the source of the 
Kansas river, leaving the old village of the Pania Republic to the 
west; thence on a ridge dividing the waters of the Kansas river 
from the Arkansas to the west line of Missouri; thence on that line 
thirty miles to the place of beginning: the mouth of the Kansas 
river. They reserved a tract on both sides of the Kansas river, be- 
ginning 20 leagues up the river, including their village, extending 
west 30 miles in width through the lands ceded as above. This 
village was two miles east of present Manhattan on the north bank 
of the Kansas river. 

The reservation thus set aside by the Kaw Indians was held by 
them until 1846. As construed, the treaty covered a tract of the 
best land in Nebraska, reaching from the Missouri to Red Cloud 
and extending north at one point more than 40 miles. This domain 
was cut off at the head of the Solomon, from where it reached to 
within 12 miles of the Arkansas northwest of Garden City. Thence 
it followed the divide to the Missouri line. It included nearly half 
of the state of Kansas. For this the Kaws received $4,000 in mer- 
chandise and horses, an annual tribal annuity of $3,500 for 20 years, 
plus the limited reservation. They also received some cattle, hogs 
and chickens and some half-breed allotments. 

The Kaws did not own so vast a tract of land. They never had 
possessed it and much of it they had never even hunted on, as far 
as can be determined. The government wished to extinguish the 
Indian title and having purchased it from the Kaw Indians no other 
tribe could set up a claim to it. 

The Kaw town at the mouth of the Blue river was partly depopu- 
lated about 1827. That year an agency was established on allot- 
ment number 23, which was on the north bank of the Kansas river 
and in what is now Jefferson county. This town was south of pres- 
ent Williamstown. There was appointed for the Indians a black- 


smith and a farmer. The farmer was Col. Dan Morgan Boone, son 
of the great pioneer. White Plume was the head of the village. 
Frederick Chouteau was the Indian trader. His trading post was 
on what is now Lakeview. This agency was abandoned after 1832. 
Frederick Chouteau moved his trading post to Mission creek. 

By 1830 the Kaw population had moved down the Kansas river 
and settled in two villages at Mission creek and one about a mile 
west of Papan's ferry, or north of the present town of Mencken. 
This was the largest Indian village near the present city of Topeka 
and was located in the southwest quarter of Section 16, Township 
11, Range 15. The Indians made a good selection, because in 1844, 
1903 and 1951, when all the valley was submerged, this spot at 
Menoken and surrounding land was dry. After the recent flood 
we visited this spot and found* it high and dry and have pictures 
showing the land. There was another Kaw village, but little is 
known of it. Remains of Indian burial grounds have been un- 
earthed in several places, one south and west of the Skinner Nursery 
in Shorey, North Topeka. The extent to which these Indians 
roamed over this territory is still unknown. 

In 1830 the missionaries turned attention to the Kaw Indians, and 
the Rev. Wm. Johnson was appointed missionary to them. He 
started as a missionary to the Kaws at Mission creek. He went to 
the Delaware Indians in 1832, returning to the Kaws in 1834. In 
the summer of 1834 he began work on the mission buildings. He 
continued there until 1842, when he died. In 1844, the Rev. J. T. 
Perry was sent to continue this missionary work. Nothing of ac- 
count was accomplished and the school was discontinued. Much 
of the missionaries' time was spent in learning the language, which 
did not leave much time to use the language after it was learned. 
It has been recorded that during Johnson's stay with the Kaws a 
book was printed in the Kansa language; however no trace of the 
book has ever been found. These old mission buildings erected by 
Johnson were occupied for a time by a Kaw woman and her half- 
breed Pottawatomie husband. In 1853 he tore these buildings 

On January 14, 1846, the Kaws ceded two million acres of the 
east end of their tract. It was provided that if the residue of their 
land should not afford sufficient timber for the tribe the government 
should have all the reservation. The lack of timber existed, so the 
government took over the land. Another tract of land 20 miles 
square was laid out for them at Council Grove. Until 1847 the 


territory now embraced in Morris county was held by various tribes 
as neutral ground upon which all had a right to hunt. 

In 1859 the Kaws signed a treaty retaining a portion of their res- 
ervation intact, nine miles by 14 miles. The remainder was to be 
sold to the government and the money used for the benefit of the 
tribe. These lands were sold by acts of congress of 1872, 1874, 
1876 and 1880. 

From 1847 to 1873 the Kaws dwelt on their diminished reserve 
in the Neosho valley near Council Grove, Morris county. They 
settled in three villages, each with a chief. 

The largest village was on Cahola creek south of the town of 
Dunlap. Hard Chief, Kah-he-ga-wah-che-cha, ruled here from the 
time the tribe moved from the Kaw valley until some time in the 
1860's when he died. He was never considered a very brave or 
outstanding chief. He was succeeded by Al-le-ga-wa-hu, who was 
one of the greatest chiefs ever to rule over the Kaws. He was of 
fine character, was trusted by all, and was considered the wisest 
leader of the tribe. He was tall and stately, about six feet, six, and 
was an eloquent orator. He was one of the few Indians of his time 
who could not be bribed. 

Chief Al-le-ga-wa-hu had three wives, one of whom was his fa- 
vorite. As was the custom with the Kaws, when a young man mar- 
ried he married the oldest daughter of a family and the other sisters 
also became his wives. A story is told of the beauty of his favorite 
wife and how he tried to please her on all occasions. Once when 
she was ill she craved the delicacy of dog meat. Not having a dog, 
the chief went to Council Grove in search of a nice fat one. He 
found one that could be purchased for $2, but not having the $2, 
he had to borrow the money from a friend before he could carry 
home the prize. 

The second village was known as Fool Chief's village and was lo- 
cated in the valley near the present town of Dunlap. Fool Chief 
ruled over this village for a long time. Fool Chief had a strong and 
positive nature and was a serious type of man. He was a good 
speaker and many times represented the Kaws when officials were 
out from Washington. His death was caused by overeating on the 
day his annuity money was received. He, like many others, had 
been on short rations. Like most of the Kaws, he had a large roman 
nose and high cheek bones. 

The third village was located near Big John creek, southeast of 
Council Grove, and was not far from the agency. At one time this 


village was situated within a mile of Council Grove. Peg-gah- 
hosh-he was the first chief to rule here. He was a stubborn leader 
and much set in his ways. He died about 1870 and was succeeded 
by his nephew. Neither were considered outstanding leaders. In 
the Kaw tribe, chiefs obtain leadership through inheritance; war 
chiefs through bravery. 

In the fall of 1848 Seth Hayes moved into the reservation as In- 
dian trader. The next to arrive were the Chouteau brothers. The 
Chouteaus of St. Louis were associated with the Astors of New York 
in the American Fur Company, which came to dominate the busi- 

In 1850 the population of the Kaws was about 1,700. The agent 
of the tribe resided in Westport, Mo., the law at that time not re- 
quiring the agent to live at the agency. 

Several attempts to improve the condition of the Kaw Indians 
were undertaken during their stay in Morris county. In 1850 the 
Methodist Episcopal church, desiring to help civilize the Indians, 
entered into a contract with the government to establish a school. 
The board of missions erected a stone mission or schoolhouse at 
Council Grove and subcontracted with T. S. Huffaker to teach the 
school. The school was closed in 1854, because of the large expense 
of $50 per capita annually. The government refused to increase 
the appropriation. The pupils were either orphans or dependents 
of the tribe. All were boys, as the girls were not allowed to go to 
school. Mr. Huffaker reports that he knew of only one Indian who 
was converted to the faith. The Kaws never took kindly to the re- 
ligion of the white man. They kept and guarded their own beliefs. 

Thomas Sears Huffaker was 24 years old when first employed as 
an Indian teacher. Mr. Huffaker's influence with the Kaw Indians 
continued long after he gave up teaching. His name is mentioned 
in their treaty with the government in 1862 and in many other rec- 
ords pertaining to the tribe. 

The Huffaker family lived for many years in the building after 
the closing of the school. Five children were born at the mission, 
and three in another home across the street. Carl Huffaker was one 
of the latter three, and it was from him that the state of Kansas pur- 
chased this old building last spring. It is to be a museum devoted 
to the Kaw Indians and the Santa Fe trail. The building is two 
stories high. It was built of stone from a nearby quarry and of 
native lumber from the original Council Grove. When constructed 
it had eight rooms, and in each gable two large projecting chimneys. 


The walls are very thick and the whole building is still a beautiful 
and solid structure. 

This building has been used for many purposes: schoolhouse, 
council house, courthouse, meeting house, and fortress during In- 
dian raids. Governors, officials of state, and officers of the army 
have been entertained there. It was a welcome resting place for 
many a weary traveler on the trail. 

From 1854 to 1863 there was practically no missionary or religious 
work among the Kaws. In 1852 and 1853 over four hundred of the 
tribe died of small pox. Their burial grounds were scattered all 
along the Neosho valley. Many died from other epidemics and par- 
ticularly from hardships to which they were subjected by the pres- 
sure of white settlers, the killing of their game and the introduction 
of whisky. The traders were not permitted to sell whisky, but the 
Indians had no trouble in getting it as long as they had money or 
something to trade. When their annuity was received, the money 
in most cases went for liquor instead of food. As a result, they and 
their families were starving most of the time. In looking through 
government reports on the Kaw Indians we find that teachers, agents 
and others again and again requested that some action be taken to 
stop the liquor traffic. Some recommended that annuities be re- 
ceived annually so the Indians would have to work for food in the 
meantime. When traffic was opened on the Santa Fe trail this prob- 
lem increased. 

The Civil War affected the lives of the Kaw Indians. John Dela- 
shmitt came from Iowa and enlisted a company of Kaws numbering 
80 men for service in the Union army. They left their women and 
children at home to tend their meager fields and to live as best they 
could. In 1863 the population was reduced to 741 and the follow- 
ing year to 701. During the latter part of the war the Kaws could 
not go on buffalo hunts to secure meat because of the danger of 
their being killed in the campaigns against the Plains Indians. 

Many amusing stories are told of the Kaw soldiers in the Civil 
War. After enlisting they went to Topeka where they were issued 
uniforms. Just as soon as they received them they took out on foot 
for Council Grove with their uniforms under their arms. Just be- 
fore they reached their destination they put the clothes on and 
walked in all dressed up to show their kinsmen what a soldier 
really looked like. When they were at Fort Leavenworth, in the 
heat of the summer they would insist on walking through the streets 
in their drawers alone. One of the head chiefs of the Kaws was a 


When a Kaw enlisted in the army it was necessary for him to 
take on a new name, as his Indian name was not sufficient for the 
records. Many of the Indians at this time took French names, such 
as Chouteau. Some believe a good many Kaws have French blood 
because of their French names, which in many cases is not true. In 
later years many Kaws took on other names; the son of Al-le-ga- 
wa-hu, for example, took the name of Albert Taylor. 

After the treaty of 1859, when the Kaw reservation was reduced 
in size to what was known as the diminished reserve, the agency 
of the tribe was moved from Council Grove to a point about four 
miles southeast of the city, near the mouth of Big John creek on 
what is now the Haucke land. The buildings erected by the gov- 
ernment were substantial structures, consisting of an agency build- 
ing, house and stables, storehouse, council house and two large 
frame school buildings. They were constructed of native oak and 
black walnut sawed from the forests of the Neosho. The govern- 
ment also built some 150 small stone buildings for the use of the 
individual Indian families. The Kaw Indians did not appreciate 
these stone houses and continued to live in their tents which they 
considered more healthful. However, in bad weather, they did 
stable their ponies in these buildings. 

Many of the agency buildings still stand on the Haucke land. We 
have tried to preserve them as much as possible. The old cabin 
occupied by Washunga still stands. He was a minor chief when 
the Kaws lived in Council Grove and a head chief after their re- 
moval to Oklahoma. Here Vice-President Charles Curtis spent a 
few of his boyhood years with his grandfather and grandmother, 
Louis and Julia Papan. 

Land near the agency was homesteaded by my father, August 
Haucke, who left Germany when a young man and headed for the 
new world. He left behind him a brilliant career as a professional 
soldier, having served as military instructor at the German general 
staff headquarters at Potsdam, near Berlin. He participated in the 
Franco-Prussian War. In the siege of Paris he commanded a tele- 
scope rifle corps, and when Napoleon III surrendered, he com- 
manded a body guard, guarding him from being assassinated by his 
own people on account of his surrender. 

When my father reached the Eastern shores of our country he 
was advised to go West, where there were many opportunities for 
young men. He took this sage advice and bought a railroad ticket 
to Topeka, where he outfitted himself with a team, wagon and sup- 
plies and started out on the trail. He learned from Harry Richter, 


who was later lieutenant governor, that the Kaw Indian land would 
soon be opened for homesteading and decided to stay and prove up 
on a claim. While doing this he worked on the section of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas railroad at 50 cents a day. He lived in Morris 
county until his death, with my mother, who had accompanied her 
family to America from Germany at about the same time. 

I recall hearing my father tell about the acquisition of the right- 
of-way through the Kaw reservation. Many farmers contended that 
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas did not have right-of-way through 
the reservation but had merely traded firewater for permission to 
build through the Indian land. This condition continued until 
about 1920, when my father and Mr. Brown, counsel for the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas, worked out a peaceful right-of-way settle- 
ment with the farmers and the railroad through what was formerly 
the Kaw reservation. 

In the summer of 1859, the most serious trouble between the 
Kaws and the whites took place. Much horse thieving had been 
going on and the settlers blamed the Kaws. Two white men had 
been suspected of some of the work. They were caught, and after 
they confessed one side of their heads was shaved before they were 
set free. The Indians watched this performance with interest. The 
Indians, who had stolen horses from two Mexicans, were threatened 
with the same treatment. 

Early on the morning of June 2, a hundred Kaws came riding 
down the trail from the west, painted and feather-decked for war. 
Al-le-ga-wa-hu was leading them. They stopped their ponies in 
front of the Hays tavern in Council Grove and the Indians said, 
"You white men are all cowards. You shave each other's heads but 
are afraid of the Indians. Mexicans are a heap worse than Indians 
but you protect them. If you want the horses the Indians stole 
come and get them." 

Mr. Hays fired into the mob and the Indians returned the fire. 
One white man was hit by a shot and another by an arrow. The 
Indians then withdrew across the river. Before the town had time 
to organize themselves, the Kaws had returned from the Elm creek 
woods. The settlers started south and several times the Kaws raced 
the settlers from west to south, south to west, until they were ex- 
hausted. Then the Kaws retreated to the timber along Elm creek. 
After organizing and selecting a leader, the settlers worked their 
way into the woods, where a battle was waged. The settlers drove 
the Kaws back. The Kaws then took their position on the bluff, 
where their warriors lined the bluff for a mile. The settlers were 


in the open prairie, with the Kaws on the bluff in front of them and 
the timber a long way back of them. They dared not fall back with 
no reinforcements in sight. The Indians threw sun reflections in 
their eyes from mirrors and flourished their spears and blankets. 
The Kaws then began a series of attacks. They charged three times 
but the settlers held their ground. The settlers kept looking for 
help, as messengers had been dispatched for assistance at the start 
of the battle. In the afternoon they saw a few heads coming to- 
ward them in the grass in the rear and their shouts of joy led the 
Kaws to believe that a large number had come to help. 

The Kaw leaders counseled together and several of them ap- 
proached with a white flag. The settlers demanded the two who 
had shot the white men. The Indians again counseled and returned 
saying that they would surrender the man who had shot Parkes but 
that they did not know which of their number had shot the other 
man. The settlers were sure that a young chief greatly loved by 
the tribe was the guilty one. The Kaws then tried to buy the lib- 
erty of the two, offering half of the money they would receive from 
the government. The settlers insisted that the Indians be turned 
over to them. At that point the young chief spoke up and said that 
since his people had offered to give him up he would kill anyone 
who came near him. The young braves and the chief overpowered 
him and tied and bound him. He and the other warrior were then 
turned over to the settlers and taken to Council Grove on horse- 
back, where they were both hanged. 

With the sun the next morning two squaws entered the trading 
post and trudged sorrowfully up the trail to the suspended bodies 
of their dead. They were the mother of the brave and the young 
wife of the chief. Their cries could be heard up and down the val- 
ley. Each carried a large knife with which she hacked her head 
and breast until blood flowed from the wounds. They poured ashes 
over themselves and rubbed the blood near the bodies of their dead. 
Some of the settlers cut the bodies down so they could be returned 
to the Indian burial grounds. One of the men at the post was as- 
signed to drive the ox cart in which the bodies were placed. Sev- 
eral others went along as guards. The tribe assembled at Elm creek 
to meet them. Without warning a low moan arose from the tribe, 
which frightened the oxen, and they overturned the cart, dumping 
the bodies on the ground. 

In 1863 Mahlon and Rachel Stubbs were sent by the Friends 
church of Indiana to establish a mission school among the Kaw In- 
dians. Several years later their son, A. W. Stubbs, became inter- 


preter for the Kaw Indians. We owe a debt of gratitude to the 
family of A. W. Stubbs, who are now living in Kansas City, for mak- 
ing the papers of their father available to us and for giving them 
to the Kansas State Historical Society. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stubbs went from Indianapolis to St. Louis by rail, 
by boat to Hannibal, and by rail to Leavenworth. There friends 
met them and conveyed them by wagon to their destination, the 
newly erected mission buildings near the agency on what is known 
as the R. O. Scott farm. There were two buildings, 30 x 60 feet, 
two stories high, and here the Stubbs family lived for three years. 
The buildings were not furnished, and Mahlon Stubbs had to make 
furniture for them and desks for the school rooms. School opened 
May 1, 1863, with Martha Townsent as teacher. She had 36 boys 
and three girls as pupils, most of them in a nude state. 

The work at the mission was very difficult. When the children 
were brought in, they were not only naked, but they had to be 
thoroughly scrubbed and barbered. Most of them, of course, could 
not speak a word of English. Mrs. Stubbs took entire charge of the 
work of the boarding school. She cooked, washed and sewed for 
the pupils. Mr. Stubbs farmed and raised cattle and hogs. Owing 
to this hard work, Mrs. Stubbs' health failed. Mr. Stubbs then ac- 
cepted the position of farmer of the Friends Kansas Manual Labor 
School. This position was tendered him by Mai. H. W. Farnsworth, 
U. S. Indian agent. The Stubbs family moved into the old stone 
house at the agency. This house had been occupied by Joseph Dun- 
lap, the Indian trader, as it was not needed by the government. 
Mr. Dunlap moved into a settler's house near the mouth of Rock 
creek, erected before the land was allotted. His was the only white 
family allowed on the whole reservation, aside from government 

During this year as farmer Mr. Stubbs gave the Kaws their first 
lesson in trying to plow their little fields with ponies. This proved 
to be a slow job, for they were ignorant about work. It was a dif- 
ficult task to teach them to properly harness a pony and many times 
he found them with the collar on the wrong end up and the wrong 
side to the horse. 

At the end of that year there was a change in administration and 
Democrats were appointed to succeed all employees from the agent 
down. The Stubbs family then moved to a farm near Lawrence. 
Here they remained for two and a half years, when Mahlon Stubbs 
was appointed Indian agent by President Grant. President Grant 
adopted what was known as Grant's peace policy and turned over 


the management of all the Indian tribes to the various leading 
church denominations. Those in Kansas and Indian territory were 
allotted to the Friends and they were given full charge and allowed 
to select all employees at the various agencies. Schools were 
opened, encouragement given to the Indians to raise stock and to 
learn to farm. A strong effort was made to better the conditions of 
the Indians and this continued until there was a change of adminis- 
tration. Grant's plan was not a complete success for the reason that 
some of the churchmen selected for agents were good churchmen 
but not good business men and their accounts fell into a hopeless 

Agent Farasworth in one of his reports to the superintendent of 
Indian affairs said that the extrejne simplicity of the Quaker system 
rendered it unattractive to Kaw Indians. Others suggested that the 
pageantry of the Catholic church would have more appeal to the 
Indians as it would be something they could see and have some 
understanding of. 

A. W. Stubbs relates that in 1864 his parents boarded about 20 
recaptured women and children for several months at the Kaw Mis- 
sion School, which they were conducting at the time. They were 
received from the Cheyenne, Kiowa and Comanche tribes and were 
left at the school until their families called for them. Some of them 
seemed anxious to find their families, but one middle-aged woman 
was actually indignant because she had not been able to remain 
with her captors. None of them complained of cruel treatment, al- 
though the women had to assist in curing buffalo meat and dressing 
the hides brought in by the men. 

Mr. Stubbs records terrible prairie fires in 1864 and 1865. He re- 
lates that the bluestem grew eight or ten feet high and that it was 
impossible to stop a prairie fire after it was once started. If the fire 
happened to overtake a person walking across the prairie his only 
chance for life was to lie face down in a buffalo trail or any bare 
spot and let the fire sweep over him. Many died before the flames 
passed over them. Sparks would fly across the Neosho and set fires 
on the other side. Mr. Stubbs tells about a couple of farmers cross- 
ing the high divide south of the Neosho, near Americus, with a load 
of hogs in a wagon. They saw a cloud of smoke to the northwest, 
from where the wind was blowing a gale, but paid little attention 
until the flames were only a short distance away. One of the men 
then jumped out; ran ahead a few paces, struck a match and 
kindled a fire. By the time the burned space was large enough to 
hold the team and wagon, they were surrounded by flames and the 


heat was so intense that the hogs in the wagon began to squeal and 
they had difficulty in holding the frightened team. 

In September, 1865, the Kaws ventured forth on a hunting trip 
into the buffalo country. That fall and winter they killed approxi- 
mately 3,000 buffalo and sold the robes for an average of $7 each. 
This income was in addition to the meat and tallow. They also 
carried on trade with other Indians. These sources of income car- 
ried them well through the winter and spring. But the winter of 
1866-1867 was spent in futile efforts to find buffalo. It was a severe 
one and many of the Kaws died of starvation and exposure. 

As long as the buffalo lasted, the Indians held annual hunting 
parties in the buffalo country. Mr. Stubbs describes an incident 
that occurred on one of the buffalo hunts he accompanied. After 
being out some time, the hunters spied some antelope, which the 
Indians killed. One of the young chiefs was hungry and pulled out 
his knife and ripped one of the animals open. Taking out the liver, 
he cut off a generous hunk, put it in his mouth, and began chewing 
with relish. He wanted Mr. Stubbs to join him in the feast, but 
Mr. Stubbs wasn't hungry at the moment. The savage was quite a 
sight with the blood streaming down his face. He then took out 
the stomach, cut a hole in it, and drank the milk which the young 
animal had recently taken. Mr. Stubbs records that his feeling was 
one of pity for the Indian who owned so much in land and yet had 
so little. 

In 1867 a Mr. Goodal of Cleveland offered to instruct the Kaws in 
the manufacture of woolen goods by use of hand wheels and looms, 
thinking this would be something the Kaws might enjoy doing, as 
well as being something profitable, but they turned down the offer. 

Up to about 1868 the Kaw Indians had been able partially to sup- 
port themselves by going to the buffalo country winter and summer- 
for meat, hides and robes. Their small annuity was not enough to 
keep them. The merchants and traders at the agency often assisted 
them, relying on appropriations from congress to reimburse them. 
The Kaws were surrounded by fertile soil, but they were averse to 
farming. In addition to having no desire to farm, they had no tools, 
and there was a shortage of seed. 

On March 13, 1869, the Kaws entered into a contract with the 
Southern branch of the Union Pacific, later known as the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas railroad, for right-of-way and the privilege to cut 
timber. Thousands of ties and other timber were sold from the Kaw 
lands and the proceeds used for subsisting them. Mr. Stubbs re- 
ceived permission to sell off the tops and down lumber for cord 


wood and this was a big help to the Kaws. Many of them were 
handy with an ax and spent considerable time cutting and hauling 
wood, which work they seemed to enjoy. Wood sold in Council 
Grove for $3 a cord. Up to this time even the Indians had not been 
allowed to cut and haul wood and they had had to use only dead 
trees and limbs. Thousands of fine walnut and oak trees were con- 
verted into bridge timber and ties, as well as hickory and other 
hardwood varieties. When the railroad was completed to Parsons, 
A. W. Stubbs was invited to take a group of 25 Kaws to dance and 
assist at the celebration, all expenses paid. This pleased the Indians 
and was a change from their humdrum life. 

Mr. Stubbs was quite an authority on Kaw words, having served 
as their interpreter, and in his papers we find many Kaw names and 
words. He gives the meaning of Neosho as "Water in it." He dis- 
putes the general understanding as to the meaning of "Topeka." 
He says that at one time some folks stopped at the ferry north of 
Topeka and wanted to cross. The water at that time was very high 
and the Indians shook their heads no, and said "Too-Beega," mean- 
ing the stream was too big to cross. 

After the coming of the railroad there was a strong desire on the 
part of the whites to secure farms in this fertile valley and great 
pressure was brought upon Washington to open these lands for 

About this time the last Indian battle this far east in Kansas took 
place. It was on the morning of June 2, 1868, when several hundred 
well-armed and mounted Cheyenne and Arapahoe warriors ap- 
peared on the hills west of Council Grove. They came to fight the 
Kaws, against whom they had held a grudge for a long time. The 
Cheyennes were led by Little Robe. The battle took place near the 
agency on what is known as the E. W. Curtis farm. The Kaws se- 
creted themselves along the banks of Little John creek and refused 
to engage in battle in the open. The experience of the Kaws in the 
Civil War helped them as fighters. The Cheyennes were prepared 
to fight in the open, and failing to dislodge their enemies, they left. 

In 1872 Columbus Delano, Secretary of the Interior, came to the 
agency in a special railroad car to discuss removal with the Kaws. 
The chiefs and head men were called into a council to meet with 
him. A. W. Stubbs was the official interpreter. According to the 
papers of Mr. Stubbs, the secretary pictured in glowing terms the 
advantage of going to a new country where they could be near other 
tribes, especially their kinsmen, the Osages, and where wild game 



was plentiful. The secretary assured them that from the sale of 
these lands they could not only buy as good a reservation, but have 
a large surplus with which to improve homes, buy needed supplies 
for farming, and in fact live better than they had ever lived before. 
When the secretary had finished his lengthy report, Al-le-ga-wa-hu, 
the head chief, arose, deliberately folded his blanket beneath his- 
arms, then began his reply in slow and measured terms, carefully 
weighing each word. Mr. Stubbs records that this was one of the 
most earnest, eloquent, and at the same time pitiful, appeals to 
which he ever listened. It was not only a faithful portrayal of the 
previous dealings of the Indians with the whites, but was prophetic 
of what the future held in store for the people for whom their chief 
was pleading. After recounting the history of their past experi- 
ences at some length, Chief Al-le-ga-wa-hu stretched himself to his 
full height of six feet, six inches, and looking the secretary in the 
eye, vehemently declared: 

Be-che-go, great father, you treat my people like a flock of turkeys. You 
come into our dwelling places and scare us out. We fly over and alight on 
another stream, but no sooner do we get well settled than again you come 
along and drive us farther and farther. Ere long we shall find ourselves across 
the great Bah-do-Tunga (mountains) landing in the "Ne-sah-tunga" (ocean). 

The chief continued protesting against giving up the land where 
their dead were sleeping on the hill tops, where they had their fields 
and their homes. 

Al-le-ga-wa-hu was followed by others, some favoring and some 
opposing the move, and after they had all had their say the secre- 
tary spoke again. This time in an authoritative voice. He told 
them that he appreciated their attachment to their land, yet, he 
said, "It is the policy of the President, to give to the Red Men a 
country to themselves, where you can meet and mingle together free 
from the interruption of the whites and it is my duty to say to you 
that you must sell your lands here and select a new reservation in 
the Indian Territory." 

After the close of this conference, the agent was instructed to ap- 
point two commissioners to accompany a delegation of the head 
men of the tribe to look over the proposed new reserve. This re- 
serve was in the west end of the country to which the Osages had 
already been removed. Thomas H. Stanley and Uriah Spray, well- 
known friends of the Indians, were named as commissioners. A. W. 
Stubbs accompanied them as interpreter. In the midsummer of 
1872, this party, consisting of about 25, started out in covered wag- 
ons and on horseback. 


An interesting story has come down from a pioneer woman who 
lived near Cottonwood Falls, about their passing through there. 
She was making lye soap in a big iron kettle outside her house when 
three of the Indians came near the kettle and motioned that they 
wanted to eat from it. She kept shaking her head no, but could not 
make them understand her. They simply thought she was unwill- 
ing to share with them. Finally one Indian took the spoon from her 
and took a big bite. Tears came to his eyes but he never changed 
the expression on his face. He passed the spoon to the Indian next 
to him, who ate with tears in his eyes and he in turn passed it on 
to the third, who did likewise. After which they turned away and 
rejoined their party. 

Their route lay along the Arkansas river to the mouth of Beaver 
creek. Everyone was more than pleased with the country. They 
saw many wild turkeys and deer, as well as much small game. The 
Indians picked up handfuls of dirt and ran it through their fingers 
and found the land to be all that they desired. After spending a 
few days looking over the prairie country and the valley of the Big 
and Little Beaver, they drove on to Pawhuska. Here a council was 
held with the Osage chiefs and an understanding was had between 
the two tribes. Mahlon Stubbs negotiated for the purchase of 100,- 
000 acres from the Osages, and then went to Tahlequah, capital of 
the Cherokee nation, and secured a ratification of the deal by the 
Cherokee council. 

When the Indians learned of their approaching removal to the 
Indian country, there was much weeping and wailing and daily 
visits to the graves of their dead. For an hour or more at early 
dawn and at the close of the day they gave vent to their anguish 
in lamentations that could be heard for miles. 

On August 12, 1925, a monument to an unknown Kaw Indian was 
unveiled on the Haucke land overlooking the Neosho valley. Here 
were placed the remains of a Kaw chief, his horse and parapher- 
nalia. Rock for the monument was hauled from the nearby hills by 
members of the American Legion and the Boy Scouts. The Haucke 
family donated the money for its erection, which was done by local 
stone masons. It was at this service that I was made honorary 
chief of the Kaw tribe and given the name of Ga-he-gah-skeh, mean- 
ing white chief. A representative group of Kaw Indians from Okla- 
homa, headed by Ernest Thompson, took part in the ceremonies at 
the unveiling and in the adoption ceremonies. I was presented 
with a Kaw headdress, blankets and other Indian objects. A. W. 
Stubbs spoke. This monument stands as a reminder of the years 


the Kaws spent in the Neosho valley. In 1930, it was dedicated by 
Vice-President Charles Curtis. 

After my father moved to the land formerly occupied by the In- 
dians, he was kept busy reburying their dead. White men would 
come out and dig up the graves looking for treasure, which they 
never found, then would go away, leaving the bodies on top of the 

While the Indians were inspecting the new country in the Indian 
territory, Mahlon Stubbs, Indian agent; J. M. Byers of Ohio, and 
J. Lew Sharp of Council Grove, commissioners, were engaged in 
the work of appraising the Kansas reserve, diminished and trust 
lands, preparatory to opening them for sale and white settlement. 
Riding in a spring wagon, they drove back and forth across the 
country, estimating what each 40-acre tract would readily sell for. 
They were equipped with tents and cooking outfits, employed a 
cook, and camped out the three months required to complete the 
work. The stony uplands were valued at $1 per acre, the best bot- 
tom lands at $10. This averaged, on the entire 200,000 acres, about 
$3 per acre. 

Before time came for the removal, settlers became very impatient 
at the delay, and in the fall of 1872 C. V. Eskridge, then lieutenant 
governor of Kansas, headed a large delegation of Lyon county citi- 
zens and called a meeting near the mouth of Rock creek, to take 
some action to hasten the opening of the reserve. The lieutenant 
governor made a stirring appeal to his audience of several hundred 
farmers, telling of the great advantages to the Indians of having 
these fertile lands cultivated, and concluded by urging his hearers 
to move in and take possession without waiting for authority from 
Washington. Agent Stubbs had heard of the proposed invasion and 
had wired Washington for instructions. After the lieutenant gov- 
ernor finished his talk, Stubbs was called upon for a few remarks. 
He started out by saying that he would like to read them a tele- 
gram which he thought would be of interest to them. He read: 
"Keep all settlers off the Kaw Reservation, if necessary send to Fort 
Riley for troops." 

The reading of this telegram dampened the ardor of the crowd, 
whereupon Lew Sharp of Council Grove, who, with other citizens 
of Council Grove, was opposed to any "Emporiaites" taking a hand 
in settling the reserve, jumped into a wagon box and delivered a 
fiery talk in which he criticized the lieutenant governor for taking 


part in such an affair and for openly advising citizens to violate the 
law of the land. He was heartily applauded, after which the as- 
sembly broke up. 

The 42d congress appropriated $25,000 for removal purposes and 
to subsist the tribe for one year. Bob Stevens, who had been a 
contractor for the M., K. & T., tried to secure this contract for 
removal and promised Agent Stubbs a handsome profit if he would 
enter into his scheme. Mr. Stubbs spurned the proposition. I re- 
call hearing my father say what an honest and trusted man Mahlon 
Stubbs was, and how he was respected by all who knew him. 

When the time came to move the Kaws, Stubbs hired about 40 
men with teams to haul the poorer families. The other members of 
the tribe were instructed to pack their ponies as they had always 
done in going to and from the buffalo country. In this way, only 
a small amount of the $25,000 was expended. After providing sub- 
sistence, there was some $12,000 left. This was to revert to the 
United States treasury at the end of the fiscal year. 

When they reached their new reservation, the Indians found that 
no buildings had been erected for their use. The families of the 
government employees were cooking meals under the trees and 
sleeping in tents. Winter was coming on and the matter was se- 
rious. Agent Stubbs met the commissioner of Indian affairs in 
Lawrence, and told him of the situation and asked permission to 
use this sum to build buildings. He received the backing of the 
commissioner. Contracts were let and before winter set in they 
had a six-room stone house for the agent, a three-story school build- 
ing to house the children, a stone schoolroom, and a frame dwelling 
for the farmer. Some trouble was encountered in getting these bills 
settled, as it had been appropriated for removal and subsistence. 
Agent Stubbs had technically violated the law and being under 
bond had laid his bondsman liable. After several years, authorities 
viewed these buildings and sufficient proof was given so the ac- 
count was passed. 

After the Kaw Indians were removed to the territory, settlers 
were allowed to take possession of the lands. When they learned 
the price at which they had been appraised there was great dis- 
satisfaction. Very few made payments and the department at 
Washington appealed for a lower price. Through the influence of 
the politicians this appeal had its effect, and after waiting several 
years the Kaws got about half what they were promised. As a re- 


suit, the Kaws virtually exchanged their lands in Kansas for one- 
half the acreage in Indian territory.* 

After two or three weeks of visiting, receiving gifts and bidding 
their friends goodby, about five hundred Kaws left Council Grove 
for their new reservation on June 3, 1873. They were 17 days on 
the way. The Kaw agency was established at Washunga, which is 
about one mile north of the present town of Kaw City, in Kay 
county, Oklahoma. Rations of beef and other foods were issued to 
them, as well as clothing, cooking utensils and farming equipment. 
A school was established at Washunga, where Indians of other 
tribes were permitted to attend. Board and clothing were fur- 
nished to the students by the government, also medical attention; 
and a general beneficial supervision was given. The full bloods 
continued to live in their tepees and dugouts, but the half-breeds 
occupied the log houses built by the government. The Kaws did 
not care to do much farming, and raised only corn and garden 
vegetables, and those only in small patches. 

When they first reached Indian territory, the tribe would go on 
buffalo hunts. Men, women and children would make up the 
party. They traveled in wagons and on ponies and would go a 
distance of 75 to 100 miles west of the reservation. Some still 
hunted with bows and arrows, but the majority used rifles of the 
muzzle-loading type. When a buffalo was killed, they would skin 
the animal and jerk the meat, to dry and preserve it. This process 
was by cutting a narrow strip of meat until a hand hold was ob- 
tained, then the meat was pulled off in strips and hung to dry. The 
last big general hunt was started in November, 1873, and ended in 
February, 1874. They made $5,000 on the furs obtained on this 
trip. While they were on the hunt one of the Indian women gave 
birth to a son. This boy was Forrest Chouteau who later took a 
prominent part in affairs of the Kaw tribe. 

Chief Al-le-ga-wa-hu died shortly after they reached Oklahoma 
and he was succeeded by Washunga. Washunga was the last of 

Following the opening of the Kaw land for settlement, the battle between the white 
settlers began. Three men from Council Grove came down to run father off his claim. 
They told him that if he knew what was best for a "foreigner" he would leave. Father 
reached inside the door of his shack for his .44 Colt and said in no uncertain terms, "You 
had better go back to Council Grove or I will blow you to pieces." They immediately 
hurried back to Council Grove. The sheriff surmised something was up and started down 
to meet them on their return. He asked what they were up to. One replied that he 
wouldn't go back down there for all the land on the reservation. 

A little later, a man by the name of Knight filed ownership against father. Knight, a 
quasi-politician, pulled some strings and the land was awarded to him. Father wired his 
attorneys in Washington. As a result, the Secretary of the Interior held an investigation 
which resulted in the debarring of three attorneys, the firing of five clerks and U. S. Sen- 
ator Preston B. Plumb had to make a lengthy explanation. Father was awarded the land. 

When ownership was finally established on all homesteads, there was an era of corner- 
stone moving. Father remarked that half the cornerstones had been moved or thrown into 
the streams. Many surveys followed. 


the blood chiefs of the Kaws and he ruled until his death in 1908. 
Since that time leaders have been selected for the convenience of 
the tribe in handling business transactions but they still talk of 
Washunga as their last chief. 

Agent Stubbs' term expired in 1875 and his name was sent by the 
President to the senate for confirmation. Bob Stevens used his in- 
fluence with Senator Ingalls and induced him to vote against con- 
firmation. The department was surprised and wired Stubbs to come 
to Washington to fix it up with Ingalls. Senator Ingalls could not 
be changed in his vote. The department then abolished the Kaw 
agency, attached it to the Osage, and appointed Mr. Stubbs as 
superintendent in charge. He remained there until ill health made 
retirement necessary. 

On several occasions the Kaws were dissatisfied with conditions 
in general and sent delegations to consult with the authorities in 
Washington. In 1878 A. W. Stubbs took a young chief by the name 
of Eagle Plume to Washington to see if something could not be 
done to alleviate the condition of the Kaws. Being without funds 
for the trip, Eagle Plume gave entertainments at several points en 
route. From the donations received, he and Mr. Stubbs were able 
to reach Washington. They were given the audience they desired 
and their expenses home were allowed by the government. While 
in Washington they attended the open house given by the Presi- 

In less than ten years after the Kaws paid for their reservation, 
the government entered upon a vigorous policy of dissolving reser- 
vations in the western half of Indian territory. From 1890 to 1893 
the Cherokee commission negotiated 11 agreements. By these 
agreements about 12,000 Indians sold their reservations to the gov- 
ernment and received allotments as part of their consideration for 
relinquishment. These surplus lands were then opened to white 
settlers. The Indians on the Osage, Kaw, Ponca, Otoe and Missouri 
reservations had acquired their titles by purchase, therefore were 
able to resist successfully the offers and threats of the commission. 
Agent Miles, of the Osage agency to which the Kaws were assigned, 
said in 1890 that the Kaws opposed taking allotments because they 
felt it would deprive them of the lands which they had paid for. In 
1892 a group of mixed bloods expressed their desire to take allot- 
ments and insisted on having 160 acres per capita set apart for 
them. At this time there were only 125 full bloods. The Kaws held 
their lands in common. Each could occupy as much land as he de- 
sired. In 1899 the agent reported that some of the more intelligent 


and ambitious members of the tribe were taking advantage of the 
others and were taking over large areas. Finally the Kaws got to- 
gether and decided to take their allotment. No doubt the fact that 
the half-breeds outnumbered the full bloods was a deciding factor. 
On August 24, 1900, the national council passed unanimously a res- 
olution which read: 

Whereas certain interests peculiar to the Kaw Tribe of Indians both of land 
and money [are] now pending before the Department at Washington, Be it 
therefore resolved by the Kaw Council this day in Session that we respectfully 
urge the Hon. Secretary of the Interior Through the Hon. Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs to allow a delegation of four (4) from the Kaw tribe to wit: 
Wah-Shun-Gah, Governor, Forrest Chouteau Councilman, W. E. Hardy, Sec. 
and Achan Pappan Interpreter to visit Washington at the convenience of the 
Hon. Secretary of the Interior for the purpose as above stated, and that the 
expense of said delegation be paid from the Kaw Tribal Funds. 

Charles Curtis played quite a part in the matter. From Topeka 
on September 10 he wrote the commissioner of Indian affairs re- 
minding him of his promise to receive this delegation in Washing- 
ton, if the Kaws passed such a resolution. Permission was granted 
and the group visited Washington. Later, a special investigator 
was sent out and he recommended that all the lands be allotted. 
Each member was permitted to select 160 acres for a home. In 
1901 the agent reported that all the Kaws had made their selections 
of land. On December 16 of that year Curtis submitted to the of- 
fice of Indian affairs a resolution of the tribal council dated De- 
cember 12, 1901, requesting the government to resurvey the reser- 
vation so each member could make his selection. Many of the 
cornerstones of the survey of 30 years previous had been removed. 
On February 7 Walter E. Strumph was instructed to make the 

That same year the Kaws proposed to make an agreement for the 
division of their lands, distribution of their funds and the sale of 
their landed interests in Kansas. On January 15, Washunga, in 
reply to a letter from Curtis, stated that he preferred that a delega- 
tion be sent to Washington and asked that seven Kaws be allowed 
to come and treat with the government for final disposition of their 
matters. Curtis transmitted this letter to the commissioner of In- 
dian affairs, asking the granting of this request, and suggested that 
the following should go: Chief Washunga, Forrest Chouteau, Wah- 
noh-o-e-ke, Wm. Hardy, Mitchell Fronkier, Akan Pappan and W. 
E. Hardy. This request was granted. A general council was held 
February 1, 1902, and the seven named in Curtis' letter were elected 
by a majority vote. They were empowered to enter into any agree- 


ment which they thought to be in the best interests of the tribe. 
On February 8 an agreement was signed. This agreement was the 
product of Curtis' pen and was known as "Agreement of the Kansas 
or Kaw Indians of Oklahoma Territory among themselves relative 
to their tribal lands and funds, and memorial to Congress/' 

According to this agreement the roll of the tribe as shown by 
records of the local Indian agent December 1, 1901, was declared 
to be the roll of the tribe. This also listed all descendants of mem- 
bers born between that date and December 1, 1902. There was 
to be set apart to each member of the tribe 160 acres of land for a 
homestead, which, with certain provisions, was not to be taxable, 
and was to be inalienable for a period of 25 years from January 1, 
1903. Those that had already selected homesteads were to be per- 
mitted to retain them, and others were given 30 days in which to 
make their selections. 

After the selections had been made, the remaining Kaw lands in 
Oklahoma territory were to be divided equally, with certain provi- 
sions, among members of the tribe, giving to each the same number 
of acres of farming and grazing land as near to his homestead as 
possible. The land set aside, other than homesteads, should be 
tax free while held by them, not to exceed 25 years. It was not to 
be sold or encumbered for a period of ten years. The uninherited 
lands of minors should be inalienable during their minority. 

The division of the land was to be left entirely to the Indians and 
their agent. It was to be the duty of the agent and the clerk in 
charge of the subagency, together with a committee of three mem- 
bers of the tribe to be selected by the agent, clerk and tribal coun- 
cil, to divide the surplus lands. The head chief of the tribe was to 
be furnished deeds by the Secretary of the Interior and he in turn 
was to execute the deeds. The agent was to deliver them to mem- 
bers of the tribe. Each member was entitled to a separate deed 
for lands given as a homestead. An approved deed operated as a 
relinquishment to the individual member of all right, title and in- 
terest of the United States and Kaw tribe in and to lands embraced 
therein. Disputes among members of the tribe as to selection of 
land were to be settled by the agent. 

The Kaws ceded to the United States 160 acres including the 
grounds of the school and agency buildings. The government was 
to maintain a school there for at least ten years. Twenty acres were 
to be reserved for a cemetery. Eighty acres at Washunga were to 
be set aside as a townsite, to be laid off in lots and sold at auction. 

The Secretary of the Interior was to be empowered, in his discre- 


tion and at the request of any member of the tribe, to issue a cer- 
tificate to such member authorizing the sale of any or all of his 
lands, and the acquisition of a pro rata share of the funds of the 
tribe. The member was to have the right to manage and dispose 
of his property the same as any other citizen, but his lands should 
be subject to taxation, and his name would be dropped from the 
rolls of the tribe. 

On February 21, 1902, Agent Mitscher transmitted the agreement 
to Commissioner Jones with his approval. On March 10, the agree- 
ment was transmitted to the house of representatives and was in- 
corporated in an act of congress. 

Agent Mitscher felt this was a good move because "a community 
of interests tends to dependence, carelessness, indifference, shift- 
lessness and downright laziness." 

On February 23, 1903, Mitscher forwarded to the office of Indian 
affairs a complete or final roll of the tribe with the names of 247 
persons, 11 children having been born between June 20 and Decem- 
ber 1. This was approved March 24. Homestead allotments cov- 
ered 39,670 acres. 

The Kaw allotment commission was made up of Mitscher, Edson 
Watson, the clerk, Chief Washunga, Forrest Chouteau and Wm. 
Hardy. The commission passed a resolution that these members 
be paid $4 per day and the same for an interpreter. This to be 
paid from tribal funds. 

The division of the surplus land was started on April 8 and was 
completed by the 17th. A total of 60,263 acres was allotted to 247 
allottees, or about 245 acres to each, in addition to the homestead 
of 160 acres. 

In the agreement drawn up by Curtis and incorporated in an act 
of congress, it was designated that all claims which the Kaws might 
have against the government should be submitted to a commission 
to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior; and that the gov- 
ernment should render to the tribe a complete accounting of all 
monies agreed to be paid to them which they were entitled to under 
any treaty. This commission was appointed, with Wm. C. Braly, 
Chas. J. Groseclose and Ed. Fox, the members. 

Samuel J. Crawford, former governor of Kansas, was the attorney 
of record for the Kaws. His principal application was for money 
due the Kaws as evidenced by various certificates of indebtedness, 
or script transactions, concerning lands in Kansas. The committee 
reported that the Kaws were entitled to $155,976.88. On November 
26, 1904, the tribe agreed to this. An act of March 3, 1905, pro- 


vided for the payment of this amount to the Kaws, stipulating that 
the Kaws should deliver to the government a general release of all 
claims and demands of every name and nature against the United 
States. On April 22, 1905, a general council of the Kaws was held. 
There were 45 signatures on the release, and none opposed it. The 
first signers were Chief Washunga, Wah-mo-o-e-ke, Forrest Chou- 
teau, Wm. Hardy, Mitchell Fronkier, W. E. Hardy and Charles 

In 1923 oil was discovered on some of the lands held by minor 
allottees. On February 13, Curtis introduced in the senate a bill 
providing that the period of restriction against alienation on surplus 
lands allotted to minor members of the Kaw tribe be extended for 
a period of 25 years in all cases where the allottees had not reached 
the age of majority. On March 4 the bill became a law. There 
were now on the reservation 420 Kaws, of whom 77 were full bloods. 

Curtis took a homestead about a mile north of Washunga. His 
share of the surplus lands was 259 acres. His daughters had ad- 
joining homesteads and his son had a homestead southwest of theirs. 

Restrictions against alienation of surplus lands expired in 1928 
and restrictions on homesteads in 1948. Due to sales, etc., the 
tribal acreage in 1945 was 13,261. The Kaws numbered 544, of 
whom 314 resided at the agency. 

In an article in the Wichita Eagle in 1932 it was stated that only 
two members of the Kaw tribe, other than the immediate family of 
Charles Curtis, held the original land allotted at the time the reser- 
vation was divided. In addition to the Vice-President, his sister, 
Mrs. Colvin, and her two sons, held allotments. Seven members of 
the Curtis family owned 2,800 acres. Ernest Thompson and Mrs. 
Raymond Bellmard were the only other Kaws still retaining their 
land at that time. 

In the latter part of September of 1951, the Indian claims com- 
mission ruled that the federal government owed the Kaw Indians 
$2,493,688.75 for land the tribe once owned. It was ruled that the 
amount the tribe received for its land was so grossly inadequate as 
to constitute an unconscionable consideration. It was the payment 
for the release in 1905 that the government found so inadequate. 

This past summer we made several trips to Kaw City to learn as 
much as possible about the remainder of the tribe, where located, 
etc. After practically each inquiry we were told to visit Forrest 
Chouteau, who is now living in Newkirk, Okla. We made several 
trips to Newkirk and enjoyed on these occasions the hospitality of 
his home. Forrest Chouteau is the son of Peter Chouteau, who 


lived on the reservation at Council Grove, and his mother is a full- 
blood Kaw by the name of Wysaw. Peter Chouteau served three 
years in the Civil War. It was then that he took the name of Chou- 

The Forrest Chouteaus have several children. Forrest attended 
the government school at Washunga and later was a disciplinarian 
and industrial teacher there. Pie also served as postmaster at Wa- 
shunga. His wife is an Oneida Indian and was laundry supervisor 
at Washunga when she met Forrest. Forrest Chouteau has always 
been a leader in the tribe and has made many trips to Washington 
in their interest. 

The Chouteaus have a very comfortable home in Newkirk and 
take an active part in church affairs. Forrest is a 32d degree Mason. 
His children have positions of responsibility in industry and govern- 
ment. One daughter is employed by the collector of revenue in 
Wichita. Their home has all the refinements of any typical Ameri- 
can home. We asked Mr. Chouteau if he was sorry that the Indians 
didn't roam the plains as in the past. He said, "No, I like this," 
pointing to his home, "just press the button and you have lights." 

Mr. Chouteau told us that there were only 25 Kaw full bloods 
left. In Kaw City we visited with the remaining members of the 
tribe and renewed friendships with those who had attended our 
celebration in Council Grove in 1925. 

John Hoeffer of Kaw City kindly gave us an oil painting of Wa- 
shunga for the museum. 

Ernest Thompson, now deceased, one of the Kaw Indians who 
had oil on his land, did much to help the Kaws. Many of his Kaw 
relics have been placed in a museum in the library at Ponca City. 

We visited Washunga and viewed the old agency buildings, now 
falling apart. In the cemetery we found a fine monument on the 
grave of Chief Washunga and many other Kaw graves with fine 

There is one blanket Indian left among the Kaws, Silas Conn. He 
still wears his hair in braids and is blind. Most any day he can be 
seen on the streets of Kaw City or Washunga or on his daily walk 
between the two. 

Following the address of the president, Kirke Mechem reviewed 
briefly his 21 years as secretary of the Society. He spoke of the 
more important accomplishments of that period and of the organi- 
zation's expanding activities; also of the less serious aspects of its 
work. In closing he paid tribute to the many friends who had been 
of assistance, to the legislators who had supported the Society with 


appropriations, to the directors and executive committee, and to 
members of the staff. 

John S. Dawson spoke in appreciation of Mr. Mechem's years of 
service to the Society. 

The following memorials to Milton R. McLean and Charles H. 
Browne were read by Wilford Riegle: 


The death of Brig. Gen. Milton R. McLean, adjutant general of Kansas, on 
April 17, 1951, ended the career of one of the most useful citizens the state of 
Kansas ever had. General McLean was a gentleman in the highest sense of 
the word. He was courteous, but efficient and firm. And even in the last years 
of his life, though plagued with constant ill health, he never lost that quiet 
dignity that marked his lifetime of service. 

The general was born in Clinton," 111., on December 9, 1874. After gradu- 
ating from the high school at Havana, 111., he attended Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Chicago. At the age of 15 years, he was employed as a telegrapher by 
the Illinois Central railroad and spent four years with that company. 

Coming to Kansas in 1894, General McLean found employment as book- 
keeper in a Wellington bank, later being promoted to cashier. In addition he 
took an active part in Wellington's civic affairs and served as treasurer of the 
board of education for 20 years. He continued his employment in the bank 
until the National Guard began active preparation for federal service in 1917. 

Though the National Guard first engaged General McLean's attention as a 
hobby, it gradually became his life's work. He was appointed captain in the 
signal corps in November, 1907. In 1915 he was made major of the inspector 
general's department. Two years later, he was transferred to the signal corps. 
During World War I, after graduation from the army signal school at Langre, 
France, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and assigned as signal officer of 
the 35th infantry division. 

Separated from the service on June 6, 1919, McLean was commissioned as 
a major in the inspector general's department, Kansas National Guard, and 
almost immediately thereafter he was named the assistant adjutant general of 
Kansas. Promotion to brigadier general came with his appointment to the 
position of adjutant general on February 10, 1925. 

It got so that it made no difference whether a Republican or Democrat was 
elected governor, for General McLean, as adjutant general, won such universal 
confidence and respect that for many years his reappointment became a habit. 
He was a member of the committee on arrangements at many inaugural cere- 
monies. He served as treasurer of the National Guard Association for nearly 
30 years. 

General McLean set up and directed the operation of machinery for draft- 
ing thousands of Kansans for World War II and the Korean war. His selective 
service work was constantly praised by the national authorities. He was 
founder of the Kansas Safety Council and was active in organization for civil 

In 1925 General McLean took out a life membership in the Historical So- 
ciety. He was for the past ten years a member of the executive committee and 


in 1946-1947 was the Society's president. The general never failed to give of 
his time and services to further the interests of his adopted state. 

General McLean was also a Past Grand Commander of the Grand Command- 
ery of Knights Templar of Kansas, and was a member of various other Ma- 
sonic bodies. 

Though the fine old soldier is dead, the excellence of his work and the ex- 
emplary qualities of his life will always be remembered. 


The death of Gen. Charles H. Browne of Horton, on June 13, 1951, was a 
shock to the entire state. He had been an active member of this Society since 
1907, a member of the board of directors continuously since 1933, and served 
as president in 1941-1942. He was one of the last of the old school of soldiers- 
editors-statesmen which included such distinguished Kansans as D. R. Anthony, 
M. M. Beck, Preston B. Plumb, John A. Martin, M. M. Murdock, Noble L. 
Prentice, and Eugene F. Ware. 

Charles Browne was a man of strong personality, able, intelligent, and de- 
voted to the things that he believed would contribute to a better city, state 
and nation. As a newspaperman who owned his paper, he was in a position to 
make his views known and his influence felt throughout the state. 

He learned the publishing business under his uncle, Ewing Herbert of 
Hiawatha, and later worked for a time on the Atchison Champion when its 
editor was Jay House. In 1907 he acquired his own paper, the Horton Head- 
light, and was its editor and publisher from that time until his death. 

Three times Charles H. Browne left his newspaper to enter military service, 
first in the Mexican border "incident" of 1916, and again in World Wars I 
and II. In 1916 he had been a member of the First infantry regiment of the 
Kansas National Guard for eleven years, and he had moved up through the, 
noncommissioned ranks to the first step in the commissioned officers' corps, 
second lieutenant. During the first World War he was commander of Com- 
pany E, 139th infantry regiment, which fought at St. Mihiel and in the Argonne 
Forest. After that war he returned to private life with the rank of major, but 
almost immediately was called to help in the reorganization and training of 
the Kansas National Guard. In 1921 he was made colonel of the 137th in- 
fantry the youngest full colonel Kansas has ever had in the National Guard. 
He commanded this regiment for 21 years, leading it to Camp Robinson, Ark., 
in 1940 when it was called into federal service, and retiring in 1941 only after 
protesting vigorously the decision of the army's doctors that his health could 
not stand the rigors of active military service. Even then he could not retire 
completely to civilian life. In 1942 he accepted a call from the governor to 
organize and train another infantry regiment, to be known as the Kansas State 
Guard. For this work he was promoted to brigadier general, the rank which 
he held at his death. 

In addition to his long service as a citizen soldier, Charles Browne gave his 
time and effort to many other causes. His interest in the history of his state, 
demonstrated as a member and officer of this Society, was only one of many 
interests. He was a leader in Republican political organizations. He was 
active in patriotic and veterans' organizations as well as in civic and social 
groups. In every move for a better community his personal influence and the 


influence of his newspaper could always be counted on. Kansas has lost in 
him one of her finest and most upright citizens. He will be long remembered 
by his friends. 

Mr. Riegle moved that the memorials be spread on the records 
of the Society and that copies be sent to members of the families. 
The motion was seconded by Joseph C. Shaw. 

The report of the committee on nominations was called for: 


September 26, 1951. 
To the Kansas State Historical Society: 

Your committee on nominations submits the following report and recom- 
mendations for directors of the Society for the term of three years ending 
October, 1954: 

Bailey, Roy F., Salina. - McArthur, Mrs. Vernon E., 

Beezley, George F., Girard. Hutchinson. 

Bowlus, Thomas H., lola. McFarland, Helen M., Topeka. 

Brinkerhoff, Fred W., Pittsburg. Malone, James, Topeka. 

Campbell, Mrs. Spurgeon B., Mechem, Kirke, Topeka. 

Kansas City. Mueller, Harrie S., Wichita. 

Cron, F. H., El Dorado. Philip, Mrs. W. D., Hays. 

Ebright, Homer K., Baldwin. Rankin, Robert C., Lawrence. 

Farrell, F. D., Manhattan. Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell. 

Gray, John M., Kirwin. Sayers, Wm. L., Hill City. 

Hamilton, R. L., Beloit. Simons, W. C., Lawrence. 

Harger, Charles M., Abilene. Skinner, Alton H., Kansas City. 

Harvey, Mrs. A. M., Topeka. Stanley, W. E., Wichita. 

Haucke, Frank, Council Grove. Stone, Robert, Topeka. 

Hodges, Frank, Olathe. Taft, Robert, Lawrence. 

Lingenfelser, Angelus, Atchison. Templar, George, Arkansas City. 

Long, Richard M., Wichita. Trembly, W. B., Kansas City. 

W T oodring, Harry H., Topeka. 
Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN S. DAWSON, Chairman. 

On motion by John S. Dawson, seconded by W. F. Thompson, 
the report of the committee was accepted unanimously and the 
members of the board were declared elected for the term ending 
in October, 1954. 

There being no further business, the annual meeting of the So- 
ciety adjourned. 

Refreshments were served in the secretary's office at the close of 
the meeting. Mrs. Frank Haucke presided. 




The afternoon meeting of the board of directors was called to 
order by President Haucke. He asked for a rereading of the report 
of the nominating committee for officers of the Society. The re- 
port was read by John S. Dawson, chairman, who moved that it be 
accepted. Motion was seconded by Mrs. W. D. Philip and the fol- 
lowing were unanimously elected: 

For a one-year term: William T. Beck, Holton, president; Robert 
Taft, Lawrence, first vice-president; Angelo Scott, lola, second vice- 

For a two-year term: Nyle H. Miller, Topeka, secretary. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 



Barr, Frank, Wichita. 
Berryman, Jerome C., Ashland. 
Brigham, Mrs. Lalla M., Council 


Brock, R. F., Goodland. 
Bumgardner, Edward, Lawrence. 
Correll, Charles M., Manhattan. 
Davis, W. W., Lawrence. 
Denious, Jess C., Dodge City. 
Fay, Mrs. Mamie Axline, Pratt. 
Godsey, Mrs. Flora R., Emporia. 
Hall, Mrs. Carrie A., Leavenworth. 
Hall, Standish, Wichita. 
Hegter, Ben F., Wichita. 
Jones, Horace, Lyons. 
Lillard, T. M., Topeka. 
Lindquist, Emory K., Lindsborg. 

Lindsley, H. K., Wichita. 
Means, Hugh, Lawrence. 
Norton, Gus S., Kalvesta. 
Owen, Arthur K., Topeka. 
Owen, Mrs. E. M., Lawrence. 
Patrick, Mrs. Mae C., Satanta. 
Payne, Mrs. L. F., Manhattan. 
Riegle, Wilford, Emporia. 
Rupp, Mrs. Jane C., Lincolnville. 
Scott, Angelo, lola. 
Sloan, E. R., Topeka. 
Smelser, Mary M., Lawrence. 
Stewart, Mrs. James G., Topeka. 
Van De Mark, M. V. B., Concordia^ 
Wark, George H., Caney. 
Williams, Charles A., Bentley. 
Wooster, Lorraine E., Salina. 


Aitchison, R. T., Wichita. 
Anderson, George L., Lawrence. 
Anthony, D. R., Leavenworth. 
Baugher, Charles A., Ellis. 
Beck, Will T., Holton. 
Capper, Arthur, Topeka. 
Carson, F. L., Wichita. 
Chambers, Lloyd, Wichita. 
Chandler, C. J., Wichita. 
Cotton, Corlett J., Lawrence. 
Dawson, John S., Hill City. 
Euwer, Elmer E., Goodland. 
Farley, Alan W., Kansas City. 
Hobble, Frank A., Dodge City. 
Hogin, John C., Belleville. 
Hunt, Charles L., Concordia. 
Knapp, Dallas W., Coffeyville. 

Lilleston, W. F., Wichita. 
Malin, James C., Lawrence. 
Mayhew, Mrs. Patricia Solander, 


Miller, Karl, Dodge City. 
Moore, Russell, Wichita. 
Raynesford, H. C., Ellis. 
Redmond, John, Burlington. 
Rodkey, Clyde K., Manhattan. 
Russell, W. J., Topeka. 
Shaw, Joseph C., Topeka. 
Somers, John G., Newton. 
Stewart, Donald, Independence. 
Thomas, E. A., Topeka. 
Thompson, W. F., Topeka. 
Van Tuyl, Mrs. Effie H., Leavenworth. 
Walker, Mrs. Ida M., Norton. 




Bailey, Roy F., Salina. 
Beezley, George F., Girard. 
Bowlus, Thomas H., lola. 
Brinkerhoff, Fred W., Pittsburg. 
Campbell, Mrs. Spurgeon B., 

Kansas City. 
Cron, F. H., El Dorado. 
Ebright, Homer K., Baldwin. 
Farrell, F. D., Manhattan. 
Gray, John M., Kirwin. 
Hamilton, R. L., Beloit. 
Harger, Charles M., Abilene. 
Harvey, Mrs. A. M., Topeka. 
Haucke, Frank, Council Grove. 
Hodges, Frank, Olathe. 
Lingenfelser, Angelus, Atchison. 
Long, Richard M., Wichita. 

McArthur, Mrs. Vernon E., Hutchinson. 

McFarland, Helen M., Topeka. 

Malone, James, Topeka. 

Mechem, Kirke, Topeka. 

Mueller, Harrie S., Wichita. 

Philip, Mrs. W. D., Hays. 

Rankin, Robert C., Lawrence. 

Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell. 

Sayers, Wm. L., Hill City. 

Simons, W. C., Lawrence. 

Skinner, Alton H., Kansas City. 

Stanley, W. E., Wichita. 

Stone, Robert, Topeka. 

Taft, Robert, Lawrence. 

Templar, George, Arkansas City. 

Trembly, W. B., Kansas City. 

Woodring, Harry H., Topeka. 


Bypaths of Kansas History 


IN 1879 

From the Lakin Eagle, August 22, 1879. 

What queer ideas eastern people have of things in general out west. The 
editorial excursion that halted at Dodge yesterday, were wonderfully inquisitive 
when they beheld a large ox train standing near the depot ready for their 
trip south. The greatest curiosity was manifested by these people from the 
east. While some were endeavoring to ascertain the number of oxen hitched 
to one wagon and began counting the animals up one side and down the other 
others were speculating how it was possible to get the yoke on these cattle 
with such extended horns, but when told that they had been yoked when quite 
young, they appeared perfectly satisfied, and were quite certain it was next 
to improbability to place yokes on oxen with horns six feet from tip to tip. 
Another was closely scrutinizing the wheels of the wagon, making measure- 
ments of the fore wheels and comparing the measurement with the hind 
wheels, which he found were considerable the largest. Just what particular 
ideas run through his mind we are unable to guess unless it was how those 
small wheels could keep out of the way of the larger ones. Still another 
picked up one of the drivers long whips, and as he had had early training in 
driving his father's oxen while turning over the virgin soil of Indiana, he of 
course could not resist the temptation of giving an exhibition of his skill in 
handling a bull whip. 

The first sweep he made raked three bonnets and two plug hats besides 
twisting the lash around his own neck several times, which came very near 
choking him to death he lost no time in extracting himself and getting to the 
car, where, no doubt, he was severely censured by the ladies and gentlemen 
for his actions. Ford County Globe. 

Yes, what funny nonsensical ideas Easternites do have of "out-west." 

While stopping at Lakin for dinner, some surmised perhaps that even 
victuals were furnished free, and they ate accordingly; and after the conductor 
having waited twenty-five minutes longer than the usual time, hallooed "all 
aboard," a burly Hoosierite, who, from his outward appearance had already 
taken down an over-sufficiency, remarked: 

"Say conductor, it was agreed that we have plenty of time to get our meals, 
and I ain't fairly commenced yet!" 

Another who saw a slow move of the train which was pulling ahead 
to get more water no doubt to quench the thirst of the weary traveler on his 
farther sojourn, was about to yell, "hold on!" when his immense understand- 
ing covered by a pair of box-toe styled number twelves, struck a clod of ye 
hard "virgin soil," plunging his helpless remains head-long into a pool of mud, 
not more than fifteen feet distant from him, terribly dilapidating a fine plug 
hat, and shamefully plastering his uncommonly huge proboscis. 

The third sincerely wanted to know whether it was not "lonesome" out 



here? How could it be when we are almost constantly entertained by similar 
preliminaries as the above? 

Notwithstanding "all in all," we were led to believe that the growing and 
yet forthcoming "Hoosier Press" will be vastly appreciated, as we noticed 
some very handsome and intelligent looking young lady typographers in the 
"out-fit," and to those who took occasion to grace our small sanctum we feel 
very thankful. 

When ye take another excursion brethern, take with ye a pilot who will 
guide you safely through; an interpreter who can demonstrate to you fully 
those many encumbrances that ye are liable to encounter on such an occasion, 
and don't fail to bring with ye a "Baron Rothschild" with lots of ready money, 
for those who erred so ignominiously. 


From the Salina Evening Journal, May 10, 1916. 


State Auditor Surprised When Hussey's Bill for Good Book Was Presented 
Topeka, May 10 Of course if Lew T. Hussey, state fire marshal, wants to 
spend $1.25 of the state's funds for a Bible, W. E. Davis, state auditor, prob- 
ably will not turn down the voucher. But when the said voucher was pre- 
sented at the auditor's office today without a word of explanation Davis' 
curiosity was aroused. 

"Now I wonder what Hussey wants with a Bible in his office," mused 
Davis. "Of course, as state fire marshal he is always fighting fire. But he 
hasn't said anything about using the Bible in his war against fire loss." 
So Davis sat down and wrote the following letter to Hussey: 
"I have the voucher which you have approved for the purchase of one 
Bible. This item is so unusual that I believe some explanation should be re- 
quested. I am returning you the voucher and would be pleased to have you 
indorse thereon the purpose for which the Book is to be used in the work of 
your department." 

While no official explanation is forthcoming from Hussey's office, it is 
understood that his able and resourceful assistant, Imri Zumwalt of Bonner 
Springs, intends to use quotations from the Bible to send out dope urging 
all good citizens to fight the fire loss. The voucher will probably be allowed 
in the long run. In fact, Davis says there are several other departments for 
which he would be glad to approve vouchers for the purchase of Bibles, if 
the heads of the departments would agree to read all the Ten Commandments 
and the Golden Rule. 

Kansas History as Published in the Press 

Part 3 of "The Geography of Kansas/' by Walter H. Schoewe, and 
"Kansas Flood Producing Rains of 1951," by R. A. Garrett, were 
included in the September, 1951, issue of Transactions of the Kansas 
Academy of Science, Lawrence. Some items of Kansas history of 
1871 were recalled by Editor Robert Taft in the December issue. 
In that year the Kansas Natural History Society became The Kansas 
Academy of Science. Also in the December number were the 
Transactions' annual list of Kansas college enrollments and "A Geo- 
graphic Study of Population and Settlement Changes in Sherman 
County, Kansas/' by Walter M. Koolmorgen and George F. Jenks. 

Ernest Dewey's column of historical stories and legends has con- 
tinued to appear regularly in the Hutchinson News-Herald. Some 
of the recent articles included: "Dry Dust Has Buried Mysteries 
[Disappearance of Early-Day Travelers on the Prairie] Forever/' 
September 16, 1951; "The Winning of the West Was Not Entirely a 
Masculine Job/' October 7; "Dick [Broadwell] Did Well, But It 
Wasn't in Cattle," a sketch of a member of the Dalton gang, No- 
vember 4; "A Pioneer Pathfinder [Jedediah Smith] Buried in Lost 
Grave," November 18; "Gunman Ed [Prather] Tried to Run His 
Luck Too Long," November 25, and stories of Asa T. Soule, who 
established the town of Ingalls and built a 96-mile irrigation ditch 
on the Arkansas river, January 6, 13, 1952. 

The Hoisington Dispatch, September 20, 1951, printed a history 
of the Hoisington Methodist church. In 1887 the Rev. F. F. Bern- 
storf came to Hoisington and began the organization. Work was 
begun on the first church building in 1889. 

The High Plains Journal, Dodge City, has continued to publish 
Heinie Schmidt's historical column, "It's Worth Repeating." Among 
recent articles were: "Offerle, Our Neighbor to the East," Septem- 
ber 27, 1951; "The Glory That Was Santa Fe [Kansas]," October 18, 
25; "Mount Jesus, an Early-Day Landmark on the Ft. Dodge-Camp 
Sully Trail," November 8; "The Dalton Hangout and the Cimarron 
Holdup," December 13; "Sixty-Sixth Anniversary of White Fury 
From the Sky," a history of the blizzard of 1886, January 3, 1952; 
"Site of a Hodgeman County Ghost Town Recalls Unfilled Dream 
of Pioneers," the story of Morton City, an all-Negro settlement, by 
E. W. Harlan, January 10, and "Slaves Find Freedom in Morton, 
Now Hodgeman Co. Ghost Town," January 17. 


Kansas Historical Notes 

Officers recently elected by the Russell County Historical Society 
were: John G. Deines, president; Judge J. C. Ruppenthal and 
Luther D. Landon, vice-presidents; Merlin Morphy, secretary; A. J. 
Olson, treasurer, and Mrs. Dora H. Morrison, director. 

Dr. Edward Bumgardner, Lawrence, was the featured speaker at 
the September 26, 1951, meeting of the Shawnee Mission Indian 
Historical Society of northeast Johnson county. Newly elected offi- 
cers of the society are: Mrs. James Glenn Bell, president, Mrs. 
Homer Bair, 1st vice-president; Mrs. David M. Huber, 2d vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. Tom Davis, recording secretary; Mrs. John Blake, cor- 
responding secretary; Mrs. Chas. Houlehan, treasurer; Mrs. Kenneth 
Carbaugh, historian; Mrs. C. L. Curry, curator; Mrs. A. M. Meyers, 
chaplain, and Mrs. John Barkley, parliamentarian. 

A group of 265 Kiowa county pioneers attended the annual Old 
Settlers Day party in Greensburg October 4, 1951. Purple ribbons 
were awarded to 81, indicating over 60 years in the county. Officers 
chosen for the coming year included: Will Sluder, president; C. E. 
Freeman, 1st vice-president; Robert Parkin, 2d vice-president; Mrs. 
Benjamin Weaver, secretary, and Mrs. L. V. Keller, treasurer. The 
Kiowa County Historical Society is going ahead with plans to build 
a memorial museum in the Big Well park in Greensburg. Several 
sizable donations have already been received. 

Mrs. Mary Ellen Smith Dorsey was elected president of the Clark 
County Historical Society at the annual meeting and pioneer mixer 
in Ashland, October 27, 1951. Other officers elected included: Paul 
Randall, vice-president; Mrs. Charles McCasland and Jerome C. 
Berryman, honorary vice-presidents; Melville Campbell Harper, 
recording secretary; Rhea Gross, corresponding secretary; William 
Moore, treasurer; Mrs. Dorothy Berryman Shrewder, historian; Mrs. 
Bertha McCreery Gabbert, curator, and Myron G. Stevenson, audi- 
tor. Speaker at the meeting was Heinie Schmidt of Dodge City, 
who spoke on the purpose and need of local historical societies. 

Nyle Miller, secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, dis- 
cussed the writing of the four constitutions for Kansas at the annual 
meeting of the Riley County Historical Association, October 29, 
1951. Dr. C. W. McCampbell was elected president of the organi- 



zation. Other officers chosen included: Alvin Springer, vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. Max Wolf, secretary, and Joe Haines, treasurer. Di- 
rectors elected were Bruce Wilson, Mrs. Eva Knox and Dr. George 
Filinger. C. A. Kimball was the retiring president. 

B. H. Oesterreich, Woodbine, was chosen president of the Dickin- 
son County Historical Society at the October 31, 1951, meeting in 
Chapman. Other officers elected were: Mrs. Viola Ehrsam, Enter- 
prise, 1st vice-president, and Mrs. Lawrence Kehler, Solomon, sec- 
retary. All were elected for two-year terms of office. Included on 
the program were papers on the history of Chapman, churches of 
Chapman and the Dickinson county high school. 

The first annual meeting of the Comanche County Historical So- 
ciety was held in Protection, November 5, 1951. Willis Shattuck, 
Ashland, pioneer of Clark county, gave an address on "Pioneering, 
Then and Now." The officers of the society were re-elected. They 
are: Warren P. Morton, Coldwater, president; Fred Denney, Pro- 
tection, vice-president; Mrs. Nellie Riner, Protection, recording 
secretary; Mrs. Lillian Lyon, Coldwater, corresponding secretary, 
and F. H. Moberley, Wilmore, treasurer. 

A dinner meeting of the Wyandotte County Historical Society 
was held November 6, 1951, with Nyle Miller, secretary of the Kan- 
sas State Historical Society, as the principal speaker. Officers were 
elected as follows: Alan W. Farley, president; Stanley B. Richards, 
1st vice-president; Grant Harrington, 2d vice-president; Sixten 
Shogran, secretary, and Harry Hanson, treasurer. Clifford R. Mill- 
sap was the retiring president. 

Dr. Ernest Mahan was elected president of the Crawford County 
Historical Society at the annual meeting in Pittsburg November 8, 
1951. Other officers chosen were: Prof. L. E. Curfman, vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. Mae Stroud, secretary, and Mrs. William Walker, treas- 
urer. Directors elected were: Oscar Anderson, Mrs. Cecil Gregg 
and Mrs. Viola Holroyd. Ralph Shideler was the retiring president. 
The Rev. Harold R. Karnes gave an illustrated lecture at the meeting 
on the building of King Solomon's temple. 

The Stevens County Historical Society was organized at a meeting 
in Hugoton November 15, 1951, under the sponsorship of the Hugo- 
ton Woman's Club. Mrs. Ben Parsons was elected president. Edith 
Thomson was elected vice-president and Margaret Morgan secre- 
tary-treasurer. Speakers at the meeting were Nolan McWhirter, 


curator of the No-Man's Land Historical Museum, Goodwell, Okla., 
and Heinie Schmidt, Dodge City. 

M. N. Penny was elected president of the Lawrence Historical 
Society at the annual meeting December 4, 1951. Other officers 
elected were: Lathrop B. Read, Jr., vice-president; Mrs. L. H. 
Menger, secretary, and R. B. Stevens, treasurer. Members of the 
board of directors are: Dolph Simons, Mrs. E. M. Owen, Maud 
Smelser, Shipman Winter, Jr., and Mrs. Robert Haggart. Principal 
speaker at the meeting was Nyle Miller, secretary of the Kansas 
State Historical Society, who spoke on early Kansas newspapers and 
journalism. A permanent historical museum in the city building is 
planned for Lawrence. Members of a city historical committee, 
appointed by City Manager James Wigglesworth to gather and 
preserve historical items, are: Walter Varnum, chairman; R. B. 
Stevens, secretary, and Mrs. E. M. Owen, Maud Smelser and Arthur 
B. Weaver. 

John S. Dawson was the principal speaker at the annual meeting 
of the Shawnee County Historical Society in Topeka December 11, 
1951. Trustees elected for three-year terms were: J. Clyde Fink, 
A. J. Carruth, Jr., J. Glenn Logan, Charlotte McLellan, Mrs. Erwin 
Keller, T. M. Lillard, Mrs. Harold Cone, Maud Bishop, Helen M. 
McFarland and Harry Colmery. Homer B. Fink was chosen to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Paul B. Sweet. Paul Lovewell 
presided at the meeting in the absence of T. M. Lillard, president. 
The trustees met January 22, 1952, and re-elected the officers. 
They are: T. M. Lillard, president; Paul Lovewell, vice-president; 
Paul Adams, secretary, and Annie B. Sweet, treasurer. The group 
considered a proposal that the old city library building be used for a 
museum after it is vacated by the library. 

The 34th annual dinner meeting of the Native Sons and Daughters 
of Kansas was held January 28, 1952, with Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, 
chancellor of the University of Kansas, as the guest speaker. The 
Senator Capper award for the winner of the collegiate speech con- 
test was presented to William Nulton, Pittsburg. Nyle H. Miller, 
secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, gave a memorial 
tribute to the late Sen. Arthur Capper. C. W. Porterfield, Holton, 
was elected president of the Native Sons, and Mrs. Ray S. Pierson, 
Burlington, of the Native Daughters. Other officers chosen by the 
Native Sons were: Maurice Fager, Topeka, vice-president; R. A. 
Clymer, El Dorado, secretary, and G. Clay Baker, Topeka, treasurer. 


Other officers of the Native Daughters are: Mrs. David McCreath, 
Lawrence, vice-president; Mrs. Ethel Godin, Wamego, secretary, 
and Mrs. Ivan Dayton Jones, Lyons, treasurer. 

The Land Mortgage Company in the Early Plains States, is the 
title of an article by Allan G. Bogue, University of Western Ontario, 
London, Canada, printed recently in pamphlet form. Presented 
first at a meeting of the Agricultural History Society and the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Historical Association on April 20, 1950, the article 
was published in Agricultural History, Baltimore, January, 1951. 

The 80th anniversary address by Dr. Emory Lindquist at the con- 
vention of the Kansas Conference of the Augustana Lutheran 
Church, Loveland, Colo., April 30, 1950, has been published in a 
15-page booklet. The Kansas conference was organized in 1870 
with the Rev. A. W. Dahlsten as the first president. Kansas, Ne- 
braska and Missouri were included in the conference area. 

A brief history of the German-Russian settlements in Ellis county 
was published recently in a four-page pamphlet entitled Diamond 
Jubilee German-Russian Colonists, 1876-1951. Included are the 
names of the colonists still living who arrived in the county in 1876- 

The story of the cattle drives, and the trails, towns and people 
involved, is told in Trail Drive Days, new 264-page book by Dee 
Brown and Martin F. Schmitt, illustrated with 229 photographs and 

The History of Baker University is a 356-page, recently published 
book by Homer K. Ebright of Baldwin. The organization of the 
college was accomplished in 1857 and the charter granted by the 
territorial legislature early in 1858. 

Dodge City, 1872-1886, "the wickedest little city in America," is 
portrayed in Stanley Vestal's new book, Queen of Cowtowns 
Dodge City (New York, c!952). 



May 1952 


Published by 

Kansas State Historical Society 



Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor 






Edited by Joyce Farlow and Louise Barry, 108 


Compiled by Helen M. McFarland, Librarian, 134 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and 
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis- 
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be 
sent to the secretary of the Historical Society. The Society assumes no respon- 
sibility for statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


Post headquarters at Fort Leavenworth in 1872. The fort 
is this year celebrating its 125th anniversary. The picture is 
through the courtesy of Sgt. W. O. Yount. 


Volume XX Mat/, 1952 Number 2 

The Great Flood of 1844 Along the Kansas and 
Marais des Cygnes Rivers 


A VAILABLE records indicate that the flood of 1844 was five to 
-** six and one half feet higher than the disastrous flood of 1951 
from Manhattan to below LawreiTce on the Kansas river, and at 
Ottawa on the Marais des Cygnes (Osage) river. Most, if not all, 
of the tributaries of the Kansas river also had great floods, possibly 
record-breaking floods. 

It staggers the imagination to contemplate the damage had the 
1951 flood equaled or exceeded that of 1844. Kansas was not 
open to settlement until ten years after 1844. About the only white 
men in the territory at the time were a few fur traders, a compara- 
tively few military personnel and a few missionaries, mostly in 
the eastern portion. In the 107 years between these floods, pros- 
perous farm communities, towns and cities were built over the state, 
and especially in lowlands along the rivers. This presented a 
tremendous flood hazard. 

It is a well recognized fact that nature, having produced a great 
flood, will eventually produce another as great. A small difference 
in the distribution of the heavy rains on July 10-12, 1951, and their 
continuation for one day longer, would in all probability have pro- 
duced a flood equal to that of 1844. 

In a recent article Verne Alexander, area hydrologic engineer, 
U. S. Weather Bureau, stated: 

The main storm center [the one that produced the torrential rains of July 
9-12, 1951] was near the divide between three river basins the Osage, Kansas, 
and Neosho. From a meteorological standpoint, if this center had occurred 75 
miles further northwest, 40 per cent more precipitation would have been added 
to the Kansas Basin. 1 

S. D. FLORA of Topeka, a senior meteorologist, retired, was head of the United States 
Weather Bureau at Topeka from 1917 to 1949. He is the author of Climate of Kansas, pub- 
lished in 1948 by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. 

1. Civil Engineering, Easton, Pa., November, 1951. 



Had these rains, in addition, continued one day longer there are 
many reasons to believe the high-water marks of 1844 would have 
been reached, or even exceeded, along the Kansas river. 



Crest of 1844 Flood 

Height of as Previously 

1844 Flood Crest of Crest of Determined by 

Over 1951 1844 1951 Reference to 

Location (in Feet). Flood.* Flood. 1903 Flood. f 

On Kansas River 

Manhattan 6.5 40.0 33.5 40.0 

Topeka 6.1 42.5 36.4 42.4 

Near Topeka, at Bishop 5.8 42.2 ... ... 

Near Topeka, at Menoken 3.4 J 39.8 . . . 42.2 

Near Lawrence, at Lake 

View 5.0 35.4 30.4 

Kansas City, Mo.|| 2.0 38.0 36.0 38.0 

On Marais des Cygnes 
(Osage) River 

Ottawa 7.0 49.1 42.1 40.0 

* Assuming the difference in height of the two floods was the same at the gage site 
as at the high-water mark. 

f Taken from Climate of Kansas, 1948, pp. 279, 280. 

j Crest of 1951 probably raised by ridge of high ground. See remarks under Menoken 

S Determined as "More than 5 feet." 
Kansas City crest was on the Missouri river and determined from a definite high-water 

Many, if not all, tributaries of the Kansas river also had great 
overflows in 1844, but as far as is known, no high-water marks exist 
along these streams. 

In a paper prepared for the State Historical Society in 1878, O. P. 
Hamilton, of Salina, remarked on the 1844 flood as follows: 

On the Solomon river driftwood, and a buffalo carcass (pretty well dried 
up) were found lodged in trees at a height that would cover the highest 
bottoms several feet, . . . indicating . . . high water. Evidences of 
great floods were also found on the Smoky Hill, and the water must have 
flooded the present town site of Salina, Kansas four feet deep. 

This great flood was seen by the Indian trader, Bent, located on the upper 
Arkansas river, who was ... on his way to Missouri. He had to follow 
the divides as best he could. Every river was full from bluff to bluff. 2 

Z. R. Hook, agent for the Union Pacific and present mayor of 
Manhattan, a man exceptionally well versed in river lore, stated 
that early settlers in the Blue river valley above Manhattan were 
told about the great flood by Indians, who advised them to build 
their houses well above the valley floor. Apparently, this advice 
was generally taken at the time, but later settlers disregarded it. 

2. O. P. Hamilton, A Brief Sketch of the Great American Desert .... p. 8. 


There is also considerable evidence that in 1844 the Marais des 
Cygnes ( Osage ) river reached the highest stages ever known along 
that stream. 

The cause of the 1844 flood, which crested at Kansas City on the 
Missouri on June 16, was evidently the same as that of all other 
great floods in Kansas prolonged and heavy rains over a wide 
area. Precipitation records at the time were kept only at two places 
in the territory, at Leavenworth and Ft. Scott. At Leavenworth the 
first four months of the year were fairly dry, but during May and 
June a total of 20.53 inches was measured. Ft. Scott also had com- 
paratively dry weather for at least the first three months of the year, 
but recorded a total of 27.43 inches in May and June. 

The diary of the Rev. Jotham Meeker, a missionary who lived 
near the present city of Ottaw*a, mentioned continuous rains from 
May 7 to June 10 and a great flood on the Marais des Cygnes. 
Andreas, in his History of Kansas, quoted from the Wyandotte 

The spring of 1844 was warm and dry until May, when it commenced to 
rain, and continued for six weeks rain falling every day. What is now 
. . . Kansas City, Mo., [evidently referring to ground along the Missouri 
river] was covered with 14 feet of water. 3 

The diary of Father Hoechen, of the Pottawatomie Mission on 
Sugar creek, stated: "J une [1844]. Here as everywhere around, 
it has been raining for forty days in succession and great floods 
covered the country. The damage, however, was not great." 4 

Investigations show that the 1844 flood at Manhattan was about 
6,5 feet higher than that of 1951. The crest of the latter, as regis- 
tered at the official gage, was 33.5 feet. Assuming that the dif- 
ference in level between the two floods was the same at the site 
of the gage as at the location of the high-water mark of 1844, this 
would make a stage of 40.0 feet for 1844. 5 

The 1844 high-water mark at Manhattan was reported by Z. R. 
Hook as follows: "According to Indian legend, 'The Big Water* 
( of 1844 ) came to the present location of the southeast corner of the 
Campus of the Kansas State College which at its lowest point is 
40.0 feet above zero datum of the river gage." 

In a letter dated January 13, 1952, Mr. Hook quoted levels run 
by the city engineer which show that this high-water mark was 

3. A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), 
p. 292. 

4. The Dial, St. Mary's, October, 1890, p. 17. 

5. S. D. Flora, Climate of Kansas (Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 
June, 1948), p. 287. 


6.5 feet above a near-by high-water mark of the 1951 flood. He 
stated that this is the minimum difference, since no one can say 
exactly where the drift line (of the 1844 flood) stopped at the 
campus site, where the ground rises very rapidly. 

The height of the 1844 flood at Topeka was 6.1 feet above that of 
1951, equal to a reading of 42.4 feet on the Topeka gage, according 
to the best evidence available. 

F. W. Giles, one of the nine men who drew up an agreement for 
the town association of Topeka on December 5, 1854, only ten 
years after the great flood, mentioned it in his book, Thirty Years in 

. . . The Kansas river bottoms were flooded for its entire length. At 
the site of Topeka, the river's breadth was from the line of Third street on the 
south to the bluffs two miles to the north . . ., the water standing to the 
depth of twenty feet, where now, in the first ward of Topeka [North Topeka] 
dwell three thousand people. 6 

Since all activities and building in the early days of Topeka 
centered on lower Kansas avenue, it seems evident that Giles re- 
ferred to the intersection of Third street and Kansas avenue, about 
one half mile from the present location of the river gage. Third 
street dips down each way from Kansas avenue. 

This location is confirmed in an early history of Shawnee county 
by W. W. Cone, who remarked: "During the flood, Major Cumings 
[Richard W. Cummins?], paymaster U. S. Army, wishing to cross 
from the south to the north side of the Kaw river, stepped into a 
canoe at about the corner of Topeka avenue and Second street 
and was rowed by an Indian from there to the bluffs [on the north 
side]." 7 A contour map of the Topeka quadrangle, prepared by 
the state and U. S. Geological Survey, indicates the elevation of 
Second and Topeka is not more than three to five feet higher than 
the intersection of Third and Kansas avenue. The ground slopes 
away rapidly to the north, east and west of Second and Topeka. 
It seems very likely that the place where Major Cummins stepped 
into the boat, probably near the time of the crest, was at about the 
elevation at Third and Kansas. 

George A. Root, a resident of Topeka, and for more than 55 
years an official of the State Historical Society, a man exceptionally 
well informed in regard to such matters, stated that the level of 
Third street at Kansas avenue had never been raised more than 
the thickness of the pavement. The slope of the street at that 

6. F. W. Giles, Thirty Years in Topeka (Topeka, 1886), p. 156. 

7. W. W. Cone, Historical Sketch of Shawnee County, Kansas (Topeka, 1877), p. 7. 


point indicates that there could have been no reason to lower it. 
It is believed that the ground level at this place still marks the 
approximate crest of the 1844 flood. 

On November 26, 1951, levels were run from a high-water mark 
of the 1951 flood near Second and Kansas avenue to Third and 
Kansas by Guy E. Gibson and Robert L. Lingo, engineers of the 
water resources division of the State Board of Agriculture, with the 
following results: 

Elevation Above 1951 
High-Water Mark 

Floor of gutter southeast corner of intersection 7.69 feet 

Floor of gutter southwest corner of intersection 7.72 

Floor of gutter northwest corner of intersection 5.96 

Floor of gutter northeast corner of intersection 6.02 " 

Average elevation of four comers 6.8 feet 

W. E. Baldry, city engineer at Topeka for many years and a man 
thoroughly familiar with all paving jobs, gave it as his opinion the 
ground level averages eight inches, or 0.7 foot, below the floor of 
the gutter in each case. 

Subtracting 0.7 from 6.8, the average of the four gutters, gives 
6.1 feet which, according to evidence available, is the height of the 
1844 flood above that of 1951 at this point. Assuming that the 
same difference in elevation of the two floods prevailed at the site 
of the river gage, the gage reading of the 1844 flood would have 
been 42.5 feet. The crest of the 1951 flood was 36.4 feet. 

In addition to the high-water mark at Third and Kansas avenue, 
there exist two other legendary high-water marks of the 1844 flood 
a few miles from the city. One is located near the former site of 
the Rock Island station, Bishop, a little less than half a mile south 
of the river and five miles almost due west from the present loca- 
tion of the river gage on the Topeka avenue bridge. The other is 
near the former Union Pacific station, Menoken, 4/2 miles northwest 
of the Topeka avenue bridge, 1/s miles north of the river, and 2M 
miles northeast of Bishop. 

The 1844 high-water mark at Bishop was pointed out by B. A. 
Snook, 323 Lindenwood, Topeka. He has been familiar with the 
Bishop locality for many years. He identified it as the elevation of 
the midway point of a sloping northwest-southeast section of a 
graveled road, about 300 feet in length, leading southeast from a 
bridge across a creek one-fourth mile southeast of the Bishop sta- 
tion. This road makes a sharp turn in the vicinity of the bridge 
and another turn about 300 feet from it. It is practically straight 


between these two points. It has been graded down somewhat in 
the immediate vicinity of the bridge, but there are no indications 
that the elevation of its mid-section has been changed materially. 

Mr. Snook stated that this high-water mark had been pointed out 
to him by a half-breed Indian, called Captain Ernest, who once 
lived in a cabin near by. He told Mr. Snook he obtained the in- 
formation from an old Indian, name not known, who had been 
there during the 1844 flood. The fact that Mr. Snook located this 
point definitely on two successive occasions and the fact that the 
elevation in relation to the flood crest checks so closely with the 
high-water mark in Topeka, indicates much credence is to be given 
his statement. 

Levels were run to this high- water mark on November 26, 1951, 
from a near-by high-water mark of the 1951 flood by Guy E. Gibson 
and Robert Lingo, the same engineers who ran levels at Third and 
Kansas. The high-water mark of 1951 in question was a one- x two- 
inch wooden stake, driven horizontally into a section of steeply 
sloping ground beside the road, about 35 feet southeast of the 
abutment of the bridge mentioned. It had been set by Phil C. 
Gravenstein, county field engineer, shortly after the flood subsided 
and while the marks of the high point were visible on the ground. 
These levels showed that the 1844 flood at this point was 5.8 feet 
higher than that of 1951 and corresponded to a stage of 42.2 feet 
on the Topeka gage. 

According to an Indian legend, the flood of 1844 covered the 
valley from bluff to bluff in the vicinity of Topeka, except for a 
small knoll 4/2 miles northwest of the city near the site later oc- 
cupied by the Union Pacific station, Menoken. Menoken is on 
the north side of the river and about 2/2 miles northeast of the 
other high-water mark near Bishop, which is on the south side of 
the river. 

E. C. Kassebaum, whose residence was located on this knoll, 
reported that a half-breed Indian told him this legend. George A. 
Root reported the same legend. He learned of it through talks with 
Indians on the Pottawatomie reservation, near Topeka, in 1897. 

In 1928 levels run by V. R. Parkhurst, a civil engineer especially 
interested in floods, from a high-water mark of the 1903 flood then 
existing in a shed adjacent to the barn of Mr. Kassebaum, to the 
crown of the knoll, indicated that the 1844 flood at this place was 
9.5 feet higher than that of 1903 at this location. Assuming the 
same difference existed at the site of the Topeka river gage, this 
would be equivalent to a stage of 42.2 feet. 


In 1947 this location was surveyed by engineers from the water 
resources division of the State Agricultural Board, under super- 
vision of George S. Knapp, chief engineer, and a map was prepared 
showing contour lines for each foot. Elevations were determined 
by reference to U. S. C. & G. S. bench mark Q-115, near the Menoken 
station. Elevation of this bench mark is given as 902.006 ft., 1929 
general adjustment. The elevation of the top of the knoll, as de- 
termined by this survey, is 902.4 feet. 

The 1903 high-water mark near the Kassebaum barn had been 
destroyed before this survey was made, but the engineers were able 
to locate high-water marks of the 1903 and 1951 floods on what is 
known as the Christman house, approximately half a mile south 
of this knoll, which they refer to as "The Legendary Island." 
Elevation of the 1951 HWM on Christman house 898.33 
Elevation of 1903 HWM on Christman house 892.94 

Height of 1951 flood over 1903 flood 5.39 feet. 

A high-water mark of 1951 near the knoll, "The Legendary Is- 
land," was found to have an elevation of 898.5 feet, or 3.9 feet below 
the top of the knoll. The contour map shows that with a flood crest 
below 900 feet there would have been a peninsula instead of an 
island at this place in 1844. If that flood had reached an elevation 
of 902.4 feet, water would have covered the knoll and there would 
have been no island. It seems logical that the knoll, or island, 
must have been at least 0.5 foot above the 1844 flood, making its 
height at this point 901.9 feet, or 3.4 feet above the crest of 1951. 
Assuming the same difference obtained at the site of the Topeka 
river gage, this would correspond to a reading of 39.8 feet. 

The following is offered to explain why the difference between 
the 1951 and 1844 crests at this site was less than at other points 
of record in the Kansas river basin: 

The 1903 flood barely reached the high ridge of which the "Leg- 
endary Island" was a part and its flow was probably not materially 
affected. The 1951 flood came well up on this ridge and was also 
obstructed by the ridge of ground that divides Soldier creek basin 
from the basin of the river proper. This ridge extends northwest 
for at least 11 miles. The ledge on which the "Legendary Island" 
was located is over 4,000 feet long and almost at a right angle to 
the direction of flow at this place. 

Very little of the water of the 1951 flood escaped into the basin 
of Soldier creek to the north over this high ridge. The 1844 flood 
was so high it overflowed this ridge entirely and a considerable 


part of its water flowed into the Soldier creek basin. Consequently, 
its flow would not be retarded as the 1951 flood water was. These 
factors, in all probability, account for the fact that the difference 
in elevation between the 1951 and 1844 floods was not as great at 
this place as in most other parts of the Kansas river valley between 
Manhattan and Lawrence. 

No high-water marks of the 1844 flood are known to exist in 
Lawrence, but there are records of one near Lake View, about 
five miles, airline distance, upstream and near the Kansas river. 

Levels run from a near-by 1951 high-water mark by Prof. W. C. 
McNown, of Kansas University, indicate that the 1844 flood was 
"more than 5 feet" higher than that of 1951 at this place. Assuming 
that the same difference between the height of the two floods ob- 
tained at the site of the Lawrence river gage, this would make a 
reading of at least 35.4 feet for the 1844 crest reading. The read- 
ing of the 1951 crest was 30.4 feet. 

This high-water mark was described in a letter dated February 9, 
1952, from Prof. J. O. Jones, an associate of Professor McNown, as 

Mr. Henry Beurman, who is quite an elderly man who has lived on a farm 
in the vicinity of Lake View most, if not all, of his life, reported that his aunt 
told him facts she obtained from the Sweezer family, one of the early settlers in 
the vicinity. When the Sweezer family first settled on Sweezer Creek there 
was a spring where Mrs. Sweezer did the family washing. Near the spring 
was a tree in the crotch of which was a log. The Sweezers ascertained the 
log floated to that location in the great flood of 1844. The tree had been cut 
down prior to Prof. McNown's visit but he was able to get a rough idea of the 
height of the log from Mr. Beurman's recollection of it. On the basis of that 
evidence Prof. McNown determined the height of the 1844 flood was more 
than five feet above that of 1951. 

There are no known high-water marks of the 1844 flood in Kansas 
City, Kan., but prior to 1920 there was a definite high-water mark 
cut in the stone of one of the piers of the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
railway bridge across the Missouri river in Kansas City, Mo. 

Verne Alexander, area engineer, U. S. Weather Bureau, reported 
as follows concerning this in a letter dated August 8, 1951: 

38.0 feet, from the highwater mark of 1844, established and authenticated 
by Octave Chanute, Supervising Engineer of the First Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railway Company bridge in Kansas City, Mo. The mark, which was 
cut into the stone of one of the piers, was destroyed in 1920 at the time of 
rebuilding the bridge. New piers were erected at that time. The value of 38 
feet has been accepted as correct by the U. S. Engineers. Historical books on 
file in the Engineers office place the date of the highwater at June 16, 1844. 


The crest of the 1951 flood on the Missouri at Kansas City was 
36.0 feet from 5 to 7 A. M. on July 14. 

An approximate high-water mark of the 1844 flood of the Marais 
des Cygnes at Ottawa was reported by Warren J. Sheldon, a prom- 
inent merchant and life-long resident of Ottawa. He stated that 
his father, who settled near Ottawa in 1859, knew of a log left 
by the flood near what is now the intersection of Seventh and Pop- 
lar streets. 

Prior to the 1951 flood, an investigation, based on levels in 
the office of the city engineer, indicated that this intersection was 
at an elevation of 40.0 feet above zero datum of the river gage and 
2.4 feet higher than the crest of the 1928 flood, the highest of record 
at that time. 

Investigations made by R. A. (Barrett, official in charge, Weather 
Bureau Office, Topeka, indicated that the intersection in question 
was about seven feet higher than a 1951 high-water mark in that 
vicinity. Levels were not run at the time. The difference was 
scaled from a contour map furnished by the city engineer and there 
is a possibility of an error of plus or minus a foot, according to Mr. 
Garrett. Assuming that the same difference in levels of the two 
floods obtained at the gage site, this would correspond to a gage 
reading of 49.1 feet. The crest in 1951 was 42.1 feet. 

The Seventh and Poplar intersection is 4,000 feet downstream, 
south-southeast of the gage. This conceivably might affect the 
slope of the water at times of high crests. It might account for 
the difference in elevation of the 1844 flood arrived at in the two 
investigations. It is believed that the value obtained by comparison 
with the 1951 crest near the 1844 high-water mark, 49.1 feet, is a 
closer approximation of the true value. 

Farmer Debtors in Pioneer Kinsley 


HISTORIES of the Plains States in the 19th century seldom omit 
the money lender and his dread instrument, the mortgage. But 
for the most part the financial burdens of the "embattled farmers" 
have been described in general terms. The following study is a de- 
scription of how the farmers of a township in the Populist belt of 
Kansas obtained their holdings and of the debt they placed upon 
them during the first 35 years of settlement. So misinterpreted in 
Populist literature have been the mortgage system and the operation 
of the land laws that a reconsideration of them is long overdue. 
This can be done successfully only through detailed studies, and 
later, broader generalizations can safely be drawn. 1 

Lying in the valley of the Arkansas river between the 94th and 
the 100th meridians is Edwards county, Kansas. The administra- 
tive township of Kinsley is situated in the northwest quarter of the 
county and lies, but for portions of six sections, to the north and west 
of the Arkansas river. In round figures the township embraces 
29,000 acres of land. Kinsley, the county seat, is located in the 
township. Of this town a correspondent of the Atchison Champion 
said: "For a long time it was the westernmost town that really 
aimed to get a respectable living [in the Arkansas valley]. Dodge 
was further on, but Dodge, in those days, lived on the Government 
and its own wickedness/' 2 

The bulk of the township is situated on a strip of flood plains and 
terraces extending from two to five miles west of the Arkansas. At 
a distance of some three or four miles from the river a gentle rise 
marks the limits of the "first bottoms." The soil here is of somewhat 
different character than that on the flood plains. Portions of six 
sections lie east of the Arkansas in what are called "the sand hills." 3 

ALLAN G. BOGUE, who did graduate work at the University of Kansas, is assistant li- 
brarian at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. 

1. The writer owes much to Prof. James C. Malin of the University of Kansas and to his 
ingenious search for new lines of approach to the history of the grasslands of North America. 
This study was designed to supplement work which Professor Malin had already published 
on Kinsley township or near-by areas. See his articles in The Kansas Historical Quarterly: 
"The Kinsley Boom of the Late Eighties," v. 4 (1935), February, May, pp. 23-49 and 164- 
187, "The Turnover of Farm Population in Kansas," ibid., November, pp. 339-372, and 
"J. A. Walker's Early History of Edwards County," v. 9 (1940), August, pp. 259-284. 
See, also, "The Adaptation of the Agricultural System to Sub-humid Environment. Illus- 
trated by the . . . Wayne Township Farmers' Club of Edwards County, Kansas," 
Agricultural History, Baltimore, v. 10 (1936), July, pp. 118-141. 

2. Kinsley Mercury, January 8, 1887. 

3. An account of the physical characteristics of Edwards county may be found in United 
States Department of Agriculture, et aL, Physical Land Conditions Affecting Use, Conserva- 
tion and Management of Land Resources Edwards County, Kansas (mimeographed, June, 



The soils on the flood plains are known locally as "deep hard 
lands." Officially, they are designated as "deep, friable, silty, to 
clayey soils," and "characterized by friable, granular to crumb-like, 
silty to slightly sandy surface soils which are eight to 10 inches thick 
and grade into somewhat heavier but friable . . . subsoils, 20 
to 30 inches thick. In general they are fertile, easily tilled, absorb 
moisture at a moderate rate and have a high moisture storage 
capacity." 4 Drainage is generally adequate but the occasional 
saline spot or poorly drained area occurs. 

The moderate slopes at the edge of the bottoms and along the 
drainage way in the northwest corner of the township are marked 
by a "friable or moderately friable, silty to clayey soil" which is 
similar to the "deep hard lands." 5 Soil conservation experts classi- 
fied all lands in the township to "the west of the Arkansas as fit for 
cultivation in 1940 when they surveyed Edwards county. The area 
of the township lying east of the river, however, was classified as fit 
only for grazing or woodland use and that with severe restrictions. 

Precipitation in the county ranges on an average from 24 inches 
on the eastern edge to 22 inches on the western boundary. Some 
75% of the precipitation falls during the growing season which on 
the average lasts 175 days. Both rainfall and growing season are, 
however, subject to wide variations from the mean. The average 
annual temperature stands between 55 and 56 degrees. 

Yields in Edwards county are 88% of the state average and also 
fall somewhat below those of some of the neighboring counties. 
Today wheat is the dominant grain crop although a significant 
acreage of sorghum is grown. But in the 30 crop years between 
1911 and 1940, ten wheat crops failed and only fair to poor crops 
were harvested in 11 other years. Drought which was sufficient 
to cause crop failure has occurred in as many as four consecutive 

Kinsley township fell within the boundaries of the land grant 
given to the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railway in 1863. Land 
in the sections designated by odd numbers therefore became the 
property of that corporation to be sold in aid of the construction 
of its line. The land in sections bearing even numbers was eventu- 
ally allocated directly to individuals by the federal government with 
the exception of sections 16 and 36, Township 24, Range 19, the 
state school lands. In this article the land transferred directly to 

4. Ibid., p. 5. 

5. Ibid., p. 9. 


individuals by the federal government will be referred to as govern- 
ment land. 

The tract books of the United States Land Office identify the 
settlers who obtained title to government land. 6 The first such 
settler filed his application to homestead the northwest quarter of 
section 4, T25, R19 in June, 1873. He obtained his final certificate 
15 months later under the act of 1872 which allowed Union veterans 
to subtract the period of their war service from the five years of 
residence which were ordinarily necessary under the homestead 
act of 1862. The last settler to obtain government land in the town- 
ship received his final certificate in 1903. Strictly speaking, title 
did not pass irrevocably until the patent to which the final certificate 
entitled a settler was issued, but for most purposes title was con- 
sidered to vest in the claimant for government land as soon as he 
could show a final certificate. 


Unsuc- Unsuc- 

Successful cessful Final Successful cessful Final 

Entries Entries Certificates Entries Entries Certificates 

1872 ., 3 .. 1888 

1873 14 9 . . 1889 . . . . 2 

1874 10 9 1 1890 2 2 

1875 5 10 6 1891 1 

1876 10 12 6 1892 143 

1877 6 9 11 1893 .. 1 3 

1878 19 9 8 1894 .. 1 1 

1879 12 5 18 1895 . . . . 1 

1880 337 1896 1 .. 2 

1881 334 1897 .. .. 5 

1882 115 1898 1 

1883 452 1899 .. .. 1 

1884 148 1900 .. .. 1 

1885 521 1901 

1886 214 1902 

1887 111 1903 1 

Totals 102 94 102 

In all, 91 individuals obtained title to 102 parcels of government 
land. Sixty-seven homesteads were granted. 7 Fifty of these were 
160-acre homesteads which were obtained under the provisions of 

6. Duplicate sets of land office tract books for the State of Kansas are held in the Na- 
tional Archives and in the Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. These books are 
more enlightening than the county deed records since they show the names of settlers who 
subsequently relinquished their claims and include the date of the final certificates as well 
as that of the patents. Kinsley township fell in the land district administered from Lamed. 

7. The word homestead will be used throughout this article to refer to land either ac- 
quired by its owner under the terms of the various federal homestead acts or land in the 
process of being thus acquired. In the legal sense of course a homestead is a holding which 
its owner holds free from the claims of creditors under certain conditions. 


the soldiers' and sailors' homestead act of 1872. Until 1879 only 
veterans, or, in certain cases, their heirs or widows, were allowed 
to homestead more than 80 acres within the boundaries of a rail- 
road land grant. Twenty individuals obtained tracts under the 
terms of the pre-emption act of 1841, while four homesteaders 
commuted their claims and purchased them for cash under the 
terms of the commutation clause of the homestead act of 1862. 
Finally, 11 settlers acquired title to timber claims. 8 

But all of those who aspired to ownership of government land in 
Kinsley township were not successful. Of the 196 entries filed be- 
tween 1872 and 1898, 94, or 35 homesteads and 59 timber claims 
were given up. In other words 34% of all homesteaders and 84% of 
all those claiming land under the timber culture acts failed to obtain 

The entry figures include some duplication. Of the 91 individuals 
who obtained title to 102 parcels of land, 24 had filed papers on a 
total of 25 other pieces of land which they eventually threw back 
into the public domain. Of those who failed to obtain any land 
whatsoever, two had sought both homestead and timber claims. 
The 94 canceled entries, therefore, represented the activities of only 
67 individuals who did not obtain at least some land from the fed- 
eral government. Altogether, 158 individuals laid claim to govern- 
ment land in Kinsley township, of whom 41% failed to obtain title 
to any land. Another 15% obtained only part of the holdings which 
they claimed originally. 

If such percentages appear startling we should remember that 
all entrymen did not desire to obtain final title. Claims were sold 
despite the lack of final certificate or patent. 9 In only four of the 
94 cases where the entrants threw up their claims did they abandon 
them outright. Instead, formal relinquishments were filed at the 
land office. Such formality could hardly have been accidental. 
Somewhat different were the cases of the four settlers who filed 
timber claims and relinquished them years later, only to homestead 
the same tracts. Whatever other advantages this practice involved, 
it undoubtedly postponed the day when a settler must pay taxes on 
his holdings. 

In 1873 the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company 

8. Aside from the U. S. Statutes at Large a comprehensive summary of the various acts 
under which title was transferred from the government in this township may be found in 
Thomas Donaldson, The Public Domain (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1884). 

9. See, for instance, Orange Judd's matter-of-fact reference to the practice in "Who 
Shall Go West," pt. 1, Prairie Farmer, October 24, 1885, p. 701; also Harold Hathaway 
Dunham, Government Handout, A Study in the Administration of the Public Lands, 1875- 
1891 (New York, 1941), pp. 144-164. 


made its first sales of land in the administrative township of 
Kinsley. 10 Between 1873 and 1898, when the Santa Fe's title to 
several parcels of land was closed out by bankruptcy sale, the land 
department of the company sold land in the township to 110 indi- 
viduals at prices varying from $1.25 to $10 per acre. In the order 
of the frequency with which they availed themselves of the terms, 
purchasers bought on 11-year contract, on six-year contract, for 
cash, and on two-year contract. One contract provided for com- 
plete payment at the end of one year. 11 

Two-year contracts involved merely the division of the principal 
into three parts. One-third, plus a year's interest on the unpaid 
principal, was paid down and the other installments, plus interest, 
were paid at the end of the first and second years. When purchas- 
ers used the six-year plan they paid one-sixth of the principal down 
and interest on the remainder. The second payment was limited 
to interest on the principal, and the final five payments were made 
up of one-sixth of the principal and interest on the principal out- 
standing. Similarly, combinations of interest and principal pay- 
ments were arranged to extend over 11 years. 

Interest on unpaid principal stood at seven percent over the whole 
period during which the Santa Fe sold land. Obviously this interest 
rate should not be compared with the rate then charged on mort- 
gage loans, since the Santa Fe set both the rate of interest and the 
purchase price. An attractive rate of interest could be well com- 
pensated for by raising the price. Discounts of 10% were given on 
at least some cash sales and at times discounts were given to the 
purchaser who made improvements to the land which he was buy- 
ing on credit. 

Sales in the township by the Santa Fe were spread over 22 years, 
but by far the largest number were grouped in the three-year period 
between 1876 and 1878, and in the two years, 1884 and 1885. Sales 
in 1873 were limited to three. One of these transferred sections 33, 
T24, R19, and 5, R24, T18, to the Arkansas Valley Town Company. 
Section 33 is the site of the town of Kinsley. A second sale trans- 
ferred a quarter section to Edward Kinsley, an employee of the 
Santa Fe in Boston. The consideration was a nominal one of $1.00. 
The last sale in 1873 gave possession of the northeast quarter of 
section 7, T25, R19, to two local men. 

10. The most useful published account of the early operations of this company is still 
Glenn D. Bradley, The Story of the Santa Fe (Boston, 1920). Administration of the land 
grant is discussed in Chapter 5. 

11. The analysis of the land sales of the Santa Fe which follows is based on data taken 
from the tract book of the Santa Fe and from the 15 volumes of the sales record held in 
the tax division of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Topeka. 


Not until 1876 did the turnover of railroad land in the township 
become rapid. In that year 29 sales were made. An additional 27 
followed during the next two years. Over the next five years only 
ten sales were made, but in 1884 and 1885 the total number of sales 
recorded was 33. 


Total Successful Total Successful 

Sales Buyers Sales Buyers 

1873 3 - 2 1882 3 3 

1874 6 2 1883 4 4 

1875 1 1 1884 11 9 

1876 29 10 1885 22 17 

1877 14 3 1886 3 3 

1878 13 4 1892 2 

1879 2 2 1894 1 

1880 1 .. 1895 1 1 

Totals 116 61 

Actually only 110 individuals purchased land and only 58 individuals or 
their assignees were successful in obtaining deeds. The totals in TABLE 2 
stand at 116 and 61 because three buyers returned a second time to purchase 
land, two others similarly returned but failed to complete one of the transac- 
tions and one individual failed on two separate purchases. In the early years 
of its land business the Santa Fe issued a separate contract for each quarter 
section or less which was sold. TABLE 2, however, has been worked out in 
terms of the individual purchasers rather than in terms of contracts. All land 
contracts issued to the same buyer and bearing the same date have been 
treated as part of one sale. 

Of the 56 sales transacted in 1876, 1877 and 1878, 39, or 70%, 
were eventually canceled. Some of the blame for the cancellations 
may be placed specifically upon the weather. 12 In 1879 and 1880 
drought severely damaged the crops in west central Kansas and 
thereby the hopeful plans of many settlers. The officials of the 
Santa Fe were not unaware of the settlers' problems. A corres- 
pondent of the Kinsley Graphic reported in August, 1879, that the 
railway company had offered to furnish seed wheat to all farmers in 
Hodgeman, Pawnee, Ness, Edwards and Ford counties who had 
experienced crop failure. 13 The company offered to bear the trans- 

12. In his study of the turnover of farm population in selected townships throughout 
Kansas, Professor Malin has discounted the influence of physical phenomena in either raising 
or lowering the number of settlers that left pioneer communities. Rather he emphasized group 
behavior, writing, "under any given set of general conditions, the farm operators in all parts 
of the state reacted in much the same manner, the variations of local physical environment 
exercising only a secondary or minor influence." "The Turnover of Farm Population in 
Kansas," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 4 (1935), November, pp. 339-372. One can ac- 
cept this qualification and still argue that years of drought played a significant role in pro- 
ducing cancellations since, according to Professor Malin, the inflow of population into pio- 
neer areas fell off at such times. The outgoing settlers therefore, who would have assigned 
or sold their contracts to newcomers, allowed them to lapse on their departure instead. 

13. Taylor Jackson in Kinsley Graphic, August 9, 1879. 


portation charges on the seed but the terms were to be "cash on de- 
livery." The writer claimed that few settlers could meet these 
terms, since the stores of cash which they had brought into the 
region with them were exhausted. 

Some months later the Graphic recorded that 15 or 20 men had 
been sent west to work on the railroad on the previous morning and 
added that the railroad was pledged to furnish work for settlers 
who desired it. 14 In July, 1880, after repeated references to exodus 
from the county, the Edwards County Leader reported that, "The 
Railroad Company will furnish every farmer in the county with 25 
bushels of wheat money or no money and take their note at 7% 
interest. This is a good stand off, and we hope the boys wont be 
slow to take advantage of it." 15 

Few who defaulted on their agreements in the late 1870's had a 
great financial stake in the land. On only seven of the 20 contract 
sales made in 1876 and eventually canceled, was any principal paid. 
Of the 18 sales made during the next two years and eventually 
canceled, however, a portion of the principal was paid on all but 
one. 16 But on only one of the 24 contracts of these years on which 
principal was paid did the Santa Fe receive more than one install- 
ment of the purchase price. During this period the company did 
not cancel contracts immediately upon default. In most cases con- 
tracts were canceled two or three years after the payments had 
been allowed to lapse. 

With the return of more favorable seasons in 1881, central Kansas 
began to appear more attractive to prospective land buyers. By 
1883 the Arkansas valley was beginning to experience a real estate 
boom. As a result, the Santa Fe was able to dispose of all but a 
few parcels of its land in Kinsley township during 1884 and 1885. 
Seventeen of the 26 cash sales made in the township were transacted 
in these two years, and the percentage of failure among purchasers 
stood at 21% in comparison to 69% in the earlier period of heavy 

In all, 58, or 53%, of the 110 original purchasers of railroad land 
in Kinsley township, saw land deeded either to themselves or to 
their assignees. Of the 58, 15, or 26%, assigned their contracts to 18 
assignees. The total number of individuals who received deeds 
from the Santa Fe, therefore, was 61. 

The manner in which contracts were recorded and deeds issued 

14. Kinsley Graphic, October 18, 1879. 

15. Edwards County Leader, Kinsley, August 26, 1880. 

16. Three contracts whose terms are in doubt fell in this period. 


makes it difficult to sort out all of the buyers who obtained holdings 
in several townships. But at least seven of the original 58 were 
speculators, if we define such individuals as those who held their 
land for a rise in price with no intention of farming it themselves. 
Of these, Edward Kinsley obtained 160 acres; R. E. Edwards, mer- 
chant and banker of Kinsley, purchased 340 acres within the town- 
ship and at least 100 acres outside its boundaries; Peter Chesrown 
of Ashland county, Ohio, bought 480 acres within the township; 
and Graham and Ellwood of Dekalb, 111., held a section and a half. 
Two purchases formed part of much larger transfers outside the 
boundaries of the township. In this class fell a quarter section 
obtained by Alexander and Fred Forsha of Topeka in 1885, as part 
of a purchase which included ten and a quarter sections in adjacent 
townships, and 1,100 acres in "Kinsley township, which Ott and 
Tewkesbury of Topeka purchased as part of a transfer of 5,200 
acres. It is possible that other purchases should be classed as 
speculative. Of the 21 purchasers who bought more than 160 acres 
of railroad land, only five can be identified subsequently from the 
census rolls as rural residents in Kinsley township, whereas a ma- 
jority of those buying 160 acres or less appear in the returns of the 
census taker. 17 

In numbers, the small purchaser outweighed those who obtained 
relatively large units. Of the 58 original successful buyers, 40 
bought a quarter section or less. The purchases of 15 fell between 
160 and 640 acres. Three purchasers obtained more than a section. 
Three in the first class, however, and one in each of the other two 
size groups, purchased additional land outside Kinsley township. 
These five purchases ranged in total size from 400 to 6,000 acres. 

In terms of acreage, the story is somewhat different. In round 
figures, the 40 purchasers of a quarter section or less bought 4,580 
acres, while the remaining 18 buyers purchased 8,420 acres. 

Although it has its limitations, a grouping by place of residence 
at the time of purchase gives some clue to the background of those 
who purchased railroad land. Of the 110 individuals whose names 
appear in the sales record of the railway, 42 gave their address as 
Kinsley, and 13 others resided elsewhere in Kansas. Thirty-two pur- 
chasers came from Illinois, six came from Iowa, five from Wisconsin 
and four from Pennsylvania. Missouri and Massachusetts both 
contributed two buyers while Minnesota, Connecticut, Delaware 
and New Mexico were all represented by one purchaser. 

17. The manuscript census rolls of 1870 (federal), 1875 (state), 1880 (federal), 1885, 
1895 and 1905 are held by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka. 



Those who were successful in completing contracts issued prior 
to 1879, took, on the average, 49 months to meet their obligations 
to the railway company. Successful contractors from 1882 onward 
paid out in 44 months on the average. The difference is not one 
from which significant conclusions can be drawn. The fact that 
funds were available more cheaply on mortgage security during the 
second period may have encouraged contractors to pay out more 

There was no great overlapping among those who purchased rail- 
road land and those who obtained land from the government. 
Fifty-eight of the original purchasers of railroad land and 18 as- 
signees can be described as successful in their dealings with the 
Santa Fe. Five of the original 58 succeeded in obtaining both gov- 
ernment and railroad land. One of the 18 assignees obtained title 
to government land. Five of the remaining 85 individuals who 
received patents on government land attempted railroad land con- 
tracts but failed to complete them. 

Seventy-nine percent of those who purchased railroad land elected 
to buy their land on credit. Twenty-one percent paid cash. 18 Nine 
of the 23 who made up the group of cash purchasers obtained units 
of 320 acres or more. Two of these, the Forshas and Ott and 
Tewkesbury, received 11,000 acres in total at a cost of $1.75 and 
$1.25 per acre. The prices paid by the seven other large purchasers 
ranged between $4.00 and $10.00 per acre. 

Of the 87 individuals who sought to take the contract route to 
ownership, 52, or 60%, failed either to obtain a deed or to assign 
their contracts to someone who did so. In contrast, 34 out of 100 
settlers who attempted to homestead land in the township, failed in 
their efforts. The record on timber claims, however, was worse 
than that made by the contractors with the Santa Fe. If we con- 
sider totals, 41% of all individuals who sought land under the home- 
stead, pre-emption, and timber culture acts, were completely unsuc- 
cessful. In comparison, when cash sales of railroad land are con- 
sidered along with contracts, 47% of the purchasers or their assignees 
failed to obtain a deed. The percentages are surprisingly close. 

If such percentages seem to indicate that price had little effect 
on the success or failure of those seeking title to land in Kinsley 
township, the conclusion is modified by a comparison between the 
prices actually obtained by the Santa Fe in cash sales and on suc- 
cessful contracts and the prices specified in canceled contracts of 
the same years. In 1876, 1877, 1878 and 1885 a considerable num- 

18. Actually 25 cash purchases were made but two buyers returned to obtain addi- 
tional land. 


her of both successful and abortive sales were transacted. In each 
of these years, the average price in cash sales and successful con- 
tracts fell below the average on the canceled contracts of the same 
year by amounts ranging from $1.25 to $2.60 per acre. The average 
price paid by successful purchasers on both cash sales and contracts 
in the four years was $4.90 per acre; the average price which un- 
successful purchasers agreed to pay was $6.70 per acre. 

With this summary of the way in which the land in Kinsley 
township entered private ownership, let us examine its role as mort- 
gage security in a pioneer western township. 19 

Of the 91 settlers who were successful in obtaining title to gov- 
ernment land, 41, or 45%, did not mortgage their holdings. The 
remaining 50, or 55%, did mortgage 53 tracts of land which they had 
acquired from the government. Thirty-eight homesteads, eight 
pre-empted parcels, five timber claims and two commuted home- 
steads were thus encumbered. In other words, 58% of the home- 
steads in the township were eventually mortgaged by the home- 
steader who obtained title, while 50% of the commuted homesteads, 
40% of the pre-emptions and 41% of the timber claims were similarly 

The dates on which the settlers mortgaged their land are of some 
significance since they give a clue to the reasons underlying the de- 
cisions to encumber land. It is interesting also to discover whether 
the pattern of mortgaging differed radically on land which had been 
obtained under the terms of the homestead act and on land which 
had been obtained under other provisions of the land code. 

Of the 53 parcels of government land which were eventually 
mortgaged by their owners, 51% was mortgaged within six months 
after the settler had received his final certificate. Another 9% was 
mortgaged during the second six months of ownership. A further 
15% was mortgaged in the second year and only 2% after five 

19. All mortgage statistics used hereafter are derived from an analysis of the mortgage 
registers of Edwards county, held in the office of the register of deeds at Kinsley. Those 
interested in the technique of mortgage studies should read: Arthur F. Bentley, "The Con- 
dition of the Western Farmer as Illustrated by the Economic History of a Nebraska Town- 
ship," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Baltimore, llth 
series (1893), pt. VII, VIII; Robert Diller, Farm Ownership, Tenancy, and Land Use in a 
Nebraska Community (Chicago, 1941); Eleanor H. Hinman and J. O. Rankin, "Farm 
Mortgage History of Eleven Southeastern Nebraska Townships: 1870-1932," University of 
Nebraska, Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin, 67, Lincoln, 1933; William 
Gordon Murray, "An Economic Analysis of Farm Mortgages in Story County, Iowa, From 
1854 to 1930," Research Bulletin, No. 156, Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State 
College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts, Ames, 1933; David Rozman, "Land Credit in 
the Town of Newton, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, 1848-1926," Journal of Land and 
Public Utility Economics, v. Ill (1927), November, pp. 372-384; U. S. Census Office, 
Report on Real Estate Mortgages in the United States at the Eleventh Census, and Report 
on Farms and Homes at the Eleventh Census, 1890. Since 1930 various agricultural econo- 
mists have published mortgage studies dealing with the recent history of farm mortgage 
loans in restricted areas. An excellent example of the techniques used is provided by Jos. 
Ackerman and L. J. Norton, "Factors Affecting Success of Farm Loans," Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station Bulletin, 468, Urbana, 1940. 


years had elapsed. There was little difference between the per- 
centage of homesteaded and the percentage of pre-empted land 
which was mortgaged within the first year of ownership. All of 
the mortgages on pre-empted land were placed, however, by the 
end of the third year of titled possession, while 16% of the home- 
steaded land was mortgaged after the third year of titled posses- 
sion. All of the timber claims were mortgaged in the first year 
after title was obtained. Only four out of 70 successful home- 
steaders, or 6%, commuted their homesteads and paid for their 
land at the pre-emption rate of $1.25 per acre. Two of the four 
mortgaged their land, but only after two and five years had elapsed 
after the date when they acquired title. That the pre-emptors 
and those who commuted homesteads bought their land for cash 
seems to have had little effect upon the percentage of those who 
mortgaged their holdings soon after obtaining title. Fifty percent 
of the mortgagors among pre-emptors and "commuters" encumbered 
their land within a year of acquiring title; 58% of the homesteaders" 
who mortgaged did so during their first year of titled possession. 


Home Pre-emp- Commu- Timber Combined 
steads tions tations Claims Totals 

Mortgaged: No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 

within 6 months after title, 20 52 4 50 . / . . 3 60 27 51 
between 6 months and 1 

year after title 2 5 1 12X . . 2 40 59 

between 1 year and 2 

years after title 6 16 2 25 ,, * 8 15 

between 2 years and 3 

years after title 4 11 1 12^ 1 50 .... 6 11& 

between 3 years and 5 

years after title 5 13 . . .. 1 50 . . .. 6 11& 

more than 5 years after 

title 1 3 1 2 

Of the 61 individuals to whom the Santa Fe deeded land, 19, or 
32%, mortgaged all or part of their holdings. Ten of the 19 mort- 
gaged all or part of their holdings within six months after they had 
obtained title. One other purchaser mortgaged within a year after 
the Santa Fe had given him his deed, a second within two years, and 
the remaining seven recorded mortgages on their land from two to 
13 years after acquiring their deeds from the railway. A smaller 
percentage of those who paid hard cash to the railroad for their 
land found it necessary to mortgage that land later than did those 
who homesteaded government land. As in the case of the govern- 



ment land which was mortgaged, however, more than 50% of the 
railroad land encumbered by its first owner was mortgaged within 
six months after title had passed. 

In total, the farmers of Kinsley township recorded 343 first mort- 
gages and 80 junior mortgages between March 15, 1876, and De- 
cember 31, 1905. In only a few years, however, did second mort- 
gages play a significant role in farm financing in the township. 

Four first mortgages were filed on the security of agricultural 
land in Kinsley township during 1876. During the next 30 years, 
filings rose and fell in a cyclical pattern. Peaks were reached in 
1879, 1886 and 1905. In 1879, 30 mortgages were recorded to the 
value of $16,821. In 1886, 52 mortgages represented loans of 
$62,538. The same number of mortgages was filed in 1887, but the 
amount of funds transferred under their terms dropped to $53,644. 
In 1905, 26 mortgages secured a total debt of $70,806. The lows 
occurred in 1883, when three mortgages totaling some $2,000 in 
value were filed, and in 1896, when one mortgage secured a loan 
of $375. 



Number Amount Acres 

Second Mortgages 
Number Amount 














































































































, TOT, 

\.L ^ 
































































The percentage of agricultural land under first mortgage behaved 
in the same fashion as did the number of loans outstanding and 
the value of the first mortgage debt. Slumping somewhat between 
1880 and 1885, it reached a peak in 1890 when 42% of the agri- 
cultural land in the township was under mortgage. By 1900 the 
percentage stood at 15%, but the figure had risen to 25% by 1905. 


Number of Value of Encumbered Percentage 

First First Acres of Acres 

Mortgages Mortgages (Agricultural) (Agricultural) 

Jan. 1, 1880 35 $20,093 4,766 17% 

- " 1885 26 15,465 3,755 13% 

" " 1890 76 109,478 11,851 42% 

" " 1895 47 59,483 7,140 25% 

" " 1900 25 30,183 4,225 15% 

' 1905 46 50,562 7,139 25% 

The first peak of mortgaging in the township coincided with the 
first large issue of titles by the federal government. In 1879 there 
were more final certificates issued than in any other year in the 
history of the township. The 26 settlers who obtained final certifi- 
cates in 1878 and 1879, had, for the first time, real estate security 
which they could convert into funds. Accentuating the demand 
for equipment and supplies, which one suspects was normal in a 
pioneer area, was the drought which struck the counties of the 
99th meridian in 1879. In April, 1880, the Edwards County Leader 
passed along the rumor that the county commissioners had passed 
an order at their last meeting which forbade the township trustees 
to extend aid to parties who were able to work and had mortgage- 
able property. 20 The editor stated that such an order should cer- 
tainly be passed if it had not already been done. 

In all, title to 57 tracts of government land was granted during 
the seven years, 1874-1880. During the same period, title passed 
from the Santa Fe railway company on 24 parcels of land. Those 
same years saw 78 mortgages filed. 

The majority of the mortgages which were recorded by the 
farmers of Kinsley township before 1881 evidently represented an 
effort to obtain supplies and equipment. Of the 61 first mortgages 
filed in the five years, 1876-1880, ten were apparently negotiated 
to refinance mortgage loans which were coming due. Six repre- 
sented part of the payment in real estate transactions and four 

20. Edwards County Leader, April 22, 1880. 


settlers evidently borrowed to pay out on their pre-emptions. 21 Five 
loans patently represented mercantile credit, since they were drawn 
for uneven sums payable at the store of R. E. Edwards. When 
these 25 loans are eliminated, 36 are left unexplained. Lumping 
the five mercantile credit loans with the 36 unexplained loans, 41 
loans were unconnected with real estate transactions or the act of 
refinancing previous obligations. Presumably these 41 loans, or 
67% of the first mortgage loans obtained by Kinsley settlers in the 
early period of the township's history, were used to buy food, 
stock and equipment, although a few doubtless financed the mort- 
gagor's departure to other pastures. 

During the real estate boom of the mid 1880's, land sales and re- 
financing accounted for a much more significant proportion of the 
first mortgages than during the 1870's. Of the 90 first mortgages 
recorded during 1885, 1886 and 1887, 58, or 64%, were obviously 
refinancing or related to real estate transactions. By the years 1903, 
1904 and 1905 this percentage had risen to 71%. 22 

It has been pointed out in other studies that hard-pressed settlers 
often commuted their homesteads with borrowed funds. As soon 
as such settlers had evidence of title they secured their loan with 
a mortgage and used any surplus in the loan above the land office 
price for family living. Such mortgages, it is inferred, were born 
of desperation, or of the desire to obtain speculator's profits by a 
quick sale as soon as the settler had obtained title. Similarly, the 
pre-emption law was used to obtain title quickly. 23 Since none of 
the commuted homesteads in Kinsley township was mortgaged 
within the first year after title had passed from the government, 
such use of the commutation clause of the homestead act was not 
illustrated in Kinsley township. However, 50% of the pre-emptors 
who mortgaged their claims did so during the first six months of 
ownership. Presumably these settlers used a portion of their loans 
to purchase their land. But the percentage of pre-emptors who 
mortgaged within six months of obtaining absolute title was no 

21. When a mortgage was recorded within six months after purchase of the property by 
the mortgagor it was assumed that the indenture represented part of the purchase price. 
Undoubtedly the assumption leaves a margin for error. 

22. This total includes eight mortgages filed by six purchasers of railroad land within 
six months after the Santa Fe had issued the deeds. 

23. Charles Lowell Green, "The Administration of the Public Domain in South Dakota," 
South Dakota Historical Collections, v. 20 (1940), pp. 204-225, and Harold Hathaway 
Dunham, Government Handout, A Study in the Administration of the Public Lands, 1875- 
1891, pp. 188-190. Basic material is contained in the Annual Reports of the General Land 
Office during the 1880's, in Thomas Donaldson, The Public Domain, and in the Report 
of the Public Lands Commission (1905). Actually Kinsley township was settled for the 
most part before the abuses of the commutation clause of the homestead act and the pre- 
emption act became most widespread. 


greater than the percentage of homesteaders who mortgaged their 
holdings during the same time. 

Of the 19 purchasers who mortgaged railroad land, ten did so 
within six months after they had obtained their deeds. In every 
case, these men closed out contracts which still had several years 
to run. Presumably these buyers were mortgaging to obtain the 
funds with which to pay off the railroad. Since the prevailing inter- 
est rate on mortgage funds stood above the rate specified in the 
Santa Fe contracts at the time, they must have discerned some other 
advantage in obtaining full title to their land. Such advantage per- 
haps lay in the ability of those who had outright ownership to give 
a warranty deed promptly in case the opportunity to sell presented 

During 1876 and 1877, 13 loans were made on first mortgages in 
Kinsley township. Ten of the mortgagees were residents of Ed- 
wards county. Between 1878 and 1894, the borrowers of Kinsley 
township obtained more than 50% of the funds borrowed on first 
mortgage in all but two years from outside Kansas. Only six loans 
on first mortgages were recorded between 1895 and 1898 but they 
were all obtained within the county. Between 1899 and 1902, out- 
of-state capital was again the most important source of credit. 
Beginning with 1903, however, local lenders became more important 
than nonresident lenders and this continued to be the case through 
1904 and 1905. 



Year Percent Year Percent 

1876 27 1891 82 

1877 24 1892 74 

1878 66 1893 52 

1879 88 1894 96 

1880 99 1895 

1881 100 1896 

1882 . . 1897 

1883 100 1898 

1884 47 1899 77 

1885 60 1900 90 

1886 65 1901 51 

1887 76 1902 83 

1888 96 1903 20 

1889 88 1904 48 

1890 66 1905 42 

The creditors of Kinsley farmers resided in most of the central 
and northeastern seaboard states, as well as in Missouri, Illinois, 


Indiana and Ohio. A few loans may well have come from Great 
Britain. The first Eastern investor to lend money in the township 
was William H. Hanson of Suffolk county, Massachusetts, who in 
1876 lent $350 at 8% per annum on the security of the southeast quar- 
ter of section 6, T25, R19. The next year, E. R. Robbins of Middle- 
bury, Vt, was in the field. With others of his family, he was to 
make numerous loans in the township. In 1878 the National Loan 
and Trust Company of Topeka entered the district. Other com- 
panies followed the next year, which also saw the Travelers' Insur- 
ance Company of Hartford become the first of the Hartford insur- 
ance companies to lend funds in the township. 24 

Many of the most important of the early Western mortgage agen- 
cies lent funds at Kinsley. 25 Of these, the J. B. Watkins Land Mort- 
gage Company of Lawrence made the greatest number of loans 
over the period of this study. 26 Drawing funds from both Great 
Britain and the Eastern United States, this company made at least 
38 first mortgage loans in the township, totaling over $30,000. Fif- 
teen of these loans, however, represented part of the purchase price 
of sales made by the company while disposing of foreclosed land, 
or they were loans drawn by the company on its own land in an 
effort to raise capital. 

An effort was made to work out the proportion of the funds 
loaned on first mortgage which the mortgage agencies brought to 
the township. In only three years, between 1879 and 1888, did 
they handle less than 40%. Again in 1891, 1892 and 1893, the mort- 
gage companies apparently played an important role, but the loans 
of these years were drawn for the most part on the companies' own 
property, as their officials strove to raise funds on the large amounts 
of land which they were foreclosing. By 1894 most of the com- 
panies had entered receivership. In 1901 the J. B. Watkins Land 
Mortgage Company, and the Warren Mortgage Company of Em- 
poria, appeared among the mortgagees in Kinsley township, but 
the loans of the first company represented only a portion of the sale 
price of land which was being sold incident to the liquidation of the 

24. The Annual Reports of the Connecticut Commissioner of Insurance Companies con- 
tain much information on the lending activities of the Hartford companies. See particularly 
1875 and 1876. The lending policy of the Travelers' Insurance Company is described in 
the 1891 Report, pt. 2, pp. xxx and xxxi. 

25. The Annual Reports of the Connecticut Bank Commissioner, 1888-1895, of the 
Massachusetts Commissioner of Foreign Mortgage Companies, 1890-1895, of the New York 
Superintendent of Banking relative to Foreign Mortgage, Loan, Investment and Trust Com- 
panies, 1891-1896, and of the Vermont Inspector of Finance, 1889-1893, provide the most 
satisfactory catalogue of the Western mortgage companies of this period. 

26. A. G. Bogue, "The Land Mortgage Company in the Early Plains States," Agricul- 
tural History, v. 25 (1951), January, pp. 20-33. 


corporation. The Warren Mortgage Company, however, was doing 
a legitimate brokerage business. 

During the heyday of the Western mortgage companies in 1886- 
1887, the newspapers of Kinsley carried the advertisements of at 
least nine loan agents representing mortgage companies, three in- 
digenous loan companies and three local banks. Puffing the agent 
of the Watkins company, the editor of the Kinsley Graphic re- 
marked, "L. W. Higgins is loaning money at rates so low, and on 
time so long that the borrower is liable to forget that he ever has it to 
pay." 27 

The commissions of the mortgage companies and of the local 
agents were often taken in the form of second mortgages. At least 
50% of the second mortgages filed from Kinsley township were of 
this type. The notes backed by such mortgages seldom stipulated 
a rate of interest but merely specified that the principal should be 
paid in ten equal semiannual installments. 

The role of the local banks in the field of farm credit is worth 
mention. Two banks were started in Kinsley during the 1870's. 
The Edwards County Bank began operations as a private bank and 
the Edwards Mercantile Bank grew out of the merchandising busi- 
ness of R. E. and W. C. Edwards. In 1882 the Edwards County 
Bank was organized as a state bank with a capital of $32,000. By 
August, 1887, this capital had been increased to $100,000 and was 
supposedly paid up in full. In January, 1885, the Kinsley Graphic 
listed among the things that it would like to see, "At least two more 
banks in Kinsley so that money could always be had whenever good 
security was furnished." 28 In March, 1887, the Kinsley Exchange 
Bank was organized as a state bank with a capital of $50,000. The 
officers of this institution came from Iowa. During July of the same 
year, the Edwards Mercantile Bank was reorganized as the First 
National Bank of Kinsley. Thus by the summer of 1887 there were 
three incorporated banks at the service of the community. 

Before 1900 the three banks made only eight loans on real estate 
security in Kinsley township totaling $14,563. With the exception 
of three loans to the amount of $4,733, these loans were secured 
by second mortgages which bore a higher rate of interest than did 
the first mortgages of the same years. If the $3,439 lent by R. E. 
Edwards in the same period and secured by six first mortgages and 
five second mortgages is added in, the total of $18,002 allocated by 

27. Kinsley Graphic, March 12, 1886. 

28. Ibid., January 16, 1885. 


local credit agencies still falls far short of the $30,000 which the 
J. B. Watkins Land Mortgage Company provided. The local banks 
were more interested in short term loans backed by chattel or per- 
sonal security than in first mortgage farm loans. 

But the local banks did perform a useful function in the long- 
term field by acting as local agents. The Bank of St. John which 
was located in an adjoining county, the Edwards Mercantile Bank 
and later the First National Bank of Kinsley, the Kinsley Exchange 
Bank, and the Edwards County Bank, all acted as local agents for 
either mortgage companies or individual Eastern investors. If the 
local banking institutions and capitalists did not themselves lend 
heavily on first mortgage they did perform the function of bringing 
lender and borrower together. In 1887 there was a tendency for 
this function to be shifted to a separate agency. The Kinsley 
Loan and Trust Company, which was organized in 1887, num- 
bered R. E. Edwards of the Edwards Mercantile Bank among 
its directors and the Edwards County Investment Company, or- 
ganized at about the same time, listed L. G. Boies of the Ed- 
wards County Bank on its governing board. This development 
marked an attempt on the part of local men to enter the invest- 
ment company field and to obtain all instead of merely part of the 
middleman's fee or commission on funds which were sent from the 
East for investment. 

The local banks shared in the financial misfortunes which struck 
down the nonresident investment and mortgage companies. The 
Edwards County Bank entered receivership in 1890. It was fol- 
lowed three years later by the Kinsley Exchange Bank. The First 
National managed to survive the year 1893 and reorganized under 
a state charter in 1894. 29 

The provisions in the mortgages filed on land in Kinsley town- 
ship varied in their complexity. When the mortgagees were local 
men, the indentures were usually simple and short a mere transfer 
of the security in case the terms of the notes should be broken. The 
mortgages filed by Eastern investors or their agents were much 
longer and filled with a greater variety of terms which were de- 
signed to safeguard the mortgagee. 

In most of the forms used by Eastern investors, the failure of the 
mortgagor to pay taxes and the insurance on improvements promptly 
broke the contract. But in no case of foreclosure in the township 

29. For a comment upon the difficulties faced by a national bank in this area see the 
Kinsley Graphic, February 16, 1894; also James C. Malin, "The Kinsley Boom of the Late 
Eighties," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 4 (1935), May, p. 184. 


did such grounds serve as the sole excuse for bringing suit. Gen- 
erally a clause was included, "waiving all exemption, appraisal and 
redemption laws." Often the mortgagor authorized the levy of $25 
for attorney fees in case he allowed his loan to become delinquent. 
It was generally specified that default would entitle the mortgagee 
to immediate possession of the premises and rents, issues and 
profits. This clause had no validity in so far as actual possession 
upon default was concerned, but evidently did insure that the pur- 
chaser of the sheriff's deed was entitled to any crops growing on the 
security when the deed was issued. Most mortgages recorded by 
nonresident mortgagees named a place of payment in the Eastern 
United States a provision which insured that the mortgagor would 
pay the cost of exchange. 

More unusual was the clause used by J. B. Watkins in 1879, which 
specified that payment should be made "in gold coin of the United 
States of America." This proviso reflected the fear of Watkins' con- 
servative clients that the monetary supply of the country was about 
to be inflated by large infusions of greenbacks or silver. 30 In 1879 
E. R. Bobbins inserted a clause seldom found in the mortgages on 
the land in Kinsley township when he bound several mortgagors to 
"break forty acres of prairie within a year." 31 

The average rate of interest on first mortgage loans stood in 1876 
at 11%. From this figure the trend was downward until 1889, when 
the rates of interest on nine mortgage loans averaged 7.4%. Over the 
next ten years the annual average stood between 8% and 10%, with 
the exception of 1892, when 12 loans called on the average for 
interest payments at the rate of 6.9% per annum. The loans of this 
year were unusual in that five of them were drawn by the J. B. 
Watkins Land Mortgage Company and the Jarvis Conklin Mortgage 
Trust Company on holdings which they had foreclosed. Since the 
companies were themselves paying the interest on these loans, the 
rate was put at 6%, which had little relation to the price of funds in 
Kinsley township. After 1899 the average rate on loans recorded 
from Kinsley township hovered around 7%, with the 22 loans, which 
were recorded in 1905, averaging 6.6%. 

30. Edwards county, "Mortgage Register A," p. 300; J. B. Watkins, Lawrence to Ed- 
ward Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa., December 2, 1878, "J. B. Watkins Papers," University of 

31. Edwards county, "Mortgage Register A," p. 344. 



Number Rate Number Rate 

1876 4 11% 1891 6 8.356 

1877 7 10.7 1892 12 6.9 

1878 12 11.5 1893 9 8.2 

1879 21 9.8 1894 10 8.3 

1880 13 9 1895 2 10 

1881 4 8.5 1896 1 10 

1882 2 11 1897 1 8 

1883 2 9 1898 2 10 

1884 5 9.2 1899 4 8.4 

1885 14 8.4 1900 9 6.9 

1886 33 7.8 1901 18 6.9 

1887 37 7.5 1902 10 6.5 

1888 13 7.6 1903 21 7.3 

1889 9 7.4 1904 17 7.2 

1890 48. 1905 22 6.6 

The mortgagees of Edwards county consistently wrote a higher 
rate of interest into their contracts than did nonresident lenders. 
Invariably the papers negotiated by the Western mortgage com- 
panies called for the lowest average rate of interest. In 1887 for 
example, six loans obtained in Edwards county averaged 9% interest, 
the over-all average of the 37 first mortgage loans recorded from 
the township stood at 7.5%, the 30 mortgages held by nonresidents 
of Kansas averaged 7.3%, and the 22 loans negotiated by the mort- 
gage agencies called for an average rate of 6.9%. 

Comparison of the resident and nonresident rate is complicated 
by the problem of the commission. The local resident who lent his 
own funds or accepted a mortgage as part payment in a real estate 
transaction probably did not take a commission from the mortgagor. 
Both the mortgage companies and their local agents received com- 
missions. Often these commissions were paid by the mortgagor 
in addition to the rate of interest specified in the note and mort- 
gage. But at times the companies wrote a flat or net rate into their 
papers from which they subtracted both their own commission 
and that of their local agents. A 9% loan negotiated by the J. B. 
Watkins Company in August, 1887, was of this type. 32 The note 
specified 9% and that was the actual cost to the borrower. Signifi- 
cantly, the average rate on the six loans obtained locally in that 
year was also 9%. The local and nonresident level tended to equate 
at a common level. The local lender was neither more merciful 
nor more obdurate than the nonresident when specifying the interest 
which his debtor must pay. 

32. See letters of D. M. Sprankle to L. W. Higgins, Kinsley, June-September, 1887, in 
"J. B. Watkins Papers." 


In general, the loans of local lenders were for a shorter period 
of time than those of nonresidents. The early Western mortgage 
companies almost invariably loaned for periods of three or five 
years. Such companies avoided repayment by installments because 
of the extra accounting involved. As competition among the com- 
panies stiffened, however, an increasing number of them gave 
"one year after the first interest payment the privilege of paying 
$100, or multiples thereof, on the principal upon sixty days notice" 
or some similar privilege. Such provisions became almost standard 
with major lending companies after 1900. Payment of the principal 
over a term of years also became very common after the turn of 
the century. 

Of the 343 first mortgages analyzed in this study, judgment was 
rendered against the debtor on 52, or 15%. Only 46 sheriff's deeds 
were issued, however, since a few mortgagors managed to buy 
the judgment before the judicial sale or compromise the case in 
some other way. One sheriff's deed represented the foreclosure of 
three first mortgages obtained by the same mortgagor on different 
portions of his property. Thirty-one first mortgages were termi- 
nated by the mortgagor deeding over his property to the mortgagee, 
his agent or the holder of a second mortgage. Undoubtedly such 
deeding represented failure no less than did the issuance of a 
sheriff's deed. Seventy-nine first mortgages, or 23% of those filed 
in Kinsley township ended, therefore, with the mortgagor giving 
up his land. Some half-dozen purchasers bought encumbered land 
and assumed the payment of first mortgages while giving second 
mortgages of their own as part of the purchase price. Foreclosure 
of the first mortgage wiped out the title of these individuals as well 
as that of the original mortgagors. 

The mortgages negotiated in two groups of years were particu- 
larly ill-fated. Of 36 first mortgages filed in 1879 and 1880, 18, or 
50%, were closed out by foreclosure or deeding. Liquidation took 
place during 1880, 1881 and 1882 for the most part. Of the 88 first 
mortgages recorded in 1886, 1887 and 1888, 40, or 45%, were termi- 
nated disastrously. These last contracts were liquidated between 
1889 and 1893 the years when Populism was born and flourished 
in its greatest vigor. 

In all, 67 individuals and one corporation contributed to the total 
of 79 mortgage contracts which ended in failure. They sacrificed 
22 tracts which had been acquired under the provisions of the 
homestead acts. Reduced to percentages, 33% of the homesteaders 
who gained title in the township, and 58% of the homesteaders who 


attempted to raise funds by mortgaging, failed to retain their home- 
steads because they could not repay their loans. Four out of the 
eight pre-empted tracts which were mortgaged were surrendered, 
representing 25% of all pre-emptions and 50% of the pre-empted 
tracts placed under mortgage by their first owners. The three 
timber claims lost by mortgagors formed 25% of all timber claims, 
and 60% of the timber claims which were mortgaged in Kinsley 
township. Of two commuted homesteads which were encumbered 
by their first owner, one was lost. Among the 61 individuals who 
obtained railroad land deeds, ten lost all or part of their land by 
foreclosure. This figure represented 16% of the successful pur- 
chasers of railroad land and 53% of those who mortgaged their land 
after obtaining title from the Santa Fe. Four of the ten were non- 
residents. In total, 41 out of 79 securities were lost by the individu- 
als who had obtained title to them from the federal government or 
from the Santa Fe. 

Thirty-eight securities, or 49% of those lost by foreclosure, be- 
longed to secondary buyers who had obtained title from the grantees 
of railroad and government. Since most of the mortgaging which 
ended disastrously was done by 1890, this last percentage illustrates 
the speed with which land in the township was transferred out 
of the hands of its original owners. 

Of the 67 unsuccessful mortgagors, a significant percentage of 
individuals were not primarily farmers. Three mortgagors were 
women, of whom two were not residents of the county. At least 
five men were nonresidents at the time of mortgaging and so re- 
mained during the life of their mortgages. Three of this group 
were obviously speculators in railroad land. Two of the local 
mortgagors were bankers connected with the banks which failed 
in Kinsley. One local farmer died and the mortgage was foreclosed 
after his death. Another mortgagor was a tavern keeper attempting 
to make a living in a state bent on becoming dry. One had at- 
tempted to run an ice business in Kinsley. The corporation which 
negotiated an unsuccessful mortgage was the county fair associa- 
tion. Thus 14, or 21%, of the unsuccessful mortgagors were not 
full-time farmers in the community. At least five others had sold 
out to a third party before suit was begun, but the assignees failed 
to meet the payments on the mortgages which they had assumed. 

Among the 67 noncorporate individuals who surrendered land 
by foreclosure or deeding, 36 appear on the agricultural rolls of one 
or more of the censuses taken in 1875, 1880, 1885 and 1895. The 
acres reported in crop by these mortgagors were compared with 


those of the other farmers in the administrative township of Kinsley. 
The crop acres of all the operators at each census date were totaled 
and the farmers divided into upper, middle and lower thirds. Hay 
acreage was not counted, since it represented prairie hay for the 
most part, while acreages in corn, wheat, sorghum, millet, flax, 
barley and oats indicated that the settler had broken the prairie. 
In some cases such a technique would deal unfairly with stock 
farmers, but for the most part the farmers reporting large numbers 
of stock from Kinsley township also reported large crop acreages. 


Crop Acres Lower Middle Upper 

Year Reported by Third Third Third 

1875 33 operators 4-8 8-19 19-60 

1880 134 operators 5-25 26-53 56-645 

1885 60 operators 15-60 65-109 110-315 

1895 81 operators 4-74 75-153 160-672 

Of the 36 unfortunate mortgagors who are listed in the returns 
of the agricultural censuses, 14 reported crop acreages in the upper 
third at the time of the census, immediately prior to their failures. 
Twelve fell in the middle third and ten in the lower third. It is 
probably safe to assume that the crop acreages of most of the un- 
successful operators, who were not caught by a census, would fall 
in the middle or lower brackets, since their residence in the town- 
ship was either of interrupted or short duration. But the 14 who 
reported a crop acreage in the upper third represented 21% of all 
the mortgagors who failed. It was evidently not enough to have 
land broken and in crop. Misfortune could strike the large oper- 
ator as well as the small one in an area where drought might bring 
crop failure in two or three successive years. 

That a settler lost land by foreclosure or deeding did not neces- 
sarily mean that he failed as a farm operator in the community. 
Of the 67 who lost land, eight, or 12%, survived the loss of their 
security and remained as farm operators in the township. One 
settler sacrificed 80 acres of railroad land but retained control of 
240 acres which he obtained under the homestead and timber cul- 
ture acts. In 1905 he reported a farm unit of 1,120 acres, of which 
320 were in field crops. 

M. E. Hetzel reported a farm of 160 acres in 1875, but not until 
1878 did he enter 80 acres as a homestead and buy the other 80 
acres under the terms of the pre-emption act. He mortgaged his 


pre-empted land immediately for $500 and raised $300 locally 
against his homestead, although he did not receive his final certifi- 
cate until 1884. By 1885 he had acquired title to four quarter 
sections near his original holding. One of these he mortgaged for 
$360 in 1880. In 1884 the Kinsley Graphic reported that Hetzel 
had lost $3,000 worth of stock from the plague presumably Texas 
fever. 33 In the same year, his $500 mortgage went to judgment but 
he succeeded in purchasing it. During 1885 and 1886, Hetzel raised 
$4,500 on the security of first mortgages in the East and negotiated 
another $4,000 worth of second mortgages with local parties, in- 
cluding two of the banks. In 1886 and 1887, Hetzel deeded 640 
acres of land to the Edwards County Bank. In 1892 Hetzel began 
to buy back this acreage, using a $4,800 mortgage as partial pay- 
ment for the first 320 acres. By 1905 Hetzel could report a farm 
unit of 1,000 acres of which 440 were in field crops, as well as a 
herd of 150 cattle. 

Despite a significant number of exceptions, most of the mort- 
gagors who lost their security disappeared from the records of the 
county thereafter. Many of them had left long before suit was 
brought against them. At least 80% of the foreclosure cases in the 
township were extremely simple; the defendants neither demurred, 
answered, nor appeared. One settler, however, enlivened the 
court record with a show of patent bad faith when he mortgaged 
a quarter section adjacent to his own and later asserted that the 
indenture, was a forgery. 34 

It is possible to exaggerate both the amount of land which was 
under mortgage at any one time and the amount of land which 
was foreclosed or deeded. On January 1, 1890, there was probably 
more land under mortgage in the township than at any other time 
during the 30 years of this study. Most of the mortgage debt of 
1886 and 1887 which was to be liquidated in the early 1890's still 
stood untouched. Yet at this date only some 12,000 acres, or be- 
tween 40 and 45% of the agricultural land in Kinsley township, was 
mortgaged. A veteran real estate agent of Kinsley estimated in 
his biography that in ". . . 1893 and 1894, at least two thirds 
of the land in the county . . . had been taken over and was 
owned by the loan companies and private investors all over the 
east." 35 The actual figures for Kinsley township are hardly so 

33. Kinsley Graphic, November 21, 1884. 

34. D. W. McConaugh vs. Frank C. Badger, filed in the district court of Edwards county, 
September, 1890, "Journal D," p. 286. 

35. G. E. Wilson, Autobiography (Kinsley, 1947), p. 27. 



generous. In all, the security surrendered by the 67 individuals 
and one corporation over 30 years, totaled some 11,200 acres, or 
40%, of the agricultural land in the township. 

Some attempt to correlate foreclosures and deeding with soil 
fertility in Kinsley township may be made. North and west of the 
Arkansas river, variations in soil and topography are not extreme 
enough to check against the statistics of foreclosure and deeding. 
The sand hills southeast of the Arkansas are infertile and the fact 
was recognized locally at an early date. The editor of the Kinsley 
Graphic wrote in 1887, 

Occasionally some eastern sucker gets salted upon a slice off the juicy 
side of the sand hills lying along the course of the Arkansas river. There are 
two things those hills are especially adapted to; one is to raise goats upon and 
the other is to be exchanged for eastern property belonging to parties who 
have never saw them. 36 

But mortgagees, or their local agents, paid too little attention to 
such local wisdom. Four sheriff's deeds were issued on some 600 
acres of land in the sand hills. In addition, one mortgagor deeded 
a quarter section to his mortgagee, while the Interstate Galloway 
Cattle Company deeded 960 acres of land in the area to one of its 
creditors. Some 1,700 acres, therefore, out of 2,350, or 72% of the 
sand hills area, changed hands by foreclosure or deeding in the 
30-year period. 

By no means all of the foreclosed and deeded land was in the 
hands of the mortgagees at any one time, although the largest part 
of it was in their custody during the early 1890's. Until the market 
for real estate collapsed utterly in the early 1890's, the mortgage 
agencies and Eastern investors sought to sell their foreclosed land 
as rapidly as possible. The mortgage companies at least were 
under considerable incentive to reconvert their operating capital 
to liquid form. When the land market disappeared, the investors 
and the receivers, or liquidating agencies of the mortgage com- 
panies, held until there was a market and then resold. By 1897 the 
local farmers were again interested in adding to their holdings. 
Their purchases before 1905 significantly altered the size of farm 
units in Kinsley township. Where 52% of the farmers reported a 
farm unit of 160 acres or less in 1895, ten years later only 23% of the 
farmers reported such a unit, while 64% listed farms of 241 acres or 
more, as compared with 39% at the previous census date. 

It is obvious that the liquidation of the 1890's was a painful one 
in Kinsley township, although proportionately a smaller group of 

36. Kinsley Graphic, April 22, 1887. 


mortgagors failed than was the case in the early 1880's. The statis- 
tics of deeding and foreclosure cannot show the instances where 
proceedings were begun and dropped before a journal entry was 
made. Nor do they show the number of mortgagors whom one 
more poor crop would have placed in like case with their less 
fortunate fellows. On the other hand, the bald totals of mortgages 
and encumbered acres do not differentiate between the genuine 
settler who mortgaged to equip his farm or to tide himself over 
a poor year and the petty speculator who mortgaged merely to 
support himself until he could sell his holdings. When the schemes 
of the latter type went astray, he was quite willing to pull out and 
leave his creditor to realize upon the security. 

Although willing enough to accept the services of the money 
lender, the farmers of Edwards county were also willing to criticize 
him. By 1884 the leading capitalist of Kinsley had been dubbed 
"old three percent a month." 37 When L. G. Boies ran as Republi- 
can candidate for the state legislature in 1888 he was opposed be- 
cause he was a banker. 38 In 1892 a local paper reprinted the ac- 
cusation of the Mankato Advocate that the mortgage companies 
were foreclosing in an effort to obtain the land of the farmers of 
Kansas, although actually the foreclosures were to ruin the com- 
panies no less than the farmers. 39 Popular feeling against the 
money lender contributed no little to the unrest which saw the 
local Farmers' Alliance men take over the county offices and news- 
paper during the early 1890's, and help to send Jerry Simpson to 
congress from the seventh electoral district. 40 

37. Ibid., December 5, 1884. 

38. Kinsley Banner-Graphic, October 12, 1888; Kinsley Mercury, November 15, 1888. 

39. Kinsley Graphic, April 29, 1892. 

40. See James C. Malin, "The Kinsley Boom of the Late Eighties," loc. cit., pp. 173-178. 

Vincent B. Osborne's Civil War Experiences 


A LTHOUGH nearly a third of Kansas' counties bear the names 
** of men who were Civil War officers, only two privates have 
been thus honored. One of them was Vincent B. Osborne, who 
served as a Kansas volunteer soldier for three and a half years, was 
twice wounded, and had a leg amputated in 1865. 1 

Nothing is known of Osborne's early life, except that he was born 
March 4, 1839, in Hampden county, Massachusetts. He was 22 
years old when he enlisted in July, 1861, in the Second Kansas in- 
fantry, at Clinton, Mo. He must then have lived in Missouri, for 
he suggests (see p. 122) that his life would have been in jeopardy 
had he been captured by Missouri rebels. 

One month after joining the army, Private Osborne was wounded 
in the thigh during the battle of Wilson's Creek (August 10, 1861), 
and was hospitalized for almost six months in St. Louis. Before he 
recovered, the Second Kansas infantry had been mustered out of 
service. Osborne re-enlisted, along with other veterans of this 
short-lived regiment, in the Second Kansas cavalry which was be- 
ing organized in the early part of 1862. He was mustered in at 
Leavenworth on February 19, and assigned to Company A, com- 
manded by his former captain, Samuel J. Crawford. 

Between March and September, 1862, Osborne's, company rode 
more than 1,500 miles on escort duty, traveling from Fort Riley, 
over the military and Santa Fe roads, to Fort Union, N. M., and 

Returning to the regiment in the fall, Company A fought in a 
number of skirmishes and several important engagements, as the 
Second Kansas took part in a campaign against the rebel forces of 
Generals Marmaduke and Hindman, in Missouri and Arkansas. 
Osborne describes, at some length, the battles of Old Fort Wayne 
(October 22), Cane Hill (November 28) and Prairie Grove (De- 
cember 7). 

In the early part of 1863 Osborne was a hospital attendant at 
Fayetteville, Ark., and at Fort Scott. During the rest of the year, 

JOYCE FARLOW, a graduate of Alabama College, Montevallo, Ala., was a senior student 
when this editorial work was done. LOUISE BARRY, now on leave, is in charge of the manu- 
scripts division of the Kansas State Historical Society. 

1. The other county named for a private is Rooks for Pvt. John C. Rooks. Two 
counties have been named for noncommissioned officers: Ness, for Cpl. Noah V. Ness, and 
Harper, for Sgt. Marion Harper. 



and in 1864, he was on detached duty much of the time, serving 
as messenger at district headquarters, Fort Smith, Ark., in the lat- 
ter year. 

On January 16, 1865, he left Fort Smith, on board the Annie 
Jacobs, to rejoin his regiment. Next day, at Joy's Ford, rebels 
shelled the steamboat and forced it aground. During the firing 
Osborne was severely wounded in the leg while helping to tie up 
the boat. Two days later, at Clarksville, Ark., his leg was ampu- 
tated. When he left the hospital six months later, the war was over. 
In 1866 he came to Kansas, having been appointed sutler at Fort 
Marker by Secretary of War Stanton, upon the recommendation of 
Gov. Samuel J. Crawford, who had been Osborne's company com- 
mander. In 1867 he settled in the near-by frontier town of Ells- 
worth. On June 22 of that year Governor Crawford appointed him 
a special commissioner (along wth Ira S. Clark and John H. Ed- 
wards ) to organize Ellsworth county. 

Four years later, when another county to the north and west was 
being organized, it was named for Vincent B. Osborne. It was also 
in 1871 that Osborne was elected to the state legislature from Ells- 
worth county, serving during the session of 1872. 

He married Nellie V. (Henry) Whitney, widow of Sheriff C. B. 
Whitney who was killed in 1873. Their daughter Katie, born in 
1877, died the same year. 

Osborne was highly regarded by the people of his county. When 
he was admitted to the bar (by the district court) in October, 1875, 
the Ellsworth Reporter recalled his fine war record, noted that a 
county and city had been named for him, and stated that he 
". . . is today probably one of the most popular men in the 

During the 1870's he held several local offices, being a justice of 
the peace in 1872-1873, probate judge from 1873-1879, and town- 
ship trustee for several years. At the time of his death he was city 
clerk, probate judge, and president of the newly-organized Ells- 
worth County Agricultural and Mechanical Association. 

He died, after a short illness, on December 1, 1879, at the age of 
40. One of his Civil War comrades later said of him: "Osborne 
was one of the bravest soldiers that I ever knew, and a gentle- 
man/' 2 

nf l;nc S % C I7 f ^ in fe rma ^ 0n ,o 1 ?, 9 sborne: Report f the Adjutant General of the State 
42S 2$^' ^ 861 - 65 ,/ T Pka, 1896) pp. 72, 81; Kansas Historical Collections, v. 10, pp. 
Fllfv ? ; P Com JP end ^ ous H^ory of Ellsworth County, Kansas (Ellsworth, 1879), p. 52- 
Ellsworth Reporter, July 1 October 28, 1875, December 4, 1879; Osborne County Farmer' 
9^ December 13, 1934; Cemetery Records of Ellsworth County, Kansas, compiled I by 
Smoky Hill chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, 1938-1939 v 1 


Osborne wrote his Civil War experiences in four manuscripts. 
They are now owned by Mrs. Murray C. Flynn, granddaughter of 
Mrs. Osborne by a third marriage. The variations in paper, ink, 
size of handwriting, etc., make it evident that the narratives were 
written at different times, but all of them appear to have been 
written in the 1860's. Osborne's journal style in parts of the nar- 
ratives indicates that he probably kept a diary, or notes, while in 
the army. 

The first narrative (for 1861), and the second (for 1862-1865), 
have no titles. The third, headed "Southwest Expedition No. 1," 
is an expanded account of the campaign into Missouri and Arkansas 
in the fall of 1862. The fourth, entitled "History of My Last 
Wound," deals with the action on January 16, 1865, and his hos- 
pitalization. All the manuscripts have been brought together into 
one narrative (which will be published in two parts) by substi- 
tuting the more extensive accounts of the third and fourth manu- 
scripts for the briefer (and less interesting) ones within the second 
narrative. This has seemed necessary in order to utilize the best 
of Osborne's writing, and also practicable because of missing sec- 
tions in the second narrative. 

[In Missouri, with the Second Kansas Infantry] 

On Thursday the llth day of July 1861 I first enlisted in the 
army I enlisted in the 2nd regiment Kansas Vol. a part of Sturgis 
brigade on the Osage river a few miles from Oseola in the western 
part of the state of Missouri This division of the army was under 
the command of Gen. [Nathaniel] Lyon a brave and gallant officer 8 
The whole command consisted of a few companies of regulars the 
Iowa 1st Vol. the First and 2nd Kansas and the First Mo. the 
whole army did not consist of more than 4000 men This army was 
marching to join Col Seigel who was at Springfield with 1500 
men We were also in pursuit of the rebel Gen Price McCulloch 

3. Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, U. S. volunteers, assumed command of the Army of the 
West on May 31, 1861. His forces, in four brigades, totaled about 5,800 men. The first 
brigade (under Maj. Samuel D. Sturgis) included four companies of cavalry, four First 
U. S. infantry companies, two Second Missouri companies and Capt. James Totten's Second 
U. S. artillery company. The second brigade (under Col. Franz Sigel) consisted largely 
of the Third and Fifth Missouri regiments. The third brigade (under Lt. Col. George L. 
Andrews) contained the First Missouri regiment, four companies of U. S. infantry and an 
artillery battery. The fourth brigade (under Col. George W. Deitzler) was made up of 
the First and Second Kansas, and the First Iowa regiments. 

The Confederate forces which opposed General Lyon were rebel Missourians under 
Maj. Gen. Sterling Price and Brig. Gen. James S. Rains. They were estimated to number 
at least 15,000 men. An additional rebel force of some 5,000 troops under Brig. Gen. 
Ben. McCulloch, of Texas, was also in Missouri. War of the Rebellion . . , (Wash- 
ington, 1881), Series I, v. 3, p. 48. 


and Rains who were about overrunning the western part of the 
state We marched on through Stockton and Melville to Camp 
Seigel which was about twelve miles north of Springfield ariving 
there on Sunday [July 14] about 2 [?] o'clock P. M. I was on 
guard detail there the first night for the first time in my life but as 
we did not have very strict instructions I got along very well 

At this place I saw a man shot for murder he was shot on dress 
parade he was brought up in front the coffin was brought also 
and he knelt down on it his legs were tied and his eyes blind- 
folded There was twelve men of the guard to shoot him Thier 
muskets were loaded by other persons one half with blank cart- 
riges no man knowing whether thier gun had a ball in it or not 
when the order was given to fire the muskets roared simultaneously 
and the prisoner was no more We stayed at camp Seigel from 
Sunday till the next Saturday morning Each day while we were 
there we had a company and battallion drill here was where I 
learnt most of drilling the first summer While there we lived on 
half rations of bread but we had plenty of meat. 

On Saturday [July 20] we loaded our baggage and started for 
Springfield We arrived in town about noon went in to town 
stopped and stacked arms for a half hour We were not allowed 
to leave our arms but to get water which we procured at a well 
near by At the expiration of a half an hour we marched on We 
soon after ascertained that we were going to a small town fifty 
miles a little east of south of Springfield named Forsyth where there 
was a body of [manuscript faded] We were under the command 
of Gen. [Thomas W.] Sweeny an officer that had his arm shot off 
in the Mexican war The command consisted of Five companies of 
the Iowa 1st the 2nd Kansas and a company of regular cavalry and 
1 Section of Tottens battery We camped on James river the first 
night, a stream of considerable size and had a good bridge across 
it. I was on guard here it rained nearly all night and till about 
six the next day We commenced drawing full rations here again. 

We left camp early the next morning the rain falling in torrent 
about noon we arived at Osark a small town near the moun- 
tains we stacked arms and stayed there an hour We captured 
some boots which were distributed among the soldiers As we left 
this place the officers gave each of us a dram of whiskey which 
made us feel better after our morning drenching Then we 
marched out five miles from town and camped in an old field near 
there was a good spring the ground was very wet and muddy 


After supper about forty of us went about a quarter of a mile back 
into the woods and slept in a meeting house The next morning 
went back to camp got breakfast and marched on In an hour we 
were in the Osark mountains These mountains were not masses 
of rock like those in Mass, but were composed of gravel and cov- 
ered with timber, but the timber is not very valueable There is 
some yellow pine but not of large growth and the hills are so steep 
that but little of it can be got away The land is not fit for culti- 
vation the streams are very clear water and springs are abundant 
The inhabitants apear to be nearly all Unionists a considerable 
number joining us in our expedition to Forsyth This part of the 
country is thinly inhabited and has some game We halted about 
nine miles from Forsyth at three oclock P. M. eat some crackers 
and [meat?] then marched on 

We had gone about 4& miles when orders came to Col. Michel 4 
to bring up his regt on double quick time and double quick we did 
in earnest We were now sure that we were going to have a fight 
with the enemy and there was a very good prospect of it The 
battery come up with us and was with us the rest of the way Be- 
fore reaching Forsyth we crossed White river then going about 20 
rods threw down a high rail fence and went into a field The 
battery took a position near or in a Timothy field but we rushed 
on and formed on coming to the river again then crossed the river 
again and pushed forward into the town On ariving in town no 
enemy was to be seen even the inhabitants had left. The battery 
first threw shells into the court house and some on a hill just east 
of it. Co. E was sent to the court house to guard it and we were 
pleased to get to rest ourselves of the days march of thirty miles. 

It was now sundown About dark we marched to quarters in a 
house which had been deserted by it[s] occupants a library was 
in the house mostly filled with law books excepting a few bed 
steads there was no furniture in the house We stacked arms in the 
house and some of us commenced getting supper and some lay 
down on the floor to sleep prefering rest to supper After I rested 
a little while I went up town to see what was going on The reg- 
ulars were passing around Port Wine in buckets I found out 
where they got it went around there found some men there 
some rolling off barrels of liquer others drinking very freely out of 
a barrel of Port Wine which had the head knocked in and it was 
about two thirds full But an officer coming round put a stop to 

4. Col. Robert B. Mitchell, commanding officer of the Second Kansas infantry. 


all this I soon went back to quarters lay down on the floor and 
slept till morning The next morning eat breakfast and went up 
town The secession flag pole had been cut down and a consid- 
erable quantity of Groceries Provitions, Clothing, Bullets, lead and 
Tobacco and old guns were confisticated 

About ten o'clock A. M. On Tuesday morning [July 23] we 
started back towards Springfield We went about 12 miles and 
camped on a stream of very clear water Here I done my first 
cooking staying up till twelve oclock at night then lay down and 
slept till morning Twenty of the company were on picket this 
night The next morning we left camp early and went to our for- 
mer camping place five miles from Osark. The next day we went 
to Springfield We camped one mile from town at night and 
marched the next day to camp Seigel near a small town called 
Little York which is about ten miles from Springfield We arived 
here on Friday the [26th] day of July a little after seven and rested 
Saturday. Sunday we had a regimental inspection of arms At 
four oclock P. M. we had a dress parade and after that preach- 
ing the only time that I heard preaching while I was fit for duty 

We drilled here considerably We were camped on the top of a 
high ridge The other regiments and batteries moved on to the top 
of the ridge three days after we arived there excepting the 1st Iowa 
which was still camped on the oposite side of the creek from 
us We slept on our arms every night after the brigade was camped 
in line and had them inspected twice a day One night we had an 
alarm caused by some rebel firing on one of our videttes We 
turned out in about two minutes and formed in line but soon after 
went to our tents and lay down 

On Wednesday afternoon [July 31] we recieved orders to be 
ready to march at fifteen minutes warning Tents were struck 
wagons loaded and every thing put in readiness About sundown 
we took up our line of march starting in a southeast direction We 
marched till about twelve oclock had our muskets loaded and 
capped at twelve oclock we stopped got some water and then 
lay down and slept till morning In the morning we got breakfast 
and then marched forward soon intersecting the road leading to 
the south west Here was Col. Seigel and his brigade waiting for 
us We passed on and CoJ. Seigel fell in with his brigade to the 
rear of [us] The day was intensely hot and the road very dusty. 
Many men were obliged to stop by the side of the road on account 
of the intense heat About ten oclock our advance fired into the 


enemies picket causing the latter to fall back About noon we got 
water out of a well near the road and by marching slower after that 
suffered less 

We arrived at Dug Springs about two oclock halted here, hear- 
ing that the enemy were ahead in strong force and a good posi- 
tion At four oclock we took up a position for the night Second 
Kan. took a position on the left of the road the batteries on the 
road and the Iowa 1st on the right We stacked arms but were not 
allowed to leave them. Soon after we were brought into line again 
the enemy advancing on the front Maj. [W. F.] Cloud was sent 
out on the flank with four companies but no enemy were seen in 
that direction The enemy still advanced in front till within range 
of Tottens battery. When Totten opened his [fire] the rebels fled, 
in the utmost confusion, and advanced on us no more that 
day Several of the enemy were killed and wounded. Our cavalry 
had skirmished with them nearly all the afternoon It was here 
that Capt. [David S.] Stanley made his brilliant charge routing the 
enemy and killing some of them for which he was promoted to 
Brig. Gen. 

We stood in line till about sundown then got our supper. No 
tents or baggage was allowed to be unloaded as the train was 
brought up into line just to the rear of the color line We stacked 
arms but were obliged to keep a guard over them Co. E was de- 
tailed for picket guard Just after dark we marched out about a 
quarter of a mile on the left flank halted and divided into three 
reliefs and stationed one relief immediately, the others lay down 
and slept I was on first relief The sentinels were posted in a 
circle each one having a short beat I was very tired but had no 
difficulty in keeping a wake The reserve of the picket was sta- 
tioned under some trees just at the edge of the circle After coming 
off post I lay down and slept as soundly as if I was on a feather bed 

[Engagement at Dug Springs, Mo., August 2, 1861] 

Just as it became light we were marched back to camp and get- 
ting a hasty breakfast were marched out to the road there we 
halted a few moments for the command to get formed prop- 
erly The 2nd Kansas was near the centre. We marched down a 
hollow about two miles then over a ridge for two miles far- 
ther While yet on the ridge orders were sent back to us to pass 
to the front Just before going down into the hollow we could 
discover the dust rising up the opposite hill in the road where the 


rebels were retreating Supposing that they would advance again, 
Gen Lyon dispatched the 1st Iowa on the right of the road and the 
2nd Kansas on the left and crossing the hollow we marched up the 
hill. We formed an ambuscade but the rebels did not tackle 
us The men at the battery got sight of them and sending a few 
shells over caused the rebels to retreat 

We marched up the hill in the timber paralell to the road and 
about one hundred and fifty yards from it By this time the day 
had become intensely hot and we not having had any water since 
early in the morning many of the men fell down exhausted and 
choking from thirst On our arival at the summit of the hill we 
by bearing to the right intersected the road but the enemy had 
made good his escape We nftw hoisted our flag on the telegraph 
pole to prevent our being fired into by our battery from the op- 
posite hill About one third of our men had been left on the hill 
side exhausted At a house near the top of the hill we found a 
barrel of water but were not allowed to swallow any for fear it 
might have been poisoned We wet our heads and put some into 
our mouths and washed them out then spit it out. Some of the 
men went into a field and got some Sugar Cane and by chewing 
that quenched thier thirst Dr. Patee 5 came up and gave medacine 
to such as needed it I ate an ear of green corn raw that tasted de- 

After resting about an hour during which time most of our men 
came up, we marched forward having heard that there was a spring 
about a mile in advance Orders having been sent to Col. Mitchel 
to advance if he thought best if not to fall back The advance 
seemed to please Col. Mitchel the best and away we went Capt 
Woods 6 cavalry in advance We advanced about one mile to one 
of the cool clear springs of delicious water which are so plenty in 
that section of country Col. Mitchel would not allow us to drink 
till we had washed and then cautioned us not to drink to much 1 
never tasted water that tasted so delitiously. After drinking what 
we wanted we were permited to go into an orchard and get what 
apples we wanted This place was called McCollocks Ranche [Mc- 
Culla's Farm] after the man that lived on it We now had the 
advance the command had stopped at a spring two miles back, 
the country was covered with thick short oak trees which would 
conceal an enemy perfectly occasionly some of the enemy would 

5. Asst. Surgeon Eliphalet L. Patee of Manhattan. 

6. Capt. Samuel N. Wood, commanding Company I, Second Kansas infantry. 


show them selves but we were prepared to recieve them at any 
time Three of the rebels were taken prisoners The rebels might 
have come into the rear of us and cut us entirely from the com- 
mand An alarm was given after we had got sufficiently rested to 
feel well and we were brought into line and the cavalry sent out 
to recoinoitre The cavalry captured a carridge and a small mule 
and an old wagon. 

Gen. Lyon came up to us in the course of the afternoon with 
a company of dragoons but did not stay long About five oclock 
we fell in to march back The prisoners were placed in ranks on 
foot and marched back to McCullocks [McCulla's] Spring We 
arived at camp a little before sundown and camped on the op- 
posite side of the road from the spring on a steep ridge which was 
covered with gravel We got us some supper and lay down and 
slept till the next morning 

Early the next morning we were roused up got breakfast and 
prepared to march All surplus baggage was taken out of the 
wagons and burned so as to take every man along that might be 
sun struck or fatigued that they could not travel This day we 
took it very leisurely getting to camp at Double Springs a little 
after dark making fourteen miles. At this place we just pitched 
into rebel property for the first time a field on the oposite side 
of the road from where we were camped suffered terribly the 
fence was burned the corn taken and much of it boiled or roasted 
by us and the stalks fed to the animals Our camp was on a ridge 
the east side of the road very rocky There our arms were stacked 
and only half of the company allowed to leave at a time 

The next morning [August 3] we left camp early for Springfield 
marched leisurely and arived there about one oclock P. M. Waited 
there some time for orders where to camp and then marched out 
about half a mile west of the court house and camped in a meadow 
near where Fort No. 2 stands now. After stacking our arms we 
went back into a pasture and rested ourselves under some trees 
Here under some trees we done our cooking and stayed most of the 
time in day light. At night we had orders to sleep in line on our 
arms with our accoutrements on The next day we rested washed 
our clothes &c. but we had to hold ourselves in readiness to march 
at short notice we now drew plenty of rations and ate plenty of 
apples from an orchard near which we baked or boiled to eat We 
had a roll call now every two hours to prevent any men leaving 


The rebels had followed us on our return from Dug Springs they 
had already come as far as Wilsons Creek ten miles from here We 
slept the second night in line the same as the first the ranks lying 
with thier feet together and thier heads opposite to each other One 
night about dark we were marched out to supprise the enemy at 
daylight but after marching till midnight saw a rocket sent up 
away to the left supposed to be a signal of our movement On see- 
ing this Gen. Lyon ordered a halt and soon we were ordered back 
to camp ariving there about sunrise The next day in the afternoon 
we marched out of town on the Little York road for four miles and 
waited about two hours for the rebels to attact us but they did not 
come Then we marched back into town and volunteers were 
called for to march out and supprise the enemy but soldiers were 
not very prompt volunteering, but soon orders came to march back 
to camp this object having been abandoned. The weather was now 
most intensely hot, so that we could not sleep in the heat of the day 

[The Battle of Wilsons Creek, August 10, 186P] 

On Friday the 9th of Aug about four oclock in the afternoon the 
whole command fired off thier guns and cleaned them and were 
ordered to get ready to march by six oclock P. M. with one days 
rations in our haversack At the hour appointed we fell in line 
and were ready to march We had forty rounds of cartriges in our 
cartrige boxes and our guns loaded Our train was loaded and 
driven up into the town as usual when we left camp The sick 
were all sent into town Four hundred Home Guards were left to 
guard the town The rest of the command all went out Col. 
Seigel with his brigade went out on the Telegraph road a few 
miles then turned to the left and went round and attacted the 
enemy at Sharpe's house on the south side of Wilsons Creek, the 
enemy were north west of him camped along the creek. Gen. Lyon 

7. In his report of the battle of Wilson's creek (also known as the battle of Oak Hills), 
Union Major General Fremont stated: "General Lyon, in three columns, under himself, 
Sigel, and Sturgis, attacked the enemy at 6:30 o'clock on the morning of the 10th, 9 
miles southeast of Springfield. Engagement severe. Our loss about 800 killed and wounded. 
General Lyon killed in charge at head of his column. Our force 8,000, including 2,000 
Home Guards. Muster roll reported taken from the enemy 23,000, including regiments 
from Louisiana, Tennessee, Mississippi, with Texan Rangers and Cherokee half-breeds. 
This statement corroborated by prisoners." War of the Rebellion, Series I, v. 3, p. 54. 

Brigadier General McCulloch, who commanded the Confederate forces, stated in his 
official report that his ". . . effective force was 5,300 infantry, 15 pieces of artillery, 
and 6,000 horsemen, armed with flint-lock muskets, rifles, and shot-guns. . . ." He 
also stated: "The force of the enemy, between nine and ten thousand, was composed of 
well-disciplined troops, well armed, and a large part of them belonging to the old Army 
of the United States. With every advantage on their side they have met with a signal 
repulse. The loss of the enemy is 800 killed, 1,000 wounded, and 300 prisoners. We 
captured six pieces of artillery, several hundred stand of small arms, and several of their 
standards. . . . Our loss was also severe, and we mourn the death of many a gallant 
officer and soldier. Our killed amounts to 265, 800 wounded, and 30 missing. . , ." 
Ibid., pp. 104, 106. 


commanded the other brigade in person which consisted of the 1st 
Mo, 1st Iowa, 1st & 2nd Kansas Totten's and Dubois batteries 
Four companies of regular Inft. and two companies of rifle re- 
cruits from St. Louis, also some cavalry in all numbering about 
three thousand men Col Seigel command numbered about twelve 
hundred men with six peices of artilery We left camp about sun- 
down and went out west on the Little York road four and one half 
miles then turned to the left and went across the prairie in nearly 
a southerly direction but not on any road 

About 12 oclock we halted and lay down and slept as soundly 
as though we were at home in our beds till just as light was coming 
in the eastern horizon We then got up fell in and marched on 
When first getting sight of thier camp thier tents were still stand- 
ing We had succeeded in completely supprising them We 
marched also in the rear of them south west of thier camp We 
succeeded in getting an exelent position Cheers would occasion- 
ally resound from our lines commencing in the front and being 
caught up along the lines would go to the rear The artilery suc- 
ceded in getting an exelent position and opened on the enemy. 
This was a signal for Col. Seigel to attact with his brigade and 
soon we had the satisfaction of hearing his artilery The 1st Mo, 
1st Iowa, and some rifle recruit were formed on the right and left 
of the batteries Four companies of regulars and the 1st Kansas 
followed the creek down. The Kansas 2nd was the reserve 

The battle was now fairly commenced. The artilery fire was as 
fast as any one could count and the roar of musketry was inces- 
sant We were stationed in a ravine in sight of one of the enemies 
guns which kept firing at us but the balls passed far over our 
heads A rebel lay dead near where we were the first man I had 
ever seen that was killed in battle This firing continued for some 
time say half an hour when it gradually abated and silence reigned 
once more the wounded were now being brought off the field, 
and preperations made for another fight. The rebels sent flankers 
out which once came in sight of our hospital Soon firing com- 
menced on the hill once more One of our men was wounded in 
the shin while here 

At about eight oclock Lieut. Col. Blair 8 came back from the hill 
bringing orders from Gen. Lyon to have the 2nd Kansas brought 
forward and we marched up the hill just in the rear of the line of 
the Iowa 1st As we marched on amid the dead and wounded of 

8. Lt. Col. Charles W. Blair, second in command of the Second Kansas infantry. 


that brave regiment I heard one exclaim as he stood leaning against 
the body of a tree apparently wounded in the leg. We have had 
an awful hard fight a great many of our boys killed We passed 
on by Tottens battery when a six pound ball struct the ground 
just to the rear of me striking just by a mans feet making him lame 
but not seriously injuring him Soon firing was heard in our ad- 
vance the regiment had just time to fire when the enemy rose up 
in front of [us] and poured a volley into our ranks which was very 
well sent as that single volley killing and wounding more men than 
all the rest of the battle The second man from me fell mortally 
wounded This volley threw us into some confusion but Gen. Lyon 
riding along just then on a bay horse his gray having been killed 
under him before with his hat in his hand flourishing it over his 
head and ordering us to stand up to them and drive them back we 
again formed our line and soon repulsed the enemy Gen. Lyon 
was killed just after he passed us Col. Mitchel was also wounded 
severly in the groin For a few moments we fought without a field 
officer just as the action was over Lieut. [Colonel] Blair came up 
and took command of the regiment. 

The enemy now amused themselves by creeping up near some 
tree in front of us about a hundred yards and rising up and firing 
into our ranks and then falling down but whenever one showed 
himself he was fired at by our men so much that they soon stoped 
it Maj. Cloud came up about this time he had been out re- 
coinoitering in the south and west of us We were now left in 
possession of the field. The wounded were taken to the rear and 
we had time to rest ourselves In this action a ball passed between 
my legs without hurting them only making my right leg smart con- 
siderably The rebels soon exhibited signs of another attack they 
planted a flag about two hundred yards in front of and brought a 
battery up on a point to the left front of us with the United States 
flag on it but soon as they got a position opened on us with grape 
and canister by this time we had our line formed almost directly 
north and south and we sat down in ranks Two shots from the 
rebel battery passed through the branches of a tree I was standing 
under & One grape shot struct just in front of me and bounded 
through the ranks but did not hit any one During this rest a rebel 
rode up to the rear of [us] supposing us to be rebels and inquired 
where to take his train he was ordered to halt by Capt. Russell 9 
and at that discovered his mistake and wheeling his horse attempted 

9. Capt. Avra P. Russell, commanding Company G, Second Kansas infantry. 


to escape but Capt. Russell drew his revolver and fired killing the 
rebel instantly 

While resting in line an officer came riding up in front and said 
that the rebels were advancing in large force up a ravine in front 
of us At this we moved a little to the right and two peices of ar- 
tilery were placed on the right of the company and the rest of the 
regiment sent still fa[r]ther to the right so as to give them room I 
was on the extreme right of the company and near the battery by 
a tree top that lay on the ground The battery fired as soon as they 
got thier position The enemy commenced firing when about three 
hundred yards distant keeping steadily advancing. Our fire was 
reserved till within two hundred yards then we opened still in the 
jesture [?] of Scott tactics of charge bayonets against cavalry The 
balls flew around us like hail but fortunately mostly over us 

I had fired three times and was loading again when a ball struct 
my thigh on the outside midway between the knee and hip, the ball 
passed in obliquely going towards the femer striking it about three 
inches below the acetabulum enough to the rear to glance off 
without breaking the bone and after turning a revolution endwise 
lodged in the thick part of the thigh The feeling when it struct 
my leg was like striking it with something blunt without any sharp 
pain in the vicinity of the wound It caused a slight dizziness at 
first and I thought I was shot both in the foot and leg. This sup- 
position was increased by a round hole in my boot which I had cut 
a few days previous on account of it hurting my ancle and to my 
dizzy brain it looked just like a bullet hole The feeling in my foot 
was about the same [as if] one had hit it with a hammer I looked 
first at my foot and then felt my leg and looked to see iff it was 
bleeding much, run two of my fingers in the hole, but acertaining 
that it was not bleeding much commenced to think about the con- 
dition I left my gun in for I could not regolect how far I had gone 
towards loading it. As near as I could acertain I had torn the 
cartrige and was in the act of pouring the powder in the muzzle. 
A ball had struct my gun bruiseing the barrel and stock but not 
injureing it for present use 

Soon after recieving my wound I got up and started for the rear 
but had proceeded but a few paces when I laid down The bullets 
now flew thicker than ever two passed within a few inches of my 
head as I was lying down Once I thought I would go and sit by 
a tree near by but thinking I would wait till a cessation of the strife 
lay still When the firing had nearly ceased I got up and went to 


the tree and sat down for a moment and examined my thigh once 
more and thinking it to be a slight wound determined not to be a 
coward and go back into ranks picked up my gun and started but 
at this moment the firing nearly ceased and Col. Blair gave the 
order About Face foward Slow time March. I now commenced 
going off the field using my gun for a cruch the line of the regi- 
ment passed me as I could not get over the rough ground but 
slowly As I was going up the opposite hill I heard firing in the 
rear and turning to look saw that the enemy had already taken 
possession of the ground we had fought on A few bullets whistled 
near me but I had got so that they did not frighten me any by this 
time after going over the ridge and down into a ravine I got some 
water out of a branch but it -was muddy Just then I thought I 
ought to find the regiment and on looking back I saw them coming 
down the ravine under the command of Maj. Cloud I was nearly 
exhausted by this time. 

When the Co. came up I gave Capt. Crawford my gun and Lieut. 
Lindsay went away in search of a horse for me to ride and soon 
returned with Col. Clouds pony it having recieved a rifle ball in 
the neck with the assistance of Sergt. Johnston and Nugent I 
mounted him and started towards Springfield. 10 As I passed along 
wounded men could be seen on all side[s] of the road shot in every 
place imaginable Wagons were loaded with them besides many 
that were on horses I kept on till I got to a house about four miles 
from the field there I stopped and dismounted rested a short time 
had some water Dr. Patee here looked at my wound said it was 
shot with a spent ball, but ordered nothing to be put on it. Soon 
I mounted with the assistance of A. Saulsbury 11 and rode on feeling 
much better. The regiment on ariving on the prairie about a mile 
from the battlefield halted formed a line of battle and was the rear 
guard coming in I went on till I got to Springfield about sun- 
down went to the brick hotel which was being used for a hospital 
and dismounted was helped up stairs and lay down on the floor. 
When I was about three miles from town I met some wagons going 
out after the wounded they were loaded with bread which they 
were distributing out to the soldier [s] and this was all I recieved 
till the next day The regt came in and camped at the usual camp- 
ing place. J. F. Walker 12 was wounded and came into the same 

10. Capt. Samuel J. Crawford, 1st Lt. John G. Lindsay, 1st Set. John Johnston and 
Ens. Henry Nugent, all of Osborne's company (E), Second Kansas infantry. 

11. Pvt. Albert Saulsbery, Company E, Second Kansas infantry. 

12. Cpl. James F. Walker, Company E, Second Kansas infantry. 



room with me I succeeded in pulling off my boots and with my 
hat and them I made me a pillow and soon went to sleep and slept 
till about three oclock the next morning 

I had been awake but a few moments when some men among 
who was Lieut. Lindsay came into the room to bid us good bye 
They stated that they were going to retreat and leave all the sick 
and wounded behind We wanted to go with them but they said 
that they could not take us They said that we would be well taken 
care of by the rebels &c. but this did not satisfy me I knew that 
there were rebels that would hunt me out and I feared that it 
would be the worse for me. It proved that they hunted all over 
Springfield for me but could not find me. 

When I left I went down stairs and on the piazza and sat down 
on the steps After sitting there a few moments Seargt. Nugent 
came along and I asked him to help me to the wagon and on 
getting to it climbed up and made me a bed in the blankets and 
the train soon started for Rolla I got along on the journey to 
Rolla as well as could be expected considering that I had as dan- 
gerous a wound as mine was The men in the Co. were very kind 
to me One man was sent along with us to see that we were sup- 
plied with water and any other necessary J. Norris 13 was in the 
wagon with me 

The 2nd day from Springfield my leg got so bad that I could not 
walk on it and when I got to Rolla I could walk very little by 
placing both hands on the left knee and throwing my weight on 
my arms and going stooped over any other way I could not walk 
a step The march from Springfield to Rolla was the hardest and 
fatigueing of any march previous many of the men were taken 
sick afterwards from the effects of it. The soldiers had worn out 
nearly all thier clothes many were barefooted No Clothing had 
been issued to the Kansas regts but blouse and socks The Iowa 
1st had had clothing issued to them by the state but it was worn 
out by the time we got to Rolla so that they were no better off than 
the rest of us They went on to St. Louis and were mustered out 
of service. Several regiments were at Rolla Rolla is the terminus 
of the south western branch of the Pacific railroad We were seven 
days on the march from Springfield to Rolla I lay one day at Rolla. 

13. Pvt. John Norris, Company E, Second Kansas infantry. 


[Hospitalized in St. Louis, August 19, 1861-February 13, 1862] 

The 19th day of August I was placed on the cars and sent to St. 
Louis ariving at the depot about seven P. M. Then placed in 
wagons and taken to the General Hospital or Ware House of Ref- 
uge The flags along the route and in St. Louis were at half mast 
on account of the death of Gen. Lyon We arived at the hospital 
just before dark and recieved some crackers to eat The worthy 
Superintendent Dr. Bailey 14 of the regular army came around to 
see us he apeared good natured kind and done every thing in his 
power to make us comfortable As soon as beds could be made 
down on the floor we went in and laid down My wound had by 
this time healed on the outside but was very stiff and the muscles 
contracting on the posterior of the bone had drawn it crooked I 
could walk only by placing my hands on my knee and throwing 
my weight on my hands The first night I slept very well Before 
going to sleep a German M. D. came round and dressed all the 
wounds he was very severe on wounds in which balls were lodged 
trying to get as many balls as he could. He would make a much 
better butcher than Dr. The next morning my leg pained me con- 
siderable and was swelled considerably Cots were brought in to 
day and our beds laid on them Dr. Patee of the 2nd Kansas was 
detailed for duty in the hospital he was placed in charge of ward 
B the one that I was in The ward accomodated about seventy pa- 
tients and was filled with wounded 

My wound continued to get worse untill Wednesday the 24th 
when it broke and discharged a large quantity of matter I had 
by this time procured a pair of crutches and walked about without 
using it at all My wound continued discharging at least a pint a 
day for two weeks The Dr. felt the ball repeatedly but it was so 
deep that he could not extract it By the 10th of Sep. my wound 
commenced getting better. It discharged less and my health im- 
proved so that I -was able to take considerable exercise on cruches 
My leg was still contracted so that I could not walk on it any 
From this time till Oc. 20th my wound kept improving I had so 
that I could walk a little without crutches but I never went out of 
doors without them 

Oc. 20th the process of getting the ball out was commenced 
The Drs acertaining that it would never get well without First 
poultices were put on it to draw the ball to the surface As soon 

14. Surgeon Elisha I. Baily. 


as this operation comenced my leg kept getting worse and my 
health failed also At the end of two more weeks was having 
slight chills nearly every day and was hardly able to get up out of 
bed My leg was swelled very much some days discharging very 
freely others none at all the wound had increased very much in 
size turned black and the matter had a very offensive smell I had 
some apprehensions of losing my leg altogether and cared but little 
whether I lived or died. 

The seventh of Nov. the ball was extracted by Drs. Patee and 
Hoffersette[?] It had been lanced the day before by Dr. Patee 
and discharged about a pint of bloody matter The morning of 
the seventh before daylight I awoke and I could feel the ball lying 
in the hole. When it was dressed the Dr touched it with the probe 
it was in the flesh about an inch from the surface. He bandaged 
it and I went back to bed About ten oclock the Dr. came in with 
the instruments ready The ball was taken out of the back side of 
my leg about an inch below the body. The first opperation was 
to cut the hole larger This caused so much pain that it was de- 
cided to give me some chloroform which was brought and sprinkled 
on a hankerchief and placed on my nose It caused very severe 
pain in my eyes for a moment then I thought that all the black- 
smiths in creation were hammering on anvils close to my ears 
Then I thought that I was screaming as loud as I could. Then 
suddenly became exhausted and fell into a spasm After some time 
I felt as if I had just awoke from a sound sleep I had a faint recolec- 
tion of the ball being out and I asked the Dr. to show it to me 
which he did and recolected the shape of it but this was all like a 

When I awoke the dresser was sitting by the side of the bed the 
windows raised the wind blowing in very freely two blankets over 
me and lying on my back feeling very weak I did not know 
whether the ball was out or not and not willing to express ignor- 
ance on the point ventured to ask the dresser what kind of a ball 
it was he answered a Miss, rifle ball This gave me a great deal, 
of satisfaction confirming the hope that I entertained that it was 
out He could hardly believe that I had been ignorant of what had 
happened all the time On inquiry I acertained that when the Dr. 
was drawing the ball I yelled most awfully so as to bring the 
women out of the washhouse and friten the pe[r]sons in the vicinity 
terribly the sentinel at the gate heard me, and then passed into a 
very severe spasm, and remained for a few minutes as if dead Dur- 


ing this time Dr. Bailey was sent for. The window opened and a 
blanket taken off another bed and put on me. Chloroform was still 
administered whenever any pain was felt in my leg Before noon 
I was so far recovered that the constant attention of an attendant 
was no longer necessary 

When the Dr came in he showed me the ball It was the size of 
a Minie musket The point had been mashed very much and one 
side of the point had in striking the bone been mashed much more 
Then the apearance of the ball indicates that the butt turned end 
for end and went to the rear of the bone still making two marks, 
by mashing the lead into the cavity of the butt of the ball About 
four oclock in the afternoon I was able by the use of crutches to 
go to the dressing room and have it dressed The pain had nearly 
subsided and did not pain me much for several days but a fever 
set in which kept me confined to my bed most of the time I could 
smell chloroform occasionally for a few days. I had a diarrhea also 
that kept me sick 

In two weeks after the ball was taken out I commenced getting 
better both in health and my wound By the 1st of Dec my health 
was as good as could be expected and my leg had got so that I 
could bear my weight on it By the 7th of Dec. I could walk on it 
a few feet The eighteenth of Dec. was the first day that I went 
entirely without any cruches but did not go any fa[r]ther than I 
was obliged to, and that was very little. Chrismas day I went out- 
side of the enclosure without crutches for the first time and went 
about a qua[r]ter of a mile and back I now comenced thinking of 
getting a discharge and leaving the army At that time I had no 
hopes that my leg would ever get strait or so that I would ever be 
able to do the duties of a soldier again. My wound continued 
getting better slowly but surely from this time although but little 
change could be discerned in a day as the weeks passed away I 
could discover that I was getting better 

By New Years the wound had got so much better than I expected 
that I had commenced thinking of reinlisting in the army again By 
this time no persons remained of the 2nd Kansas at the hospital 
but Dr. Patee and myself Lieut. Lindsay came to the hospital to 
see us one day and said that the regiment was mustered out of 
service the last day of Oc. 

Feb. 10th I applied for a discharge from the hospital and a re- 
turn to duty. I had never recieved a discharge and could not be 
considered as out of service I had determined on going to Leaven- 


worth where the regiment was getting a discharge and reinlisting 
in the 2nd Kansas Cav'ry which was in process of organization at 
that place The hospital in which I was situated was in the south- 
ern part of St. Louis in a very pleasant location for a hospital and 
very well conducted the dicipline was strict but not to much so 
for the good of sick and wounded soldier [s] The food was very 
good most of the time The building was large enough to com- 
fortably accomodate five hundred patients and most of the time 
there were many more than that there I had the mumps pretty 
severe just before I left the hospital Cases of small pox were not 
uncommon. Two cases of the disease was in the same ward I was 
in till they were broke out and then removed to a hospital in an- 
other part of the city Diarrhea and colds the latter occasioned by 
the subjects having had the measles first and taken cold before 
they fully recovered were the most prevalent diseases at the hos- 

On the 13th I left St. Louis for Leavenworth having obtained a 
pass for that purpose. I went by the North Missouri railroad to 
Macon city then to St. Jo. by the Hanibal and St. Jo. railroad 
North Missouri is much better adapted for agriculture than I had 
supposed being plenty of timber and prairie. At nearly every sta- 
tion soldiers . . . [The rest of this manuscript is lacking. But 
the second narrative picks up Osborne's story six days later, so little 
of his account is lost.] 

[Enlistment in the Second Kansas Cavalry, 1862] 

On the 19th of February 1862 I enlisted in the 2nd Kansas Cav- 
alry at Leavenworth City Kansas This regiment was partially or- 
ganized out of men that had been in the 2nd Kan Inf which had 
been mustered out of service in Oc. 1861 For the purpose of or- 
ganizing the new regiment the field officers and Capt Crawford of 
the old regiment had been retained in service At the date of my 
enlistment four companies had been partially organized and mus- 
tered into service and were doing Provost Guard duty at Leaven- 
worth City Maj. Cloud had command and was also Provost Mar- 
shal of the city I was enlisted by Lieut Pratt and mustered in but 
the muster was illegal as no volunteer officer had any right to mus- 
ter in men at that time About the first of March the 2nd and Ninth 
Kansas regiments were consolidated and was at first called the 
9th but soon after the name was changed to the 2nd 

On the 8th of March we turned in all our infantry arms and 
equipments and drew cavalry equipments, on the 9th drew our 


horses and the 10th left Leavenworth leading the horses that were 
to be used by the battalion of the ninth On the llth arrived at 
Quindaro a town situated about thirty miles below Leavenworth 
on the Missouri river where the 9th had been quartered during the 
winter The field officers of the regiment were R. B. Mitchel[l] 
Colonel O. A. Bassett Lieut. Col. C. W. Blair J. G. Fisk and 
[J. M.] Pomeroy Majors John Pratt Adjutant I belonged to Capt. 
Crawfords Co. which was designated as Co. H, S. J. Crawford, 
Capt. J. Johnston, 1st Lieut. 

We left Quindaro on the 12th passed through Wyandotte crossed 
the Kansas river and went through Shawnee town and camped on 
the prairie one mile from town naming the camp Camp Blair where 
we remained about six weeks We drilled three hours and had a 
dress parade every day when tlie weather permited and were under 
strict disipline not being allowed to leave camp with out passes, 
and they were given to but two men in a Co. daily 

[A Raid on Quantrill's Guerrillas 15 ] 

On the 22nd of March we drew our carbines they were short 
light and inferior arms called the Austrian Carbine At five oclock 
in the afternoon of the same day Col. Mitchel ordered three hun- 
dred men to be ready to march at six with one days rations with 
six rounds of cartriges each that being all the cartriges that could 
be procured at that time By the time appointed we were ready 
and devided into thre[e] divisions Capt Russell commanding the 
detachments of Cos. H, K, and F, Col. Mitchel accompaning this 
detachment. We arived at Santa Fee, a town near the Missouri 
line about eleven oclock, and the other detachments arived soon 
after. Thirty men were sent forward under the command of Maj 
Pomeroy to see if he could find the enemy; the rest of the com- 
mand stopped fed our horses but did not try to sleep any 

Four miles from Santa Fee Maj Pomeroy dismounted his men 
and advanced cautiously to a house where the enemy were sup- 
posed to be Twenty one horses were tied to the fence in front of 
the house bridled and saddled and the enemy were in the house 
The enemy were immediately attacked by our men firing into the 
windows and doors they returned the fire with spirit severely 
wounding Maj Pomeroy in the thigh 16 and slightly wounding an- 

15. Quantrill and his men had just burned the bridge between Kansas City and Inde- 
pendence, Mo. Colonel Mitchell hoped to surround and capture the guerrillas. War of 
the Rebellion, Series I, v. 8, pp. 346, 347. 

16. The Union casualties were Major Pomeroy (severely wounded), Pvt. William Wills, 
Company D (died of wounds), and two horses killed. Of Quantrill's men, seven were 
known to have been killed, and six were taken prisoner. Ibid., p. 347. 


other man the house being made of logs afforded the enemy shel- 
ter but some of our men succeeded in getting to the chimney corner 
and setting it on fire The rebels seeing no hope of extinguishing 
the flames led by their leader Quantrell threw open the door 
rushed out and run for the woods a volley was fired into them as 
they came out killing one and mortally wounding three more 
Quantrill escaped but it was at first supposed he was severely 
wounded but it was subsequently acertained that he was not As 
soon as the house was attacked a messenger was sent back to Col. 
Mitchel and he brought the command up on double quick but 
was too late to take part in the skirmish We scoured the woods in 
every direction but could not find Quantrill. 

Just before daylight we went back to the house helped ourselves 
to what apples we wanted a wagon load of which had been loaded 
the night before to take to our camp and sell The dead man was 
recognized as an apple peddler who had been in our camp often 
Six bodies were said to have been burned in the house At day- 
light we mounted and scoured the country around at one house 
we found breakfast prepared for several men but they seeing us 
took to the woods and escaped Two sabres were found here be- 
sides powder flasks, canteens, etc About noon we started for camp 
arriving there about four oclock in the afternoon 

On the 14th of April Capt Crawford took command of the Co. 
he having been sick in Leavenworth since we left there in march 
and the Co. was organized H. Nugent was appointed 1st sergeant, 
the other noncommissioned officers were Quin, Archer, Romine, 
Wilson, and J. P. Hiner, Sergeants; Shannon, Hewitt, Stowell, Nye, 
Williams, Myers, Sample, and Simons, corporals They were ap- 
pointed by Capt Crawford which created considerable dissatisfac- 
tion in the Co. at the time as he had promised many of the Co. 
when they enlisted that the non commissioned officers should be 
elected by vote On the 15th the Cos. were lettered according to 
the rank of the Capts Capt. Crawfords Co. was designated as A 
Hopkins 17 B Whitten[h]alls C Moores D Gardners E Cam- 
eron F Matthews G, Guenthers [Gunthers] H Ayer [Ayres] I 
and Russells K. 

[En Route to Fort Riley, April, 1862] 

On Sunday morning the 20th of April the regiment left Camp 
Blair [Mo.] and started for Fort Riley The first day passed 
through the towns of Chilicothe and Montecello camped the sec- 

17. Company B was later captained by Elias S. Stover. 


ond night near Eudora and arived at Lawrence in the afternoon of 
the 23rd We drew our revolvers on the 20th They were the 
French defacheur pistols and shot metalic cartriges 18 but no cart- 
riges had at that time been procured We remained at Lawrence 
until the 26th While there one hundred and fifty men were de- 
tailed out of the regiment for a Co. of artilery and sent to Leaven- 
worth Lawrence is situated on the south bank of the Kansas river 
and next to Leavenworth in size of the cities of Kansas Steamers 
go up there in some seasons of the year 

We left Lawrence on the twenty sixth and passed through Big 
Springs Tecumseh and Topeka and camped two miles from the 
latter place the 28th. Topeka is the capital of Kansas [It] is 
situated on the southern bank of the Kansas river The houses are 
mostly built of stone and the inhabitants eastern people Timber is 
not as abuntant between Lawrence as in the eastern part of the 
state We mustered and had a regimental review on the 30th of 
April the latter was witnessed by a large number of citezens 

The third of May we left Topeka and arived at Fort Riley on the 
sixth Our route lay along south of the river at times miles from 
it But few houses were to be seen on our route but the land was 
fertile and timber scarce Fort Riley is situated at the junction of 
the Republican and Smoky Hill Forks which form the Kansas 
river A brigade was there preparing to march to New Mexico 
which consisted of the 1st 2nd & 7th Kansas and the 12th & 10th 
[13th?] Wisconsin regiments which was to be commanded by Brig 
Gen'l R. B. Mitchel who had been promoted from Col. of the 2nd 
Kansas On the 7th of May the 2nd Kansas was inspected by an 
officer of the regular army who condemed our guns and revolvers 
and we turned them in and drew sabres 

[From Fort Riley to Fort Union, N. M., May 20-July 4, 1862] 

About the twentyeth of May orders were recieved from Leaven- 
worth detaching the 2nd Kan from the brigade and ordering Genl. 
Mitchel to take the brigade to Tennesee Cos A, and D of the 2nd 
were detailed for an escort for the paymaster to go to Fort Union 
New Mexico On leaving we drew the same revolvers that we had 
before but not the same carbines We drew what are called carbine 
pistols and old fashioned U. S. Arms Maj Fisk was assigned to the 
command of the detachment When we left the regiment there was 
considerable contention among the officers about who should be 

18. French Le Faucheux revolvers and cartridges were used during the Civil War. 
C. E. Fuller, The Breech-Loader in the Service (Topeka, c!933), p. 226. 


Col. But it was settled by Gov [Charles] Robinson who commis- 
sioned W. F. Cloud Colonel 

On the twenty first of May we started across the plains We 
crossed Republican Fork at Fort Riley passed through Junction 
City crossed Solomon Fork forty miles from Fort Riley where we 
found Col Howe [of the Third U. S. cavalry] and the paymaster 
waiting for us Our route lay along the Smoky Hill Fork the land 
was fertile and well watered but timber scarce On the west bank 
of Solomon Fork we saw the first antelope and prairie dogs On 
the twenty fourth we crossed Saline river and camped near Salina 
the last town on our route Leaving Salina on the twenty fifth we 
passed into the buffalo range seeing several small herds that day 
Crossing Smoky Hill on the twenty sixth we saw many large herds 
and several were killed their meat is delicious We saw but few 
after crossing Cow Creek 

At Walnut Creek we saw the first wild Indians they belonged 
to the Arapohoe Cheyennes and Pawnees They appeared friendly 
came into our camp and were desirous to trade their lariats or 
mocazins for hats caps or any other article of clothing or food On 
the twenty ninth we arived at Fort Larned where we remained one 
day Fort Larned is situated on Pawnee Fork five miles from the 
Arkansas river and is built of sods principally From Solomon 
Fork to Fort Larned the land is poor water scarce with but little 
timber but the roads are good excepting at the fords of the creeks 

We left Fort Larned on the first of June taking the cut off route 
to the Arkansas river where we arived on the second. The Arkan- 
sas river at this point was about one half mile wide very shallow 
with a sandy botton and no timber on its banks. We proceeded 
up the river on its northern bank to Fort Lyon where we arrived 
on the 10th of June. Grass was plenty along the river but until we 
arrived within forty miles of Fort Lyon wood could not be procured 
and we used buffalo chips for fuel in cooking. At Fort Lyon there 
is timber mostly cottonwood. Most of the buildings there are built 
of stone. 

On the 12th we left Fort Lyon and went up the river to Bents 
Fort, and there crossed the river The river was very high and 
we were obliged to double teams to get our train over taking nearly 
all of the 13th to cross. From a hill near our camp we could see 
Spanish Peak, Pikes Peak and the mountain range between them. 
The 14th we left the river and traveled twenty one miles and 
camped at a place called Hole in the Ground where there was but 


a small supply of wood water or grass On the 15th we traveled 
about thirty miles and camped at Hole in the Rock where there 
was plenty of wood, but water and grass were not abundant The 
16th we arived at Picket Wire near the foot of the Rattoon moun- 
tains where we found plenty of wood water and grass Here was 
a small settlement The next day we commenced traveling over the 
mountains which took two days The 19th Co. D's horses nearly 
all stampeded and we left them on the 20th and passing Maxwells 
ranche and Rio camped on a smal creek one mile from Rio Co D 
overtook us on the twenty first and the twenty second we arived 
at Fort Union. 

From Fort Lamed but little game is to be seen except wolves 
and antelope till you reach Bents Fort but from Bents Fort to Fort 
Union there is bear elk deer antelope and wolves in considerable 
numbers but shy and not easily killed Fort Union is situated in a 
valley about five miles in width hemmed in by rocky bluff on each 
side A spring near the Fort supplies the garrison with water 
grass is not abundant but what there is is very nutritious and ani- 
mals thrive on it. We were placed on duty at the fort and Col. 
Howe procured another escort and went on to Fort Craig On the 
28th of June thirty men were detailed out of the Co. to go out after 
some Comanche Indians who had been commiting some depreda- 
tions on Johnsons ranche we took ten days rations packed on Jacks 
but not finding their trail returned at the end of three days 

[From Fort Union, N. M., to Fort Riley, July 5- 
August 25, 1862] 

The 5th of July we left Fort Union and started back to Fort 
Lyon. The prospect from the summit of the Rattoon mountains 
is grand far away to the west the peaks of the snowy range are 
in view which are covered with snow at this season at the north 
west Spanish Peak rises and has some snow on its summit clouds 
are sailing through the air between the mountain tops increasing 
the sublimity of the scene When I was in the mountains it rained 
nearly every day the clouds follow the watercourses so that nearly 
all of the rains fall in the valleys but notwithstanding this all culti- 
vated lands require irrigation. The 14th the wind blew very hard 
while we were crossing a sandy plain filling the air fill of sand so 
thick that we could see but a short distance and making it very 
uncomfortable We camped about noon but could not put [up] 
any tents as the pins would not hold in the sand and we were 
obliged to go down under the banks of the creek for shelter. 


On the 15 we arrived at the Arkansas river but it having swollen 
so that we could not cross and we remained there one day when 
a large ox train arrived on the north bank and commenced crossing 
by doubling teams one wagon had thirty three yoke on it and the 
least number that was put on to cross the river was twenty six pair. 
As they returned our wagons were drawn over The 18th we ar- 
rived near Fort Lyon where we camped several days The 25th 
we left Fort Lyon and were joined by a detachment of Co. C, and 
proceeded towards Fort Larned taking nearly the same route as 
we came arriving there on the 5th of Aug. Cos C, & B, were at 
Fort Larned having been ordered there in June 

A large number of Indians estimated at thirty thousand were 
camped in the vicinity of Fort Larned They had assembled to 
recieve their anuities from the government and represented the 
Arapahoes Apaches Kioways Cheyennes & Comanches The 
Apaches and Cheyennes were at war with the Pawnees and had 
some skirmishes while we were at Fort Larned but not near the 
Fort. No Indians were allowed to come into our camp but we 
went into theirs at will. We exchanged hats clothing coffee &c. for 
moccazins and lariats with them They were dressed in Indian 
custume but some having procured coats of soldiers wore them 
many had their legs naked with a blanket thrown over their shoul- 
ders but always wearing the breechclout most of the children are 
entirely naked except what is covered with the breechclout. Their 
lodges are made of buffalo hides and shaped like Sibley tents and 
supported in the cenere by poles which are tied together at the top 
by throngs and spread out at the bottom nearly to the covering of 
the lodge. They live on game and wild fruit. A few are armed 
with guns but most of them armed with bows and arrows. When 
away from their camp they are almost always mounted They are 
exellent riders and are very skilful with their bows and arrows. 
Their horses are inferior animals but they have large numbers of 
them While we were there the authorities informed the Indians 
that they were to go to Fort Lyon, there to recieve their anuities 
from government. That caused some dissatisfaction among them 
but they confirmed it to threats. Their manner of moving is novel 
The lodges are struck and rolled up in bundles the poles are one 
end fastened to the saddle and the other drags on the ground and 
the bundles rolled up on these and fastened to the saddle then an 
Indian child is placed on top of that to guide the animal. Their 
blankets are fastened to pack saddles in such a manner as to form 


a hollow in the centre into which the papooses are placed Their 
saddles are very poor and bridles crude Bridles, Sugar, Coffee, 
&c. are in good demand with them. A pint of sugar or coffee will 
get a pair of moccazins. Twenty four hours after the first Indians 
started they were all gone While these Indians remained there was 
some fear among citizens and travelers of them. Letters were writ- 
ten to the states of their depredations and found their way into the 
papers but were all or nearly all false. 

The 12th of Aug. Cos A & C were ordered to the Big Bend of the 
Ark. river forty miles east of Fort Larned where we arrived on the 
14th and remained there several days We were now in the bufalo 
range and many of these animals came in sight of our camp and 
several were killed. On the oposite side of the river were large 
quantities of wild plums; they grow on low bushes on sand hills, 
where nothing else grows, but grape vines, are of a bright red 
color, and equal in flavor any plums ever I saw The 19th several 
men went out on a buffalo hunt but were not very successful. Buf- 
falo can be hunted successfully in two ways. One is to be well 
mounted, and armed with a pair of good revolvers and run into a 
herd and shoot them in the lungs or heart; the other is to be on 
foot, and armed with a long range target rifle, and approach them 
on the leeward and shoot them while grazing. The 21st we left 
the Big Bend and went to Little Arkansas river on our route to 
Fort Riley where we arrived on the 25th of Aug. and remained 
until the 2nd of September While here several men were taken 
sick with fever probably caused by too frequent bathing. 

[Part Two, the Concluding Installment, Covering the Period from 

September, 1862-July, 1865, Will Appear in the August, 

1952, Issue] 

Recent Additions to the Library 

Compiled by HELEN M. MCFARLAND, Librarian 

TN ORDER that members of the Kansas State Historical Society 
* and others interested in historical study may know the class of 
books we are receiving, a list is printed annually of the books ac- 
cessioned in our specialized fields. 

These books come to us from three sources, purchase, gift and 
exchange, and fall into the following classes: Books by Kansans 
and about Kansas; books on the West, including explorations, over- 
land journeys and personal narratives; genealogy and local history; 
and books on the Indians of North America, United States history, 
biography and allied subjects which are classified as general. The 
out-of-state city directories received by the Historical Society are 
not included in this compilation. 

We also receive regularly the publications of many historical so- 
cieties by exchange, and subscribe to other historical and genea- 
logical publications which are needed in reference work. 

The following is a partial list of books which were added to the 
library from October 1, 1950, to September 30, 1951. Federal and 
state official publications and some books of a general nature are 
not included. The total number of books accessioned appears in 
the report of the secretary in the February issue of the Quarterly. 


ANDERSON, ANNA M., Back to Kansas and Other Poems. New York, The Expo- 
sition Press [c!951]. 79p. 

APPEL, DAVID, Comanche. Cleveland, The World Publishing Company 
[c!951]. 224p. 

BARKLEY, JOHN LEWIS, No Hard Feelings! New York, Cosmopolitan Book 
Corporation, 1930. 327p. 

BILL, EDWARD ELIJAH, Prairie Pastels. New York, The Exposition Press 
[c!950]. 160p. 

BROWN, LENNA WILLIAMSON, Analysis of Realitij; Outline of a Philosophy of 
Intelligence. Lawrence, The Allen Press [c!951]. 51p. 

BUMGARDNER, EDWARD, Trees of a Prairie State. Lawrence, 1925. 2 Vols. 
Typed. Vol. 2, photographs. 

BURCH, C. S., PUBLISHING COMPANY, Hand-Book of Greenwood County, Kansas. 
Chicago, C. S. Burch Publishing Company, n. d. 30p. 

BURMEISTER, MAGDALENE, At the Sign of the Zodiac, and Other Poems. New 
York, Liveright Publishing Corporation [c!950]. 200p. 

CAIN, GERTRUDE, The American Way of Designing. New York, Fairchild Pub- 
lications, Inc. [c!950]. 115p. 



CALVERT, CECIL, The Price of the Prairie Grass. N. p. [c!951]. 18p. 
CAMERON, RODERICK, Pioneer Days in Kansas; a Homesteaders Narrative of 

Early Settlement and Farm Development on the High Plains Country of 

Northwest Kansas. Belleville, Cameron Book Company [c!951], 145p. 
CASEMENT, DAN, "The Real Danger," an Address at the Graduating Exercises 

for Army Officer Candidates Class, Fort Riley, Kansas, June 15, 1951. No 

impr. [8]p. 
CAUGHRON, EDITH SUSANNA (DfiMoss), Maternal Ancestral Lines of Edith 

Susanna DeMoss Caughron. N. p., 1950. Mimeographed. 269p. 
CLARK, HOWARD C., A History of the Sedgwick County Medical Society. N. p. 

[1950]. 69p. 
CLUGSTON, WILLIAM GEORGE, Eisenhower for President? or, Who Will Get Us 

Out of the Messes We Are In? New York, The Exposition Press [c!951]. 


Kansas Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, 1950. No impr. 

, Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Annual State Conference, March 8, 9, 

and 10, 1951, Pittsburg, Kansas. No impr. 187p. 
DAVIS, EARLE ROSCOE, An American in Sicily. New York, Margent Press, 1944. 

, Masquerade; Poems. Manhattan, Kansas State College Press, 1950. 

DULIN, CHARLES DUNLOP, Sage and High Iron. N. p. [Munsell Press, c!951]. 

DUSTIN, FRED, The Custer Tragedy; Events Leading Up To and Following 

the Little Big Horn Campaign of 1876. Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards 

Brothers, Inc., 1939. 251p. 
ECKDALL, ELLA (FUNSTON), The Funston Homestead. Emporia, Raymond 

Lees, 1949. 30p. 
EDWARDS, P. L., Sketch of the Oregon Territory or, Emigrants' Guide. Liberty, 

Mo., Printed at the Herald Office, 1842. 20p. [Reprint, 1951.] 
EDWARDS, RALPH W., The First Woman Dentist: Lucy Hobbs Taylor, D. D. S. 

( 1833-1910 ) . ( Reprinted from Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 25, 

No. 3, May-June, 1951.) [7]p. 
FIELDS, G. W., Song Eureka (Revised) for Musical Conventions, Singing Schools, 

Day Schools, Musical Societies, etc. Omaha, G. W. Fields [c!911]. 96p. 

Kansas, Vol. 1. N. p., Finney County, Kansas, Historical Society, c!950. 

FLETCHER, SYDNEY E., The Big Book of Cowboys. New York, Grosset and 

Dunlap, c!950. [26]p. 
GORDON, MILDRED, and GORDON GORDON, FBI Story. Garden City, N. Y., 

Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1950. 218p. 
GRANT, BRUCE, The Cowboy Encyclopedia: the Old and the New West From 

the Open Range to the Dude Ranch. New York, Rand McNally and 

Company [c!951]. 160p. 

[GRANT, FLORENCE B.], comp., Seventy-Five Year History of the Grand Chap- 
ter of Kansas, Order of Eastern Star. N. p. [1951]. 70p. 


Guide to the New Gold Region of Western Kansas and Nebraska, With Table 
of Distances and an Accurate Map. New York, John W. Oliver, 1859. 32p. 
(Mumey Reprint, 1951.) 

HICKS, JOHN EDWARD, Adventures of a Tramp Printer, 1880-1890. Kansas 
City, Mo., Midamericana Press [c!950]. 285p. 

HONNELL, WILLIAM ROSECRANS, Willie Whitewater, the Story of W. R. Hon- 
nell's Life and Adventures Among the Indians As He Grew Up With the 
State of Kansas. As Told by Him to Caroline Cain Durkee. Kansas City, 
Mo., Burton Publishing Company [c!950]. 309p. 

JOHNSON, LUTHER R., Cabins and Castles. Emory University, Ga., Banner 
Press [c!950]. 103p. 

KANSAS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, Transactions, Vol. 53. N. p., Kansas Academy 
of Science, 1950. 599p. 

KANSAS AUTHORS CLUB, 1949 Yearbook. [Topeka, Service Print Shop] 1949. 

, 1951 Yearbook. N. p., 1951. 134p. 

tory, 1951 . . . Hutchinson, Association, 1951. 270p. 

Kansas Magazine, 1951. Manhattan, The Kansas Magazine Publishing Associ- 
ation, c!951. 104p. 

KANSAS STATE BRAND COMMISSIONER, 1950 Brand Book of the State of Kansas 
Showing All State Recorded Brands of Cattle, Horses, Mules and Sheep 
. . . Topeka, State Printer, 1950. [422]p. 

Knights of Columbus: Their First Fifty Years in Kansas. N. p., 1950. 456p. 

LINDQUIST, GUSTAVUS ELMER EMANUEL, Indians in Transition; a Study of 
Protestant Missions to Indians in the United States. New York, Division 
of Home Missions, National Council of Churches of Christ in the U. S. A., 
1951. 120p. 

, The Jesus Road and the Red Man. New York, Fleming H. Revell 

Company [c!929]. 155p. 

LOMAX, JOHN AVERY, Songs of the Cattle Trail and Cow Camp. New York, 
Duell, Sloan and Pearce [c!951]. 189p. 

LOTT, JULIA, Morning Canticle. New York, Vantage Press, Inc. [c!950], 87p. 

McKAY, JACK F., Property Assessment in Kansas. Lawrence, University of 
Kansas Press, 1950. 124p. (University of Kansas Governmental Research 
Series, No. 7.) 

, Recent Trends in City Finance. Lawrence, University of Kansas, 

Bureau of Governmental Research [1950], 39p. (Citizens Pamphlet, 
No. 4.) 

MAJORS, ALEXANDER, Seventy Years on the Frontier: Alexander Major's Mem- 
oirs of a Lifetime on the Border. Chicago, Rand McNally and Company, 
Publishers, 1893. [Reprinted by Long's College Book Company, Columbus, 
Ohio, 1950.] 325p. 

MANHATTAN Tribune-News, A Picture Record of the Great Flood of 1951, 
Manhattan, Kansas. [Manhattan] The Tribune-News Press [1951]. [48]p. 

MARKHAM, WILLIAM COLFAX, Teddy, Moody and Me. N. p. [1951]. [4]p. 

Kansas City, Mo., Tell-Well Press, c!950. 33p. 

MENNINGER, FLORA VESTA ( KNISELEY ) , Four Years Through the Bible. Topeka, 
Author, C1928-1937. 8 Vols. 


MENNINGER, KARL AUGUSTUS, Amor Contra Odio. Buenos Aires, Editorial 
Nova [c!951]. 335p. 

MENNINGER, WILLIAM CLAIRE, Understanding Yourself. Chicago, Science 
Research Associates, 1948. 52p. 

MOLK, SOPHIA, On the Wings of the Wind. Avon, 111., The Hamlet Press 
[c!949j. 105p. 

NELSON, FRANCIS W., Valet to the Absolute; a Study of the Philosophy of 
J. E. Hulme. Wichita, Municipal University, 1950. 30p. (University 
Studies Bulletin, No. 22.) 

NEWCOMB, REXFORD, Architecture of the Old Northwest Territory; a Study of 
Early Architecture in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Part of Minnesota. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press [c!950]. 

OLMSTEAD, S. R., The Gold Mines of Kansas and Nebraska. New York, n. p., 
1859. 16p. (Mumey Reprint, 1950.) 

O'NEIL, KATHRYN FINGADO, Retreat of a Frontier. Los Angeles, Westernlore 
Press, 1950. 276p. 

PARSONS, WILLIAM B., The New Gold Mines of Western Kansas: Being a 
Complete Description of the Newly Discovered Gold Mines. The Different 
Routes, Camping Places, Tools and Outfit, and Containing Everything Im- 
portant for the Emigrant and Miner to Know. Cincinnati, George S. 
Blanchard, 1859. 63p. (Mumey Reprint, 1951.) 

RANDOLPH, VANCE, We Always Lie to Strangers; Tall Tales From the Ozarks. 
New York, Columbia University Press, 1951. 309p. 

REES, GILBERT, I Seek a City. New York, E. P. Button and Company, Inc., 
1950. 316p. 

RYAN, TERESA MARIE, A History of the First SO Years of the Kansas Division 
of the American Association of University Women. N. p., [1950]. 75p. 

SADDLER, HARRY DEAN, John Brown, the Magnificent Failure. Philadelphia, 
Dorrance and Company [c!951]. 374p. 

SANDERS, MARGARET WEBB, A Cheese for Lafayette. New York, G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons [c!950]. 31p. 

SHANNON, FRED ALBERT, America's Economic Growth. 3d ed. New York, 
The Macmillan Company [c!951], 967p. 

SIEGELE, HERMAN HUGO, Carpenters' Tools, Their Care and Maintenance 
. . . Wilmette, 111., Frederick J. Drake and Company [c!950]. 156p. 

, The Wailing Place. Boston, Chapman and Grimes, Inc. [c!951]. 


SMITH, GEORGIA TUCKER, Crybaby Kangaroo, and Other Wee Wisdom Stories. 
Lee's Summit, Mo., Unity School of Christianity, 1950. 29p. 

SMITH, HOBART MUIR, Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. 
[Topeka, State Printer, 1950.] 336p. 

SONNICHSEN, CHARLES LELAND, Cowboys and Cattle Kings; Life on the Range 
Today. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!950]. 316p. 

TAFT, ROBERT, Asa Gray's Ascent of Grays Peak. (Reprinted from Transac- 
tions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol. 54, No. 1, March, 1951.) 



, "The Diamond of the Plain." (Reprinted from Transactions of the 

Kansas Academy of Science, Vol. 53, No. 3, September, 1950.) [4]p. 
TEAR, GRACE, As I Remember Father by Grace Tear, Daughter of Daniel 

Gawne Tear, 1831-1900. Typed. 42p. 
VALDOIS, INEZ, Around the Calendar in Verse, Art and Story. N. p. [c!950]. 

WAUGH, FRANK ALBERT, The Landscape Beautiful; a Study of the Utility of 

the Natural Landscape . . . New York, Orange Judd Company, 

1910. 336p. 
, Landscape Gardening by Edward Kemp. New York, John Wiley and 

Sons, 1912. 292p. 

The Natural Style in Landscape Gardening. Boston, Richard G. 

Badger [c!917]. 151p. 
WELLMAN, PAUL ISELIN, The Iron Mistress. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday 

and Company, Inc., 1951. 404p. 
WHITE, WILLIAM LINDSAY, Bernard Baruch; Portrait of a Citizen. New York, 

Harcourt, Brace and Company [c!950]. 158p. 
WILLIAMS, DAISY, Heart-Floss and Gold. Dexter, Mo., Candor Press, c!950. 

WILSON, ROBERT R., and ETHEL M. SEARS, History of Grant County, Kansas. 

[Wichita, Wichita Eagle Press, 1950]. 278 p. 


ADAMS, SAMUEL HOPKINS, The Pony Express. New York, Random House 
[c!950]. 185p. 

ALDRICH, LORENZO D., A Journal of the Overland Route to California and the 
Gold Mines. Los Angeles, Dawson's Book Shop, 1950. 93p. 

BEEBE, Lucius MORRIS, and CHARLES CLEGG, Cable Car Carnival Oakland, 
Cal., Grahame Hardy, 1951. 130p. 

BELL, JOHN C., The Pilgrim and the Pioneer, the Social and Material Develop- 
ments in the Rocky Mountains.. Lincoln, Neb., The International Publishing 
Association [c!906]. 531p. 

CHAMBERS, HENRY E., Mississippi Valley Beginnings; an Outline of the Early 
History of the Earlier West. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1922. 389p. 

DEAN, LILLIAN, This Is Our Land. New York, Vantage Press, Inc. [c!950]. 

FREEMAN, LEWIS R., The Colorado River Yesterday, To-Day and Tomorrow. 
London, William Heinemann, 1923. 451p. 

HAMILTON, JAMES GILLESPIE, Series of Letters Written to His Wife, Cornelia 
Bernard Hamilton, During an Overland Trip From Westport, Missouri, To 
California; and Return by Steamer Via New York, August 26, 1857 -April 15, 
1858. No impr. Mimeographed. 18p. 

HARMON, APPLETON MILO, The Journals of Appleton Milo Harmon, a Partici- 
pant in the Mormon Exodus From Illinois and the Early Settlement of Utah, 
1846-1877. Glendale, Cal., The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1946. 208p. 

HUNT, AURORA, The Army of the -Pacific; Its Operations in California, Texas, 
Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Plains Region, 
Mexico, Etc., 1860-1866. Glendale, Cal., The Arthur H. Clark Company,' 
1951. 455p. 


MARSH, JAMES B., Four Years in the Rockies: or, the Adventures of Isaac P. 
Rose . . . Giving His Experiences as a Hunter and Trapper in that Re- 
mote Region . . . New Castle, Pa., Printed by W. B. Thomas, 1884. 
[Reprinted by Long's College Book Company, Columbus, Ohio.] 262p. 

MILLER, ALFRED JACOB, The West of Alfred Jacob Miller (1837) From the Notes 
and Water Colors in the Walters Art Gallery, With an Account of the Artist 
by Marvin C. Ross. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!951]. 

PAINE, BAYARD H., Pioneers, Indians and Buffaloes. Curtis, Neb., The Curtis 
Enterprise, 1935. 192p. 

PORTER, CLYDE, and MAE REED PORTER, Ruxton of the Rockies. Norman, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma Press [c!950]. 325p. 

Some Southwestern Trails. San Angelo, Tex., San Angelo Standard-Times, 
1948. [27]p. 

THOMPSON, ALBERT W., They Were Open Range Days; Annals of a Western 
Frontier. Denver, The World Pr^ss, Inc., c!946. 194p. 

WESTERNERS, DENVER, Brand Book, 1949. Denver, The Westerners, 1950. 

, Los ANGELES, Brand Book, 1949. [Los Angeles, The Los Angeles 

Westerners, c!950.] 263p. 

WINTHER, OSCAR OSBURN, The Old Oregon Country; a History of Frontier 
Trade, Transportation, and Travel. Stanford, Cal., Stanford University Press 
[cl950]. 348p. 


1951. Charlottesville, Albemarle County Historical Society, 1951. 63p. 

ALLEN, WILLIAM G., A History of Story County, Iowa . . . Des Moines, 
Iowa Printing Company, 1887. [492]p. 

AMERICAN CLAN GREGOR SOCIETY, Year Book Containing the Proceedings of the 
1950 Annual Gathering. Washington, D. C., The American Clan Gregor 
Society [c!951]. 78p. 

American Genealogical Index, Vols. 39-44. Middletown, Conn., Published by a 
Committee Representing the Co-operating Subscribing Libraries . . . 
1950-1951. 6 Vols.' 

A MES, CONSTANCE LE NEVE ( GILMAN ) , The Story of the Gilmans and a Gil- 
man Genealogy of the Descendants of Edward Gilman of Hingham, England, 
1550-1950. Yakima, Wash. [Shields Rainier Printing Company, c!950]. 

BAKER, ELIZABETH (HOPKINS), Mullikins of Maryland; an Account of the De- 
scendants of James Mullikin of the Western Shore of Maryland. State Col- 
lege, Pa., Author, 1932. 204p. 

BASKERVILL, P. HAMILTON, Andrew Meade of Ireland and Virginia; His An- 
cestors, and Some of His Descendants and Their Connections, Including 
Sketches of the Following Families: Meade, Everard, Hardaway, Segar, 
Pettus, and Overton. Richmond, Old Dominion Press, Inc., 1921. 170p. 

BAYLES, RICHARD MATHER, ed., History of Newport County, Rhode Island. 
. . . New York, L. E. Preston and Company, 1888. 1060p. 


BENTON, ELBERT JAY, Cultural Story of an American City, Cleveland. Part 3. 
Under the Shadow of a Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1877. Cleve- 
land, Western Reserve Historical Society, 1946. 91p. 

Biographical History of Preble County, Ohio. Chicago, The Lewis Publishing 
Company, 1900. 573p. 

Biographical Review . . . Biographical Sketches of Leading Citizens of 
Franklin and Oxford Counties, Maine. Boston, Biographical Review Pub- 
lishing Company, 1897. 639p. 

Biographical Review Containing Life Sketches of Leading Citizens of Camden 
and Burlington Counties, New Jersey. Boston, Biographical Review Pub- 
lishing Company, 1897. 531p. 

Biographical Review Containing Life Sketches of Leading Citizens of Worcester 
County, Massachusetts. Boston, Biographical Review Publishing Company, 
1899. 1229p. 

BLAISDELL, JAMES ARNOLD, Elijah Blaisdell [1740-1769] and His Descendants 
to 1949. No impr. Mimeographed. [99] p. 

BODDIE, JOHN BENNETT, Colonial Surry. Richmond, The Dietz Press, 1948. 

BOGUE, VIRGIL T., Bogue and Allied Families. Holly, Mich., Herald Printers, 
c!944. [498]p. 

BOSTONIAN SOCIETY, Proceedings, Annual Meeting, January 16, 1951. Boston, 
Society, 1951. 67p. 

James Genealogy. N. p. [1949]. 304p. 

[BROUGHTON, CARRIE L.], comp., Marriage and Death Notices in Raleigh Reg- 
ister and North Carolina State Gazette, 1846-1855. Raleigh, North Carolina 
State Library, 1949. [124]p. 

BUNGE, WALTER W., comp., Genealogical Chart or Family Tree of John Gott- 
fried Bunge, Hanover, Germany, as of June 1st, 1950. Chart. 

CALICO, FORREST, History of Garrard County, Kentucky, and Its Churches. 
New York, The Hobson Book Press, 1947. 518p. 

CANDLER, JOHN, A Friendly Mission: John Candler's Letters From America, 
1858-1854. Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Society, 1951. 134p. (Indiana 
Historical Society Publications, Vol. 16, No. 1. ) 

CAUTHEN, CHARLES EDWARD, South Carolina Goes to War, 1860-1865. Chapel 
Hill, The University of North Carolina Press, 1950. 256p. (The James 
Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science, Vol. 32. ) 

Bonds of Southampton County, Virginia, 1750-1800. N. p., Chapman and 
Knorr, 1948. lOOp. 

Charlestown Directory for 1782 and the Charleston Directory for 1785. [Rich- 
mond, Va., Whittet and Shepperson, 1951.] [24]p. 

COMLY, GEORGE NORWOOD, comp., Comly Family in America, Descendants of 
Henry and Joan Comly, Who Came to America in 1682 From Bedminster, 
Somersetshire, England . . . Philadelphia, Privately Printed, 1939. 

County of Williams, Ohio. Historical and Biographical . . . Chicago, 
F. A. Battey and Company, 1882. 820p. 


Cumulative Index of the Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vols. 1-40, July, 
1897- April, 1937. Austin, The Texas State Historical Association, 1950. 

CUTTER, WILLIAM RICHARD, Historic Homes and Places and Genealogical and 
Personal Memoirs Relating to the Families of Middlesex County, Massachu- 
setts. New York, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1908. 4 Vols. 

DARNELL, CHARLES A., Benjamin Darnell, Fort Darnell and Early Settlements 
of Marshall County [Illinois]. A Family History. No impr. 47p. 

Their Descendants. [Frankfort, Ky., Roberts Printing Company] n. d. 460p. 

Genealogical Records, Vol. 2. Port Byron, Illinois, Records of Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 1833 to 1900, Congregational Church, 1849 to 1900, and 
Extracts From Diary of August Henry Wendt, 1881 to 1900. N. p., 1951. 

, NORTH CAROLINA, Genealogical Register Members and Revolutionary 

Ancestors . . . 1890 Through 1947. New Bern, N. C., Owen G. Dunn 
Company, 1948. 185p. 

DODGE, CHRISTINE HUSTON, ed., Vital Records of Old Bristol and Nobleboro in 
the County of Lincoln, Maine . . . Vol. 1, Births and Deaths. [Bruns- 
wick, Me., The Record Press] 1951. 780p. 

DORSEY, MAXWELL JAY, and others, The Dorsey Family: Descendants of 
Edward Darcy-Dorsey of Virginia and Maryland for Five Generations, and 
Allied Families. N. p., 1947. 270p. 

DRAGOO, DON W., Archaeological Survey of Shelby County, Indiana. Indian- 
apolis, Indiana Historical Bureau, 1951. 37p. 

DUTCH SETTLERS SOCIETY OF ALBANY, Yearbook, Vols. 25-26, 1949-1951. Al- 
bany, n. p., 1951. 49p. 

EAST TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Publications, No. 22, 1950. Knoxville, 
The East Tennessee Historical Society [c!950]. 206p. 

EASTWOOD, ERIC KINGMAN, The Worden Family; an Account of Some of the 
Descendants of Peter Worden of Yarmouth, Massachusetts. Pittsburgh, 
Pa., Privately Printed, 1951. 20p. 

ELY, REUBEN POWNALL, and others, An Historical Narrative of the Ely, Revell 
and Stacye Families Who Were Among the Founders of Trenton and Bur- 
lington in the Province of West Jersey, 1678-1683, With the Genealogy of 
the Ely Descendants in America. New York, Fleming H. Revell [c!910]. 

EMORY, FREDERIC, Queen Anne's County, Maryland. Its Early History and 
Development . . . Baltimore, The Maryland Historical Society, 1950. 

Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, Vol. 27. New York, Lewis His- 
torical Publishing Company, Inc., 1950. 471p. 

ESSEX INSTITUTE, The Essex Institute Historical Collections, Name, Place and 
Subject Index of Volumes 68 to 85, 1931-1949. [Salem, Newcomb and 
Gauss Company] 1951. 343p. 

FRANCIS, CHARLES EDWARD, Francis; Descendants of Robert Francis of Weth- 
ersfield, Conn. . . . New Haven, The Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor 
Company, 1906. 217p. 


GETZ, NADINE M., We Would Remember; a Near Complete Genealogical Com- 
pilation of the Mollat Immigrants of 1833 and 1851. Dayton, Ohio, The 
Otterbein Press [c!950]. 264p. 

HAMILTON, PHEBE ELLEN (UPTON), Gleanings From Upton Family Records, 
June 1,1916. No impr. [32]p. 

HE ACOCK, ROGER LEE, The Ancestors of Charles Clement Heacock, 1851-1914, 
With an Account of the Descendants of Joel and Huldah Gaskill Heacock. 
Baldwin Park, Cal., Baldwin Park Bulletin, 1950. 172p. 

HEAGLER, ETHEL CONGER, comp., Conger History, 1664-1941. Cooksville, 111., 
1941. 64p. 

, History of Nathaniel White, Hannah Finch White and Their De- 
scendants. Cedar Rapids, The Torch Press, 1938. 62p. 

HEALD, EDWARD THORNTON, The Stark County Story, Vol. 1, Being the First 
76 Scripts Covering the Years 1805-1874 on the Cities, Towns and Villages 
of Stark County, Ohio. Canton, Ohio, Stark County Historical Society, 
1949. 688p. 

, The Stark County Story, Vol. 2, The McKinley Era, 1875-1901. 

Canton, Ohio, Stark County Historical Society, 1950. 706p. 

HEFFELFINGER, JOHN BYERS, The Heffelfinger Genealogy (Through Philip 
Heffelfinger, the Revolutionary Soldier, From Martin Heffelfinger, the Swiss 
Immigrant, in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1740) N. p., 

1951. Mimeographed. 61p. 

HIESTAND, JOSEPH E., An Archaeological Report on Newton County, Indiana. 
Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Bureau, 1951. 49p. 

HINSHAW, WILLIAM WADE, Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, 
Vol. 6, Virginia. Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1950. 1049p. 

Historical and Biographical Encyclopaedia of Delaware. Wilmington, Aldine 
Publishing and Engraving Company, 1882. 572p. 

History of Crawford County, Pennsylvania . . . Chicago, Warner, Beers 
and Company, 1885. 1186p. 

History of Geauga and Lake Counties, Ohio, With Illustrations and Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Its Pioneers and Most Prominent Men. Philadelphia, 
Williams Brothers, 1878. 259p. 

History of Hocking Valley, Ohio . . . Chicago, Inter-State Publishing 
Company, 1883. 1392p. 

History of Kossuth, Hancock and Winnebago Counties, Iowa . . . Spring- 
field, 111., Union Publishing Company, 1884. 933p. 

History of the Elkhorn Valley, Nebraska, an Album of History and Biography 
. . . Chicago, The National Publishing Company, 1892. 779p. 

HODGES, MARGARET ROBERTS, comp., General Index of Wills of St. Mary's 
County, Maryland, 1633-1900 ... No impr. Mimeographed. 135p. 

HONIG, Louis O., Westport; Gateway to the Early West. [North Kansas City, 
Mo., Industrial Press] c!950. 149p. 

HUGUENOT SOCIETY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Transactions, No. 55. Baltimore, 
Waverly Press, Inc., 1950. 72p. 

ILLINOIS (TER.), The Laws of Illinois Territory, 1809-1818. Springfield, 
Illinois State Historical Library, 1950. 386p. (Collections of the Illinois 
State Historical Library, Vol. 25. Law Series, Vol. 5.) 

Index to the Colorado Magazine, Volumes 1 to 25 (1923-1948). Denver, The 
State Historical Society of Colorado, 1950. 296p. 


INDIANA (TER.), GENERAL ASSEMBLY, Journals, 1805-1815. Indianapolis, 
Indiana Historical Bureau, 1950. 1106p. (Indiana Historical Collections, 
Vol. 32.) 

[IOWA STATE MEDICAL SOCIETY], One Hundred Years of Iowa Medicine, Com- 
memorating the Centenary of the Iowa State Medical Society, 1850-1950. 
Iowa City, The Athens Press, 1950. 483p. 

KINSEY, WILLIAM, A History of Jacob Kinsey (Jacob Kintzy) and His De- 
scendants. Union Bridge, Md., The Pilot Publishing Company, 1934. 202p. 

KLEES, FREDRIC, The Pennsylvania Dutch. New York, The Macmillan Com- 
pany, 1951. 451p. 

KNOLLENBERG, BERNHARD, Pioneer Sketches of the Upper Whitewater Valley, 
Quaker Stronghold of the West. Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Society, 
1945. 171p. (Indiana Historical Society Publications, Vol. 15, No. 1.) 

KNORR, CATHERINE LINDSAY, comp., Marriage Bonds and Ministers' Returns 
of Prince Edward County, Virginia, 1754-1810. N. p., Author [c!950]. 

LACKEY, WALTER FOWLER, History of Newton County, Arkansas. Independ- 
ence, Mo., Zion's Printing and Publishing Company [c!950]. 432p. 

Dublin, N. H. . . . Published by the Town of Dublin, 1920. 1018p. 

[LEVERETT, CHARLES EDWARD], A Memoir, Biographical and Genealogical, of 
Sir John Leverett, KNT., Governor of Massachusetts, 1673-9; of Hon. John 
Leverett, F. R. S., Judge of the Supreme Court and President of Harvard 
College; and of the Family Generally. Boston, Crosby, Nichols and Com- 
pany, 1856. 203p. 

Lux, LEONARD, FATHER, The Vincennes Donation Lands. Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana Historical Society, 1949. [74]p. (Indiana Historical Society Pub- 
lications, Vol. 15, No. 4.) 

MACDONALD, HOWARD DAVID, Genealogy: Major Robert Baker and His Pos- 
terity; Baker, Askey, Bennett, MacDonald and Other Lineages . . . 
N. p., 1922. Mimeographed. 46p. 

McGHEE, LUCY KATE, comp., Historical Records of Old Crab Orchard, Lincoln 
County, Stanford, Kentucky. No impr. Mimeographed. 2 Vols. 

MACLURE, WILLIAM, and MARIE DUCLOS FRETAGEOT, Correspondence of 1820- 
1833; Education and Reform at New Harmony. Indianapolis, Indiana His- 
torical Society, 1948. [132]p. (Indiana Historical Society Publications, 
Vol. 15, No. 3.) 

McPHERsoN, HANNAH ELIZABETH (WEIR), The Holcombes, Nation Builders 
. . . Their Biographies, Genealogies and Pedigrees. N. p., 1947. 1352p. 

MARYLAND, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, Proceedings and Acts, October 1773 to 
April 1774. Baltimore, Maryland Historical Society, 1947. 462p. (Archives 
of Maryland, Vol. 64.) 

Master Tales Diary, a Narrative of Events in the Town of Somersworth (now 
Rollinsford) New Hampshire, From 1747 to 1778. No impr. Typed. 155p. 

MEADOWS, CLARENCE WATSON, State Papers and Public Addresses, Clarence 
W. Meadows, Twenty-Second Governor of West Virginia, 1945-1949. 
Charleston, W. Va., [Jarrett Printing Company, 1950]. 432p. 

MILLER, ELBERT H. T., Genealogies of Miller and Tillotson; Fraser, Christie, 
Smith, Wheeler, by Laura Miller. Scottsville, N. Y., n. p., 1951. 39p. 


MOODY, DALLAS DONALD, Aerial Gunner From Virginia; the Letters of Don 

Moody to His Family During 1944. Richmond, Virginia State Library, 

1950. 366p. 

[Mount Vernon, The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, 

cl951.] 47p. 
MUMFORD, JAMES GREGORY, Mumford Memoirs, Being the Story of the New 

England Mumfords From the Year 1655 to the Present Time. Boston, The 

Merrymount Press, 1900. 248p. 

Index of Ancestors With Brief Histories and Reports of National and State 

Organizations. [Somerville, Mass., Somerville Printing Company, Inc., 

1950.] 486p. 

NAY, ERNEST OMAR, Genealogy of the Nay Family, a Record of the Descend- 
ants of Jacob Nay of Virginia From 1723 to 1949, With Supplement. N. p. 

[c!949]. 512p. 
NEW CANAAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Annual, June 1951. New Canaan, Conn., 

The New Canaan Historical Society, 1951. Tip. 
NEWCOMB, BETHUEL MERRITT, comp. and reviser, Andrew Newcomb, 1618- 

1686, and His Descendants, a Revised Edition of "Genealogical Memoir" 

of the Newcomb Family . . . By John Bearse Newcomb . . . 

New Haven, The Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor Company, 1923. 1021p. 

Family . . . N. p. [c!946]. 72p. 
OAKES, RENSSELAER ALLSTON, comp., Genealogical and Family History of the 

County of Jefferson, New York . . . New York, The Lewis Publishing 

Company, 1905. 2 Vols. 
O'NEIL, CHARLES I., DeWitt C. O'Neil, a Biography and Israel O'Neil, a 

Genealogy. Kalispell, Mont., The O'Neil Printers, 1945. 29p. 
PALMER, CLARISSA ELIZABETH (SKEELE), ed., Annals of Chicopee Street; 

Records and Reminiscences of an Old New England Parish for a Period of 

Two Hundred Years. Chicopee, Mass., n. p., 1898. 91p. 
Panhandle-Plains Historical Review, Vol. 22. Canyon, Tex., Panhandle-Plains 

Historical Society, c!949. 97p. 
PARKER, WILLIAM THORNTON, Gleanings From Colonial and American Records 

of Parker and Morse Families, A. D. 1585-1915. Northampton, Mass., 1915. 

, Great Grandfather's Clock at the Old Parker Homestead, Bradford, 

Massachusetts, A. D. 1760. Northampton, Mass., 1913. lOp. 
, Lieut. Colonel Moses Parker 27th Regiment of Foot of the Continental 

Army . . . Northampton, Mass., 1914. 20p. 
Portrait and Biographical Record of Effingham, Jasper and Richland Counties, 

Illinois. Chicago, Lake City Publishing Company, 1893. 607p. 
Portrait and Biographical Record of Johnson, Poweshiek and Iowa Counties, 

Iowa . . . Chicago, Chapman Brothers, 1893. 737p. 
Portrait and Biographical Record of Marion and Hardin Counties, Ohio . . . 

Chicago, Chapman Publishing Company, 1895. 560p. 
ROBBINS, DANA W., History of the Robbins Family of Walpole Massachusetts. 

Descendants of William and Priscilla Robbins. Salt Lake City, Robbins 

Genealogical Society, 1949. 22 Ip. 


Ross, EARLE D., Iowa Agriculture, an Historical Survey. Iowa City, The State 
Historical Society of Iowa, 1951. 226p. 

SCALES, JOHN, History of Stratford County, New Hampshire, and Representative 
Citizens. Chicago, Richmond-Arnold Publishing Company, 1914. 953p. 

SCOTT, GEORGE TRESSLER, The Family of John Tressler and Elizabeth Loy 
Tressler. Loysville, Pa., The Tressler Orphans' Home [1949]. 73p. 

SELLARDS, ELIAS HOWARD, The Sellards Through Two Centuries. Austin, Tex., 
n. p., 1949. 132p. 

SHERMAN, ANDREW MAGOUN, Historic Morristown, New Jersey: the Story of Its 
First Century. Morristown, The Howard Publishing Company, 1905. 444p. 

Shipleys of Maryland; a Genealogical Study, Prepared by Committees Appointed 
At the Shipley Reunion . . . August 29, 1937. [Baltimore, Reese Press, 
1938.] 281p. 

SIMMONDS, FRANK WILLIAM, John and Susan Simmonds and Some of Their De- 
scendants With Related Ancestral Lines. Rutland, Vt, The Tuttle Publish- 
ing Company, Inc. [1940]. 222p. " 

SIMONS, WILFORD COLLINS, From the Landing of the Pilgrims in 1620, a Brief 
But Accurate Genealogy Concerning the Families of Jennie Bessie Gowdy 
and Her Husband, Adolphus Ezra Simons ... No impr. 132p. 

SOCIETY OF INDIANA PIONEERS, Year Book, 1950. Published by Order of the 
Board of Governors, 1950. 127p. 

STOUGH, DALE P., comp., History of Hamilton and Clay Counties, Nebraska. 
Chicago, The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1921. 2 Vols. 

VAN HOOSEAR, DAVID HERMON, comp., The Pillow, Philo, and Philleo Gene- 
alogy; a Record of the Descendants of John Pillow, a Huguenot Refugee 
From France. Albany, Joel MunselTs Sons, 1888. 274p. 

WAYLAND, JOHN WALTER, Historic Harrisonburg. Staunton, Va., The McClure 
Printing Company, 1949. 419p. 

, The Lincolns in Virginia. Staunton, Va., The McClure Printing Com- 
pany, 1946. 299p. 

anapolis, Indiana Historical Society, 1946. [102]p. (Indiana Historical So- 
ciety Publications, Vol. 15, No. 2. ) 

WISCONSIN HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Proceedings One Hundred and Third Annual 
Business Meeting Held at Appleton, September 9, 1949. Madison, The So- 
ciety, 1950. 79p. 

WYATT, WILBUR CARL, Families of Joseph and Isaac Wyatt, Brothers, Who 
Were Sons of Zachariah ("Sacker") and Elizabeth (Ripley) Wyatt, of Durant's 
Neck, Perquimans County, North Carolina. N. p., 1950. 206p. 

YOUNG, WILLIE PAULINE, comp., Abstracts of Old Ninety-Six and Abbeville Dis- 
trict Wills and Bonds As on File in the Abbeville, South Carolina, Court- 
house. [Greenville, Greenville Printing Company, 1950.] 638p. 


ADAMS, LEE M., The Table Rock Basin in Barry County, Missouri. [Columbia, 
Mo., 1950.] 61p. (Memoir of the Missouri Archaeological Society, No. 1.) 

ALEXANDER, EDWIN P., American Locomotives. New York, W. W. Norton and 
Company, Inc. [c!950]. 254p. 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, Proceedings at the Semi-Annual Meeting 
Held in Boston, April 19, 1950. Worcester, Mass., Society, 1950. 160p. 


American Book-Prices Current. Index 1945-1950. New York, R. R. Bowker 

Company [c!951]. 1405p. 
Americana Annual, an Encyclopedia of the Events of 1949, 1950. New York, 

Americana Corporation, 1950, 1951. 2 Vols. 
APPLETON, LE ROY H., Indian Art of the Americas. New York, Charles Scrib- 

ner's Sons, Ltd. [c!950]. 279p. 
ARMY ALMANAC, A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States. 

[Washington, D. C.] United States Government Printing Office, 1950. 1009p. 
AYER, N. W., and SON'S, Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals, 1951. Phila- 
delphia, N. W. Ayer and Son, Inc. [c!951]. 1480p. 
BAKELESS, JOHN EDWIN, The Eyes of Discovery; the Pageant of North America 

As Seen by the First Explorers. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company 

[c!950]. 439p. 
BARNOUW, VICTOR, Acculturation and Personality Among the Wisconsin Chip- 

pewa. [Menasha, Wis.] American Anthropological Association, 1950. 152p. 

(Memoir No. 72.) 
BARTLETT, RUHL JACOB, John C. Fremont and the Republican Party. Columbus, 

The Ohio State University [c!930]. 146p. (The Ohio State University 

Studies, Contributions in History and Political Science, No. 13. ) 
BOLIVAR, SIMON, Selected Writings of Bolivar. New York, The Colonial Press, 

Inc., 1951. 2 Vols. 
BROGAN, DENIS WILLIAM, The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt; a Chronicle of the 

New Deal and Global War. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1950. 382p. 

( Chronicles of America Series, Vol. 52. ) 
BROWN, ESTHER E., The French Revolution and the American Man of Letters. 

Columbia, The Curators of the University of Missouri, 1951. 171p. (The 

University of Missouri Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1.) 
BRUCKER, GENE A., Jean-Sylvain Bailly, Revolutionary Mayor of Paris. Urbana, 

The University of Illinois Press, 1950. 134p. (Illinois Studies in the Social 

Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 3.) 
BULEY, ROSCOE CARLYLE, The Old Northwest, Pioneer Period, 1815-1840. 

Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Society, 1950. 2 Vols. 
CARLSON, THEODORE LEONARD, The Illinois Military Tract; a Study of Land 

Occupation, Utilization, and Tenure. Urbana, The University of Illinois 

Press, 1951. 218p. (Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 2.) 
CHRISTENSEN, ERWIN OTTOMAR, The Index of American Design. New York, 

The Macmillan Company, 1950. 229p. 
CLARK, ANN (NOLAN), Little Boy With Three Names; Stones of Taos Pueblo. 

[Chilocco, Okla., Chilocco Indian Agriculture School, 1950.] 76p. 
, Little Herder in Autumn, in Winter. [Phoenix, Phoenix Indian School, 

1950.] 199p. 
CLYMER, JOSEPH FLOYD, Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925. 

New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. [c!950]. 213p. 
COMMAGER, HENRY STEELE, ed., The Blue and the Gray; the Story of the Civil 

War As Told by Participants. Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 

Inc. [c!950]. 2 Vols. 

COOK, SHERBURNE FRIEND, The Historical Demography and Ecology of the 
Teotlalpan. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1949. 59p. (Ibero- 

Americana: 33.) 


, and LESLEY BYRD SIMPSON, The Population of Central Mexico in the 

Sixteenth Century. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1948. 241p. 
(Ibero- Americana: 31.) 

, Soil Erosion and Population in Central Mexico. Berkeley, University 

of California Press, 1949. 86p. (Ibero- Americana: 34.) 

DEBO, ANGIE, The Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma. [Philadelphia] Indian 
Rights Association, 1951. 35p. 

DELLQUEST, AUGUSTUS WILFRID, United States Coins, a Guide to Values. New 
York, M. Barrows and Company, Inc. [c!951]. 187p. 

DIPESO, CHARLES C., The Babocomari Village Site on the Babocomari River, 
Southeastern Arizona. Dragoon, Ariz., The Amerind Foundation, Inc., 
1951. 248p. 

DOLAN, PAUL, The Organization of State Administration in Delaware. Balti- 
more, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1951. 154p. (The Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity Studies in Historical and Political Sciences, Series 68, No. 1.) 

DRAKE, THOMAS E., Quakers and Slavery in America. New Haven, Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 1950. 245p. 

Encyclopedia of American Biography. New Series, Vol. 22. New York, The 
American Historical Company, Inc., 1950. 306p. 

FAULKNER, HAROLD UNDERWOOD, The Decline of Laissez Faire, 1897-1917. 
New York, Rinehart and Company, Inc. [c!951]. 433p. (The Economic 
History of the United States, Vol. 7.) 

, From Versailles to the New Deal; a Chronicle of the Harding-Coolidge- 

Hoover Era. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1950. 388p. ( Chronicles 
of America Series, Vol. 51.) 

FISH, SIDNEY M., Aaron Levy, Founder of Aaronsburg. New York, American 
Jewish Historical Society, 1951. 81p. (Studies in American Jewish His- 
tory, No. 1.) 

FLETCHER, SYDNEY E., The Big Book of Indians. New York, Grosset and 
Dunlap, c!950. [26]p. 

GALBRAITH, JOHN S., The Establishment of Canadian Diplomatic Status at 
Washington. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1951. 119p. (Uni- 
versity of California Publications in History, Vol. 4l.) 

GOULD, FRANK W., Grasses of Southwestern United States. Tucson, University 
of Arizona, c!951. 352p. (Biological Science Bulletin, No. 7.) 

HAMILTON, CHARLES EVERETT, ed., Cry of the Thunderbird; The American 
Indians Own Story. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1950. 283p. 

HARLOW, RALPH VOLNEY, The Growth of the United States. Vol. 2, The 
Expansion of the Nation, 1865-1950. Rev. Ed. New York, Henry Holt and 
Company [c!951]. 716p. 

HIGGINS, RUTH LOVINGS, Expansion in New 'York, With Especial Reference to 
the Eighteenth Century. Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1931. 
209p. (Contributions in History and Political Science, No. 14.) 

Information Please Almanac, 1951. New York, The Macmillan Company 
[c!950]. 876p. 

INLOW, EDGAR BURKE, The Patent Grant. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins 
Press, 1950. 166p. (The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical 
and Political Science, Series 67, No. 2.) 


JABLOW, JOSEPH, The Cheyenne in Plains Indian Trade Relations, 1795-1840. 
New York, J. J. Augustin [1951]. lOOp. (Monographs of the American 
Ethnological Society, No. 19.) 

JACOBS, WILBUR R., Diplomacy and Indian Gifts; Anglo-French Rivalry Along 
the Ohio and Northwest Frontiers, 1748-1763. Stanford, Stanford Uni- 
versity Press, 1950. 208p. (Stanford University Publications, University 
Series, History, Economics and Political Science, Vol. 6, No. 2.) 

JEFFERSON, THOMAS, Papers. Vols. 2-4, 1777-1781. Princeton, Princeton 
University Press, 1951. 3 Vols. 

MACGOWAN, KENNETH, Early Man in the New World. New York, The Mac- 
millan Company, 1950. 260p. 

MIERS, EARL SCHENCK, The General Who Marched to Hell: William Tecumseh 
Sherman and His March to Fame and Infamy. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 
1951. [366]p. 

MURDOCH, RICHARD K., The Georgia-Florida Frontier, 1793-1796; Spanish Re- 
action to French Intrigue and American Designs. Berkeley, University of 
California Press, 1951. 208p. ( University of California Publications in His- 
tory, Vol. 40. ) 

National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 36. New York, James T. 
White and Company, 1950. 573p. 

NEVINS, ALLAN, The Emergence of Lincoln. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1950. 2 Vols. 

, The New Deal and World Affairs, a Chronicle of International Affairs, 

1933-1945. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1950. 332p. (Chronicles 
of America Series, Vol. 56. ) 

, The United States in a Chaotic World; a Chronicle of International 

Affairs, 1918-1933. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1950. 252p. 
( Chronicles of America Series, Vol. 55. ) 

Niles' National Register, Vols. 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, March 1844-September 1847. 
Baltimore, Jeremiah Hughes, 1844-1847. 5 Vols. 

NYE, RUSSEL B., Midwestern Progressive Politics: a Historical Study of Its Ori- 
gins and Development, 1870-1950. [East Lansing] Michigan State College 
Press, 1951. 422p. 

OLSON, OSCAR NILS, The Augustana Lutheran Church in America, Pioneer 
Period, 1846 to 1860. Rock Island, 111., Augustana Book Concern [c!950]. 

PARSONS, JAMES JEROME, Antioqueno Colonization in Western Colombia. Berke- 
ley, University of California Press, 1949. 225p. (Ibero- Americana: 32.) 

Philadelphia Bibliographical Center and Union Library Catalogue, Union List of 
Microfilms, Revised, Enlarged and Cumulated Edition. Ann Arbor, Mich., 
J. W. Edwards, 1951. 1961p. 

PRATT, FLETCHER, War for the World; a Chronicle of Our Fighting Forces in 
World War II. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1950. 364p. (Chron- 
icles of America Series, Vol. 54. ) 

PRATT, WALLACE E., and DOROTHY GOOD, World Geography of Petroleum. 
[Princeton] Princeton University Press, 1950. 464p. 

RAPPAPORT, ARMIN, The British Press and Wilsonian Neutrality. Stanford, 
Stanford University Press, 1951. 162p. (Stanford University Publications, 
History, Economics and Political Science, Vol. 7, No. 1.) 


RITZENTHALER, ROBERT E., The Building of a Chippewa Indian Birch-Bark 

Canoe. Milwaukee, 1950. 46p. (Bulletin of the Public Museum of the 

City of Milwaukee, Vol. 19, No. 2. ) 
, The Oneida Indians of Wisconsin. Milwaukee, 1950. 52p. (Bulletin 

of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Vol. 19, No. 1. ) 
SALOUTOS, THEODORE, and JOHN D. HICKS, Agricultural Discontent in the Mid- 
dle West, 1900-1939. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press [c!951]. 

SCHLESINGER, ARTHUR MEIER, The American as Reformer. Cambridge, Harvard 

University Press, 1950. 127p. 
STEINER, GILBERT YALE, The Congressional Conference Committee: Seventieth 

to Eightieth Congresses. Urbana, The University of Illinois Press, 1951. 

185p. (Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences, Vol. 32, Nos. 3, 4. ) 
STOKES, ANSON PHELPS, Church and State in the United States. New York, 

Harper and Brothers [c!950]. 3 Vols. 
THINK, Diary of U. S. Participation in World War II. New York, International 

Business Machines Corporation, c!950. 374p. 
VON HAGEN, V. WOLFGANG, The Jicaque (Torrupan) Indians of Honduras. New 

York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1943. 112p. 

( Indian Notes and Monographs, No. 53. ) 
WEISENBURGER, FRANCIS PHELPS, The Life of John McLean, a Politician on the 

United States Supreme Court. Columbus, The Ohio State University Press, 

1937. 244p. ( The Ohio State University Studies, Contributions in History 

and Political Science, No. 15. ) 
Who Was Who in America; a Companion Biographical Reference Work to 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 2. Chicago, The A. N. Marquis Company, 

1950. 654p. 
WIESEND ANGER, MARTIN W., Grant and Carolyn Foreman, a Bibliography. 

[Tulsa] University of Tulsa, 1948. 25p. 
WISH, HARVEY, Society and Thought in Early America, a Social and Intellectual 

History of the American People Through 1865. New York, Longmans, Green 

and Company, 1950. 612p. 

World Almanac and Book of Facts for 1951. New York, New York World- 
Telegram, c!951. 912p. 
YEAR, Mid-Century Edition; 1900-1950. The Dramatic Story of 50 Turbulent 

Years in 2,000 Pictures, 100,000 Words ... a Permanent Record of All 

the Important National and World Events. [Los Angeles, Year Incorporated, 

c!950.] 256p. 

Bypaths of Kansas History 

From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, October 15, 1857. 

We must not neglect to say something about our dusky neighbors occa- 
sionally. We notice that many of them are beginning to dress more after the 
style of civilized life than heretofore. One came to town last week, doffed 
his blanket and leggings, and purchased a suit of store clothes and a fur cap. 
He could not get the hang of them rightly, but straddled about like a three 
year old sonny with his first pair of breeches on! 

We also learn that some of the warriors are becoming more polite towards 
the squaws. They used to ride and make the women walk. But now, when 
a man wants to sell a pony, he will put his wife on its back, and mount a 
horse himself, and come to town. When he starts home again, he will place 
his squaw on the remaining horse, tie the extra saddle behind her, and walk 
by her side. But as soon as he gets out of sight of town, he kindly makes 
her dismount, and lug the saddle home on her back, while he rides! 


Schedule 3 of the U. S. census of 1860 is a report on persons who 
died during the year ending June 1, 1860. At the bottom of the 
page for Verdigris township, Woodson county, Kansas, the assistant 
U. S. marshal wrote: 

John Coleman was taken from his house & Shot by a company of Robbers 
Common in Southern Kansas Ann Extraordinary Drouth Nothing Growing 
and many Many People Leaveing the Country 

From the Kansas Weekly Tribune, Lawrence, October 22, 1868. 


October 1st, 1868. 

ED. TRIBUNE: We have reached this point, our destination, at last, all right, 
with the exception of a few sorefooted animals. Our winter quarters are built 
on the banks of the Little Arkansas, about a half-mile from Wichita City. 

This town was laid out but recently, and without counting the soldiers, has 
about two hundred inhabitants. Of these fifty are single young ladies, and 
seventy-five children under ten years of age. The rest are hunters, scouts, 
&c. It has one hotel and two saloons, and one trading house and the post 
sutler's establishment. Our sutler, Durfee, is from Leavenworth. The build- 
ings generally are constructed of hewn logs. 



We have a dance about once a week, and are now organizing a minstrel 
company, for the good of the country. 

In addition to our command, one company of the 5th U. S. Infantry is sta- 
tioned here, commanded by Captain Barr, who is also commandant of the post. 

We have had but one scare since arriving here, which was caused by a 
squad of horse thieves attempting to steal our horses, before daylight on last 
Thursday morning. The guard discovered them at work and fired on them, 
which aroused the camp, and in less than no time the boys were out. As 
they were retreating about forty shots were fired at them, but with what effect 
is not known. All that could be found the next morning on their trail was a 
large jack, wounded in four places. 

We are well provided with everything necessary at present, except corn for 
our horses, having had none since leaving Council Grove. 

We are all enjoying excellent health, and are anxious for active service. 
Our company numbers sixty men, all told, having lost five by desertion at Bur- 
lingame, and replaced them with five others, who enlisted since we came here. 
The deserters, I am sorry to say, are from Douglas county. 

Groceries and provisions are plentiful at reasonable prices. Flour is worth 
$6 per sack, bacon 27/2# per pound, and fresh beef 9tf. 

As the mail is closing, so will I, but will write you again soon, and in the 

I remain, yours, 


P. S. All letters to members of our company should be directed to "Co. A, 
19th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, care of Capt. S. J. Jennings, Salina, Kas." 

From the Caldwell Commercial, September 21, 1882. 

There is a rule, we mean in school, that has been in vogue as far back as 
we can remember. And it is prohibiting the chewing of gum during school 
hours. Now we can find no fault with that, or the enforcement of the same, 
but it is not very likely that scholars will quit the foolish habit of chewing 
gum so long as the teacher tells them it is against the rule, and at the same 
time has a wad of tobacco in his mouth that makes it necessary for him to 
run to the window every minute to spit. Teachers should set examples for 
children that will enoble and elevate them, but this will not. . . . 

From the El Dorado Daily Republican, August 15, 1887. 

Will A. White, who has been attached to this paper as local scribe for the 
past two months leaves for Lawrence Saturday next to resume his collegiate 
course. He is a good writer and will some day be a bright and shining light 
in the editorial fraternity. The Republican will miss him, and his place will be 
very difficult to fill. 

Kansas History as Published in the Press 

Stories of the Comanche cattle pool, with headquarters in present 
Comanche county, were published in The Western Star, Coldwater, 
September 28, 1951. The pool, founded by Jess Evans, existed in 
the early and middle 1880's. A Comanche pool reunion was held 
in Coldwater September 29, 1951. 

Installments of Mrs. Oello Ingraham Martin's article, "Father 
Came West," have continued to appear regularly in recent issues of 
the Girard Press. 

The German-Russian settlements in Ellis county were the sub- 
ject of an article by Father Matthew Pekari which appeared in the 
Hays Daily News, October 5 and 7, 1951, and in the Ellis County 
News, October 11 and 18. These settlements recently observed 
their 75th anniversary. 

"Report From Whistle-Stop, Kan.," by Hal Borland, in the New 
York Times Magazine, October 7, 1951, was the title of an article 
on Goodland. Chosen as representative of America's political 
whistle-stops, the town's history, citizens and businesses were dis- 

Lillian K. Farrar's historical column has continued to appear in 
the Axtell Standard. The Axtell Catholic church was her subject 
October 11, 1951. Biographical sketches of pioneer residents of 
Axtell and vicinity have appeared as follows: B. P. Redmond, Oc- 
tober 25; William C. Ford, January 3, 1952, and James E. and Lewis 
L. Kirk, January 10. 

A 40-page special edition of the Russell Daily News was published 
October 18, 1951, in recognition of Kansas oil progress week. Fea- 
tured in the edition were articles on the history and activities of the 

011 industry in Russell county. 

Biographical information on Pierre Bete, the man for whom La- 
bette county is said to have been named, compiled by Wayne A. 
O'Connell, was published in the Oswego Independent, October 19, 
1951; the Oswego Democrat, October 19, 26, and the Chetopa Ad- 
vance, October 18 and 25. Bete, a Frenchman, was a famous guide, 
interpreter and hunter who lived in present Labette county for about 

12 years. In 1832 Washington Irving was a member of a hunting 



party which employed Bete as a guide. Irving's comments on the 
guide in his Tour of the Prairies, are quoted at length in the article. 

The Beloit Daily Call published a golden anniversary edition Oc- 
tober 20, 1951. The Call's first issue was published October 1, 1901, 
and the first issue of the Beloit Weekly Democrat, the Call's prede- 
cessor, appeared September 27, 1878. Histories of the Call and the 
Democrat with reproductions of the front pages of the first issues, 
and histories of Asherville, Tipton, Hunter, Glen Elder, Cawker 
City, Scottsville and Beloit are included in the edition. 

A two-column historical sketch by the Rev. John Bauer of St. 
Francis Xavier parish at Burlington, was published in The Daily 
Republican, Burlington, October 24, 1951. As early as 1859 Catholic 
missionaries visited the area and in 1871 Father Heller organized 
the parish. 

Some of the history of the old Clark county courthouse, built in 
1887-1889, was published in the Clark County Clipper, Ashland, 
October 25, 1951. The county recently dedicated a new courthouse. 

A two-column history of the Cumberland church, near Douglass, 
by Rolla F. Murdick, was printed in the Douglass Tribune, October 
25, 1951. Another history of the church, written by J. M. Sater- 
thwaite in 1941, appeared in the Tribune, November 1. The first 
church meeting was in the log-cabin home of John Rodgers in 1876. 
The church was organized by the Rev. T. C. Sanberry. 

A brief discussion of the part played by Linn countians in the 
campaign for "Women's Rights" during the 1850's and 1860's, ap- 
peared in the Mound City Republic, October 25, 1951. 

"The Eisenhower I Know . . .," by Charles M. Harger, was 
printed in The American Magazine, New York, November, 1951. 
Harger included in the article General Eisenhower's personal char- 
acteristics, incidents of his life in Abilene and, briefly, his political 

Brief reminiscences by J. C. Alkire about his boyhood in Kiowa 
county, written by Carrie Allphin, appeared in The Kiowa County 
Signal, Greensburg, November 1, 1951. Alkire came with his parents 
to the county in 1885. A short history of the Greensburg Baptist 
church was printed in the Signal, January 17, 1952. The church 
was organized in 1894 under the leadership of the Rev. Mr. Shanklin. 



Articles of historical interest to Kansans published in recent issues 
of the Kansas City (Mo.) Star included: "Damon Runyon's Philoso- 
phy and Life Reflected in His 'Guys and Dolls/ " by Webster Schott, 
November 1, 1951; "Manuscript of Wandering Artist Describes This 
Area in 1845-1846," a review of Travels in Search of the Elephant: 
The Wanderings of Alfred S. Waugh, Artist, in Louisiana, Missouri 
and Santa Fe, in 1845-46, edited by John Francis McDermott, by 
John Edward Hicks, December 4; "Doctor [Charles H. Crooks] 
From Kansas City, Kansas, Made Many Friends for West in Thai- 
land," by John De Mott, December 8; "Unparalleled Journey 
Through Alaska Told in Letters of Frederick Funston," by Mrs. 
Ella Funston Eckdall, December 27; "Civil War Washington Was a 
Boyhood Memory of Kansan [Linton J. Usher] Who Died [Re- 
cently] . . .," by Don Huls, January 14, 1952; "Jim Bridger's 
Heroic Story Is Brought Home to Kansas Citians by a New Book," 
a review of Louis O. Honig's James Bridger: The Pathfinder of the 
West, by John Edward Hicks, January 19; "Through Many Diffi- 
culties Kansas Attained 'To the Stars' of Statehood," by Jonathan 
M. Dow, January 29; "October Hues of Rural Kansas Colored Polit- 
ical Self-Interview by W. A. White," an article by White wherein 
he interviews himself for the Star in 1924 while a candidate for 
governor, February 29; "Ft. Leavenworth's 125 Years Yield Rich 
History for a Pageant," by John T. Alexander, and "The Horseback 
Ride That Broke Records and Made History," the story of F. X. 
Aubry's six-day ride from Santa Fe, N. M., to Independence, Mo., 
by Henry A. Bundsche, March 9, and "She [Mrs. Lottie Law of 
Hill City] Was a Horse-and-Buggy Doctor in Kansas 50 Years Ago," 
by Jessie-Lea M. Williams and John T. Alexander, March 23. 
Among articles in recent issues of the Kansas City (Mo.) Times 
were: "Neighbors and Crowds From Kansas City Found Good 
Times [in 1890's] on Old Kenna Farm [Near Tonganoxie]," by 
Albert H. Hindman, September 29, 1951; "Lawyer's [Dean Earl 
Wood] Research Establishes Course of Old Santa Fe Trail in 
This County [Jackson County, Missouri]," by Henry Van Brunt, Oc- 
tober 26; "Memorial to Merton Rice Will Serve Baker Univer- 
sity, Where He Studied," by Walter W. Reed, October 29; "Buf- 
falo Chase Was Tops in Excitement in Plentiful Hunting on 
Western Plains," by Geraldine Wyatt, November 9; "Famous Men 
and Heroic Deeds Recalled by the Names of Counties in Kansas," 
by E. B. Dykes Beachy, December 6; " 1 Swam a Little River and 
They Gave Me a Medal,' Was Hero's [William B. Trembly of Kan- 


sas] Story of Feat," by Harry Hannon, Jr., January 18, 1952; 
"Tragedy of Donner Party Is Recalled by Locale of Snowbound 
Streamliner," by Alvin Shayt, January 19; "Pioneer Postal Service 
to West Coast a Matter of Fast Horses, High Rates," by Geraldine 
Wyatt, February 7; "Abraham Lincoln Voiced in Kansas Ideas That 
Would Make Him President," by Albert H. Hindman, February 12; 
"Bayard Taylor Entranced by Kansas Scenes During a Rainy Visit 
in 1866," by Charles Arthur Hawley, March 7; "Dick Parr, Famous 
as Plains Scout, Spent Later Years in Kansas City," by Albert H. 
Hindman, March 20, and "Ralph Waldo Emerson's Kansas Visit 
Has Been Overlooked by Biographers," by Charles Arthur Hawley, 
March 26. 

St. Patrick's Catholic church at Chanute was the subject of a brief 
historical article in the Chanute Tribune, November 16, 1951. The 
first priest, the Rev. Patrick J. Nagle, took up residence at Chanute 
50 years ago. The present building was dedicated in 1911. 

John S. Swenson recalled many historical events concerning the 
Rosedale school, Jewell county, during the 1880's and 1890's, in 
"Memories From Rosedale," published in The Jewell County Re- 
publican, Jewell, November 22, December 6, 13, 1951. 

The history of the First Methodist church of Coffeyville was 
sketched in the Coffeyville Daily Journal, November 25, 1951, by 
Bette Jan Metzler. The church had its beginning in Old Parker 
during the 1860's. The building was moved to Coffeyville in 1875. 
The present building was erected in 1908. 

Articles in the December, 1951, number of the Bulletin of the 
Shawnee County Historical Society, Topeka, included: "Local His- 
tory in the Making," a review of Shawnee county events of 1951, 
by Earl Ives; "Why Shawnee's Boundaries Changed"; "Underground 
Railroad in Topeka," from the reminiscences of Harvey D. Rice; a 
biographical sketch of Gasper C. Clemens, by Charles A. Magaw; 
part 6 of "The First Congregational Church of Topeka," by Russell 
K. Hickman; "What It [Flood] Was Like in 1903," by Paul A. Love- 
well; "Friday the Thirteenth," a review of the 1951 flood in Topeka 
and Shawnee county, by A. J. Carruth, Jr.; "A Vanished Local In- 
dustry [Growing of Seedling Apple Trees]," and a continuation of 
George A. Root's "Chronology of Shawnee County." 

A brief history of the Caldwell cemetery, by E. A. Detrick, was 
printed in the Caldwell Messenger, December 20, 1951. In 1879 


J. U. Huff deeded the original tract to the Caldwell Cemetery Asso- 
ciation, and the first burial was made that same year. 

Fred W. Warren's account of Barton county's first public Christ- 
mas celebration appeared in the Ellinwood Leader, December 20, 
1951. The celebration took place the evening of December 24, 
1874, in the Ellinwood schoolhouse. 

The memoirs of R. W. Akin, concerning early-day life in the vi- 
cinity of Hewins, were published in the Cedar Vale Messenger, 
December 20, 27, 1951, January 3, 10, 1952. A brief history of 
Hewins park by Newton Myers appeared in the Messenger, Janu- 
ary 24. 

A page-length article on Christmas in Baldwin in 1858 and some 
of the history of that period was published in the Baldwin Ledger, 
December 20, 1951. At that time the Methodists had established a 
college at Baldwin but no buildings had yet been erected. 

The Kansas-day issue of To the Stars, January, 1952, published by 
the Kansas Industrial Development Commission, featured articles 
on the geography, history, agriculture, minerals, transportation and 
power, industry, government, people, military installations, recrea- 
tion and tourist points of interest in Kansas. 

Among articles appearing in the 1952 number of the Kansas Maga- 
zine, Manhattan, were: "The Unwilling Bishop," the story of a 
Catholic bishop in early-day Kansas, by J. Neale Carman; a bio- 
graphical sketch of Henry Thomas Stith, first inventor of caterpillar 
traction tread, by Edith Kibbe Bestard; "Wichita at the Turn of the 
Century," by Henry Ware Allen; "Kansas Commune," by Henry M. 
Christman, and "Drama in the Dustbowl," by Charles G. Pearson. 

An account by Col. Harrie S. Mueller of a project to name the 
Wichita elementary and intermediate schools for prominent West- 
ern and Kansas personalities, appeared in The Westerners Brand 
Book, Chicago, January, 1952. 

A history of Jefferson county from the Kansas New Era of Valley 
Falls, July 1, 1876, has been reprinted in installments in the Valley 
Falls Vindicator, beginning January 16, 1952. 

The legend of the first American flag with 34 stars to be flown 
in Kansas is the subject of an article by Wayne A. O'Connell in the 
Chetopa Advance and the Baxter Springs Citizen, January 24, 1952. 


According to the story, the flag was made by Sister Bridget Hayden 
of the Osage Mission in 1855 when Kansas was expected to become 
the 32d state. Twice the flag was altered when states were ad- 
mitted to the Union. During the Civil War the flag was used by 
Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt's command. Also by O'Connell is an 
article on the first permanent house on the site of present Oswego, 
which appeared in the Chetopa Advance, February 21, and the 
Oswego Democrat and Independent, February 29. The house was 
built by John Mathews in the early 1840's. 

A letter by G. W. McClung, Westminster, Md., recalling the 
pioneer Catholic families of Jewell and their church, was published 
in the Jewell Republican, February 7, 1952. The church was built 
in 1879. 

An article by James A. Clay on early business ventures in Doug- 
lass was printed in the Douglass Tribune, February 7, 1952. Other 
reminiscences by Clay of early Douglass appeared in the Tribune, 
March 20. 

Some of the history of early Wellsville was published in the 
Wellsville Globe, February 14, 1952. The Globe, February 28, 
printed a brief sketch of LeLoup. 

A brief account of the fraudulent organization of Harper county 
in the 1870's was published in the February 21, 1952, issue of the 
Harper A dvocate. 

The Coffeyville Journal, February 24, 1952, published a 126-page 
progress edition, featuring the industry, education, agriculture, 
building advancement and churches of the community. 

A 144-page, 1952 achievement edition was published February 
25, 1952, by the Winfield Daily Courier. Included were sections on 
history, schools, colleges, clubs, industries and sports of Winfield. 

Published in the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 
Lawrence, March, 1952, were "A Geographic Study of Population 
and Settlement Changes in Sherman County, Kansas," parts 2 and 3, 
by Walter M. Kollmorgen and George F. Jenks, and Robert Taft's 
editorial on the wildlife of Kansas in the 1870's. The editorial has 
been republished in pamphlet form with the addition of accounts 
of wildlife from the newspapers of that period. 


A sketch by Otto J. Wullschleger of the Indian Mission school in 
present Marshall county was published in the Marshall County 
News, Marysville, March 6, 1952. Buildings for the school were 
erected in 1855 and 1856 by the Presbyterian board of foreign mis- 
sions, and in 1857 the Rev. Daniel A. Murdock arrived to take 
charge. In 1858 the mission was abandoned and a year later the 
buildings were destroyed by a tornado. 

The history of Sharon school, district No. 55, Johnson county, by 
M. D. Bartlett, was published in the Johnson County Democrat, 
Olathe, March 6, 1952. The original building, believed to have 
been erected in 1871, served until 1892 when a larger schoolhouse 
took its place. The second building was recently sold to make room 
for a new consolidated school. 

J. P. Moran's story of the robbery of the Coffeyville banks by the 
Dalton gang in 1892, written by Arnold McClure, was published in 
the Coffeyville Journal, March 9, 1952. Moran was a tank wagon 
driver who assisted in stopping the robbery. 

A biographical sketch of the Col. Hooper G. Toler family of the 
Wichita area appeared in the Caldwell Messenger, March 17, 1952. 
The Toler farm in the early days was famous for its purebred trot- 
ters and pacers, and a community called Tolerville grew up around 
the farm. 

A brief history of the Church of the Brethren, Quinter, was 
printed in The Gove County Advocate, Quinter, March 27, 1952. 
The church was organized in 1886. 

"Hays, Kansas, at the Nation's Heart," by Margaret M. Detwiler, 
is the title of an illustrated article appearing in the April, 1952, 
number of The National Geographic Magazine, Washington, D. C. 
Some of the history and a description of present-day Hays and 
vicinity are included in the article. 

Kansas Historical Notes 

Newly elected officers of the Ness County Historical Society are: 
Edna Robison, president; Mrs. Mabel C. Raffington, vice-president; 
Mrs. Audra Hayes, secretary, and Mrs. Ada Young, treasurer. 

Mrs. C. C. Webb was elected president of the Northeast Kansas 
Historical Society at the annual meeting January 9, 1952. Other 
officers chosen were: Fenn Ward, vice-president; Mrs. Fenn Ward, 
recording secretary, and C. C. Webb, chairman of the finance com- 
mittee. The society is the sponsor of the Highland museum. 

The Woman's Kansas Day Club held its 45th annual meeting in 
Topeka January 29, 1952, with the president, Mrs. Ira Burkholder 
of Topeka, presiding. Mrs. W. M. Ehrsam, Wichita, was elected 
president. Other officers elected were: Mrs. Douglas McCrum, 
Fort Scott, first vice-president; Mrs. E. R. Moses, Sr., Great Bend, 
second vice-president; Mrs. Dwight Numbers, Paola, registrar; Mrs. 
James L. Jenson, Colby, historian; Mrs. C. W. Spencer, Sedan, re- 
cording secretary, and Beatrice Kassebaum, Topeka, treasurer. The 
following directors were elected: Mrs. Percy Haag, Holton, first 
district; Mrs. C. D. Waddell, Ed wards ville, second district; Mrs. 
J. U. Massey, Pittsburg, third district; Mrs. Jessie Clyde Fisher, 
Wichita, fourth district; Mrs. Herb Barr, Leoti, fifth district, and 
Mrs. L. E. Womer, Agra, sixth district. "Old Opera Houses and 
Early Places of Amusement" was the theme of the meeting. District 
directors and historians made interesting reports on this subject, 
supplemented with programs and pictures. Mrs. James E. Smith, 
daughter of the late Sen. Clyde M. Reed, through the historian, 
gave an interesting album of pictures of Senator Reed and other 
items of interest. These reports, pictures and museum articles were 
presented to the Kansas State Historical Society. 

John G. Deines was elected president of the Russell County 
Historical Society at the annual meeting in Russell January 31, 
1952. Other officers chosen were: J. C. Ruppenthal, first vice-presi- 
dent; Luther Landon, second vice-president; Merlin Morphy, sec- 
retary, and A. J. Olson, treasurer. Mrs. Dora H. Morrison was re- 
elected to the board of directors. Landon was the retiring president. 

The Scott County Historical Society was reorganized at a meet- 
ing in Scott City February 11, 1952, under the sponsorship of the 



Senior Study and Social Club. Officers elected were: Elmer Ep- 
person, president; S. W. Filson, vice-president; Mrs. Clarence Dick- 
hut, secretary, and Matilda Freed, treasurer. Among the plans of 
the society is a history of Scott county. 

H. D. Lester was named president of the Wichita Historical 
Museum board at a meeting of the board in Wichita March 13, 
1952. Other officers elected were: Eugene Coombs, first vice-presi- 
dent; Grace Helfrich, second vice-president; Carl E. Bitting, secre- 
tary, and Charles K. Foote, treasurer. 

Elected to the board of directors of the Finney County Historical 
Society at a meeting in Garden City, March 12, 1952, were: Harry 
G. Carl, Clay Weldon, John Wampler, Ralph Kersey, Eva Sharer, 
Cliff Hope, Jr., Mrs. P. A. Burtis, A. J. Keffer, Dr. L. A. Baugh, 
Helen Stowell, Mrs. Josephine Cowgill and C. L. Reeve. Abe 
Hubert, principal of the Garden City junior high school, was the 
principal speaker at the meeting. Gus S. Norton is president of 
the society. 

The annual meeting of the Ford Historical Society was held 
March 14, 1952. Officers elected or re-elected include: Mrs. Mamie 
Wooten, president; Mrs. F. M. Coffman, vice-president; Mrs. L. 
Emrie, historian, and Mrs. Marguerite Patterson, custodian. 

The work of Mother Bickerdyke in caring for Union soldiers dur- 
ing the Civil War and her later activities are related in Cyclone in 
Calico The Story of Mary Ann Bickerdyke (Boston, 1952), a 278- 
page book by Nina Brown Baker. 




August 1952 

Published by 

Kansas State Historical Society 



Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor 





Patricia M. Bourne and A. Bower Sageser, 183 
With a sketch of the Bourne Lister Cultivator, p. 185. 


September, 1862-July, 1865 . . Edited by Joyce Farlow and Louise Barry, 187 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and 
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis- 
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be 
sent to the secretary of the Historical Society. The Society assumes no respon- 
sibility for statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


A portion of J. Rowland's sketch, "Council at Medicine Creek 
Lodge With the Kiowa and Comanche Indians," from Harpers 
Weekly, New York, November 16, 1867. The picture depicts 
one of the peace treaty councils held by the United States gov- 
ernment with the Plains Indians near what is now Medicine 
Lodge in October, 1867. An estimated 15,000 Indians were 

Beginning in 1927, and every five years thereafter, a pageant 
commemorating the 1867 peace meetings has been given at the 
Medicine Lodge peace treaty amphitheater. This year the pag- 
eant will be presented on the afternoons of October 10, 11 and 12. 


Volume XX August, 1952 Number 3 

The Annals of Kansas: 1886 


THE first Annals of Kansas was published in 1875 by Daniel W. 
Wilder. It was a volume of almost 700 pages of fine print, 
which began with the expedition of Coronado and ended with the 
year 1874. In 1886, Wilder issued a second edition; a reprint of 
the first with eleven years added. 

These books were so popular and useful that in later years half 
a dozen attempts were made to continue them. A good deal of 
time and money went into several of these projects. But the day 
of the one-man compilation had long since passed; a fact that was 
recognized by the Legislature in 1945 when the first appropriation 
was made to the Kansas State Historical Society for the present 
work, to begin where Wilder left off. 

The Annals committee was composed of Fred Brinkerhoff of 
Pittsburg, the late Cecil Howes of Topeka, Dr. James C. Malin of 
the University of Kansas, and Justice William A. Smith of the Kan- 
sas Supreme Court. Work began July 1, 1945, under the direction 
of the editor. Fortunately, it was possible to employ Miss Jennie 
Owen to take charge of the compilation. She has done a splendid 
job on a manuscript that in the first draft totaled about 1,500,000 
words. Now, with her assistant, James Sallee, she is helping edit 
it for publication. 

The principal sources were Kansas newspapers. It would be im- 
possible to make such a thorough compilation in any other state 
because in no other state is there such a newspaper collection. Vir- 
tually every Kansas paper is on file at the Historical Society. Since 
the Annals is a day-by-day record of events, and necessarily brief, 
these papers will enhance its value by enabling users to refer di- 
rectly to the original and detailed stories. 

Not all these papers, of course, were read, but at one time or 
another they were nearly all consulted. Three papers were scanned 

KIRKE MECHEM, for 21 years secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, is now 
the society's editor. He lives in Lindsborg. 

"The Annals of Kansas: 1887" will appear in the November issue of the Quarterly. 



regularly for every day of the forty years of the Annals: 1886 to 
1925, inclusive. In this way, state-wide coverage was secured, as 
well as freedom from one-paper or one-party news slanting. Among 
these papers were the Topeka Daily Capital, the Wichita Eagle, the 
Kansas City (Mo.) Times, and the official state paper, whatever it 
was. The Kansas Farmer, official organ for farm organizations and 
a source of agricultural news, was also read. Items from over the 
state were verified in the local papers; a story from Hutchinson, 
for example, was checked in the Hutchinson papers. 

There were many other sources. Hundreds of volumes in the 
Historical Society's library were consulted, among them the official 
reports of all state departments, from which the summaries that ap- 
pear at the end of each year were compiled. Newspaper stories 
dealing with the state's business were checked against these reports. 
Other official reports included those of state-wide associations, such 
as the Kansas Bar Association, etc. 

The most difficult problem was to determine what to include. 
At the beginning, three prominent Kansans, two lawyers and one 
professor of history, were asked to compile an annals for the same 
brief period, each from a different newspaper. There was agree- 
ment only on the outstanding (and obvious) events. History is made 
up of many occurrences that are not important themselves but in 
the aggregate are vital. For example, there are the meetings of 
organizations. People organize for countless reasons and nothing 
is more illustrative of times and conditions. Obviously, the most 
important should be mentioned. But which are important? The 
solution was to make brief listings in six-point type of the annual 
meetings of most of the state-wide associations. For researchers 
who need to know more, the listings will be a guide to the papers 
containing the complete stories. The six-point type will save space 
and enable the casual reader to skip these hundreds of items. 

The goal of the editors was to make the Annals accurate, readable, 
comprehensive, concise and unprejudiced an impossible achieve- 
ment, no doubt. It might reasonably be asked, what is compre- 
hensive? Manifestly, a forty-year record of Kansas, which will be 
a standard reference for perhaps a hundred more, if it is to be worth 
anything, cannot be written in a few thousand words. On the other 
hand, it must cost as little as possible. The year 1886, printed in 
this issue, runs to about 10,000 words. It has been cut from about 
20,000 words; that is, in half. It could be reduced to 5,000 words 
by sacrificing a great deal that is valuable and most of the life and 


color. The text, however, represents several editings, based on the 
experience of a good many years. Nothing essential has been left 
out. This sample is submitted in the belief that the completed work 
will give Kansans an accurate, thorough and long-needed history 
of the state. 


JANUARY 1. A severe storm, one of a series known as the "Blizzard of '86," 
swept Kansas with rain, turning to ice and snow. It was accompanied by high 
winds and below-zero temperatures. Many settlers living in temporary houses, 
and cowboys and travelers, bewildered when landmarks and trails were ob- 
literated, were frozen to death. Some estimates placed the number at nearly 
100. Rabbits, prairie chickens, quail and antelope died. Railroad traffic and 
business were paralyzed. Hundreds of men worked with picks and shovels to 
clear tracks; it cost several hundred dollars a day to feed snowbound passen- 
gers. Food and fuel shortages were serious. Farmers burned corn to keep 
warm. Many of the great cattle companies were ruined. It was estimated 
that 80 per cent of the cattle in the storm's path were killed; those that sur- 
vived were "walking skeletons." 

Twelve carloads of buffalo bones had been shipped from Cimarron since 
May, 1885. They sold for $10 a ton and were made into harness ornaments 
and cutlery handles. 

George W. Click, Atchison, former Governor, took charge of the Topeka 
pension office which served Kansas, Missouri, Colorado, Indian territory and 
New Mexico territory. 

Fort Scott now had electricity and a street railway. 

Robert L. Downing played in Tally-Ho and A Tin Soldier at the Grand 
Opera House, Topeka. 

Food prices in Topeka newspapers included: butter, 20 cents a pound; 
eggs, 20 cents a dozen; New York full cream cheese, 15 cents a pound; prunes, 
18 pounds for $1; sugar, 14 pounds for $1, and coffee, 8 pounds for $1. 

More than 500 pounds of rabbits were being shipped daily from Osborne. 

The Anti-Monopolist, Enterprise, published a history of Dickinson county. 

The Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Kansas, had 372 posts. 

The State Board of Education met at Topeka. 

JAN. 2. Two wagonloads of slaughtered antelope were shipped from Wal- 
lace county to Eastern markets. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Wallace County Register, Wallace; S. L. Wilson, editor and owner; 
the first paper in Wallace county. 

JAN. 3. A gang at Wichita attacked Charley Sing and ordered him and 
other proprietors of a Chinese laundry to leave town. The Chinese were 
promised police protection. 

Judge David J. Brewer in the U. S. Circuit Court held that Henry Brad- 
ley, enjoined by the district court at Atchison from selling liquor, was not de- 
prived of his rights as a citizen. 

JAN. 4. Adelaide Moore played in A School for Scandal and As You Like It 
at the Grand Opera House, Topeka. 

JAN. 5. In Meade county's first election, Meade Center was chosen county 
seat. The following officers were elected: county commissioners, Hugh L. 
Mullen, John D. Wick and Christian Schmocker; county clerk, M. B. Reed; 


treasurer, W. F. Foster; probate judge, N. K. McCall; register of deeds, C. W. 
Adams; sheriff, T. J. McKibben; coroner, Ed E. Buechecker; surveyor, Price 
Moody; superintendent of public instruction, Nelson B. Clarke. 

A cougar was shot near Sun City, Barber county. 

The Newton Milling and Elevator Co. was organized with a capital stock 
of $50,000. Bernard Warkentin was one of the directors. 

The State Board of Pharmacy met at Topeka. 

JAN. 6. A Chautauqua county farmer received a $50 premium for the best 
bale of upland cotton at the New Orleans Exposition. It was grown, ginned 
and shipped by Exodusters, Negroes who migrated to Kansas. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Frisco Pioneer, Euphrates Boucher, editor and publisher; the first news- 
paper in Morton county. 

JAN. 7. The Lindsborg News quoted broomcorn at $280 a ton. 

Kansas had a school population of 461,044. 

The Westmoreland Recorder published a 14-column history of Potta- 
watomie county. 

JAN. 8. Charles F. Scott bought the interest of E. E. Rohrer and became 
the sole owner of the lola Register. 

The Kansas Democratic Editors and Publishers Assn. met at Topeka. 

JAN. 10. The Sedan Graphic published a political history of Chautauqua 

JAN. 11. The Kansas State Bar Assn. met at Topeka. 
The Kansas Equal Suffrage Assn. met at Topeka. 

JAN. 13. The Cheney Journal and the German-American Advocate, Hays, 
were printed on Manila paper because of the snow blockade. 

The Kansas State Board of Agriculture met at Topeka. 

The Kansas Real Estate Agents Assn. met at Topeka. Members voted to ask the 
Legislature for $25,000 to advertise Kansas. 

JAN. 14. Indians suffering from the cold annoyed Wichita citizens by beg- 
ging admission to their homes. 

Governor Martin was appealed to in the Pratt county-seat war. Residents 
of Pratt and Saratoga were armed. Pratt charged that Saratoga had stuffed the 
ballot box in the election of October 1, 1885. Although Saratoga received 
more votes, county commissioners had decided in favor of Pratt, declaring a 
fraud. The county seat had been moved at night and by force from luka to 
Pratt. Suit was pending in the Supreme Court. 

JAN. 15. Vol. I, No. 1, Wellington Monitor, J. G. Campbell and Charles Hood, pub- 

JAN. 17. Eugene F. Ware stated he became a poet through writing rhymes 
advertising the harness business. 

JAN. 18. The Attorney General moved to oust the Leavenworth county 
attorney for failure to enforce the prohibitory law. He listed over 130 names 
of county saloonkeepers. 

The Western Baseball League was organized at St. Joseph, Mo., with 
seven teams including Topeka and Leavenworth. 

JAN. 19. A special session of the Legislature was convened to make a new 
apportionment for senators and representatives. Governor Martin asked for 
a law providing for arbitration of disputes between employers and employees. 
He also called attention to the hog-cholera epidemic which had resulted in 
losses estimated at $2,000,000. 

The Kansas State Historical Society met at Topeka. 


JAN. 21. Bishop Thomas Vail protested when the rector of St. John's Epis- 
copal Church at Leavenworth held "requiem" mass for a suicide. 

JAN. 22. Judge Brewer of the U. S. Circuit Court, in the case of John and 
E. Walruff, Lawrence, held that the state could prohibit brewers from manu- 
facturing but must pay for property destroyed. 

The U. S. House of Representatives voted to give Mary A. Bickerdyke a 
pension for services to the Union army during the Civil War. "Mother" Bick- 
erdyke, who lived in Kansas at intervals until her death, served as nurse and 
cook, and established army laundries and supervised hospitals. Later she 
settled several hundred veterans and their families in Kansas and secured aid 
for them when Indians, grasshoppers and drouth depleted their resources. 

JAN. 23. Travelers halted by storms published Vol. I, No. 1, of the 
B-B-Blizzard at Kinsley: "Published once in a lifetime by a stock company 
composed of the passengers on snowbound trains at this point." 

JAN. 25. The Kansas Assn. of Architects was organized at Topeka. J. G. Haskell, To- 
peka, was elected president; H. M. Hadley, Topeka, secretary. 

JAN. 26. David R. Atchison, U. S. Senator from Missouri and "president 
for a day," died in Clinton county, Missouri. The city and county of Atchison 
were named for him. 

JAN. 28. Two members of a Saratoga raiding party were wounded when 
Pratt was attacked during the county-seat fight. The courthouse at luka was 

Vol. I, No. 1, Plainville Times, S. G. Hopkins, editor and proprietor. 

JAN. 29. The quarter-centennial of Kansas was celebrated at Topeka. 
Speakers included Gov. John A. Martin, former Governors Charles Robinson and 
Thomas Osborn, Judge Albert H. Horton, Judge James Humphrey, Cyrus K. 
Holliday, B. F. Simpson, Dr. Richard Cordley, D. R. Anthony, I., A. P. Riddle, 
J. B. Johnson, Samuel N. Wood, John Speer, Daniel W. Wilder, Williams Sims, 
Alexander Caldwell and Noble L. Prentis. 

Hamilton county was organized with Kendall as temporary county seat. 
J. H. Leeman, Dennis Foley and Lawrence W. Hardy were named county com- 
missioners; Thomas Ford, county clerk. 

JAN. 30. Corn was being burned in hundreds of stoves. 

Governor Martin directed the Adjutant General to investigate the Pratt 
county-seat conflict. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Our Messenger, official organ of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, was published at Topeka; Olive P. Bray, editor. 

FEBRUARY 4. The Supreme Court held that the law attaching Clark and 
Meade counties to Comanche county was unconstitutional, affirming the opin- 
ion of the Attorney General. 

The Kansas State Eclectic Medical Assn. in extra session at Topeka re- 
solved "that the State Board of Health shall not have power to enforce com- 
pulsory vaccination, nor to make any rule or regulation governing the practice 
of medicine." 

FEB. 6. Timothy hay sold for $5.50 a ton; prairie hay at $5. All farm 
products were correspondingly low. 

Eight antelope were captured near Leoti. 

FEB. 7. Pratt county offices and records were returned to luka from Pratt 
in accordance with a writ of mandamus issued by the Supreme Court. 


The Knights of Labor asked Lawrence dealers to stop sales of the Kansas 
City Journal. The boycott, a result of the discharge of union printers several 
years before, reduced the Journal's circulation at Lawrence nearly 25 per cent. 

FEB. 8. W. F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody presented his "sensational" play, The 
Prairie Waif, at the Grand Opera House, Topeka. He was assisted by Buck 
Taylor, Western scout, and a band of Indians. 

FEB. 11. The State Board of Charities met at Topeka. 

FEB. 13. Vol. I, No. 1, Hugo Herald, G. W. McClintock, publisher; the first newspaper 
in Stevens county. 

FEB. 16. The Royal Arch Masons and the Royal and Select Masters of Kansas met at 

FEB. 17. The Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of Kansas met at Topeka. 

FEB. 19. A joint committee on state affairs, reporting on expenditures on 
the east wing of the Capitol, charged favoritism, incompetence, extravagance, 
inferior materials and workmanship, and recommended the discharge of the 
State Architect and members of the Statehouse commission. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Hope Dispatch, A. M. Crary, editor. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Kiowa County Signal, Greensburg; Will E. Bolton, editor; Milo M. Lee, 

FEB. 20. The Legislature adjourned. Acts passed included: Authorization 
for district courts to set up boards of arbitration in disputes between manage- 
ment and labor; permission to counties and cities to encourage development of 
natural resources by subscribing to stock of companies organized for such pur- 
poses; provision for the disposition of surplus taxes in the hands of county 
treasurers; suppression of obscene literature; prevention of hunting on Sunday; 
protection of birds; declaration of May 30 as a legal holiday; provision for the 
consolidation of cities; creation of the 22nd, 23rd and 24th judicial districts; 
provision for the organization of militia; authorization for county high schools; 
regulation of certain joint stock and mutual insurance companies; provision for 
a department of pharmacy at the University of Kansas, and the re-creation of 
Morton and Seward counties. 

FEB. 21. G. J. Coleman, Mound Valley, arrested on a charge of cruelty for 
dehorning cattle, was discharged by the court. 

FEB. 23. The State Reformatory Commission met at Topeka. 

G. A. R., Department of Kansas, met at Wichita. 

The Women's Relief Corps and the Sons of Veterans met at Wichita. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen met at Topeka. 

FEB. 25. Governor Martin appointed R. C. Bassett, Seneca, judge of the 
22nd judicial district, created by the 1886 Legislature. It included Doniphan, 
Brown and Nemaha counties. C. W. Ellis, Medicine Lodge, was named judge 
of the 24th district, comprising Barber, Comanche, Clark, Meade, and unorgan- 
ized Kiowa, counties. Stephen J. Osborn, Wa Keeney, was named judge of the 
23rd district, which included Rush, Ness, Ellis and Trego counties and the 
unorganized counties of Gove, St. John, Wallace, Lane, Scott, Wichita and 

FEB. 27. Osage City voted $22,000 in bonds to aid the Council Grove, 
Osage City and Ottawa railroad, a branch of the Missouri Pacific. 

MARCH 2. The first steel rails of the Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad, 
a branch of the Missouri Pacific, were laid near Fort Scott. 

Delegates of the Knights of Labor organized a state assembly at Topeka. 


MAR. 3. At Garden City the land office was "packed with new settlers." 

Nathaniel Stickney Goss, ornithologist, returned from Central America 
with 43 new species of birds. His collection was valued at $100,000. 

Fourteen women held county offices in Kansas. They were Emily S. Rice 
of Harper, county clerk; Jennie Patterson of Davis, Ada E. Clift of Trego, and 
Mrs. A. M. Junken of Dickinson, registers of deeds; Gertie Skeen of Barber, 
Maggie Kilmer of Chautauqua, Sallie Hulsell of Cherokee, Mary Williams of 
Coffey, Mattie Worcester of Graham, Georgianna Daniels of Greenwood, Mrs. 
A. C. Baker of Labette, Annie E. Dixon of Lyon, Gertrude E. Stevens of Sher- 
idan, and Lizzie J. Stephenson of Woodson, superintendents of public instruc- 

Barber county organized an immigration bureau. 

MAR. 4. The South Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at 

MAR. 5. The Supreme Court returned the Pratt county seat to luka from 
Pratt, pending settlement in the district court. 

Immigrants were pouring into Anderson county, among them a group of 
Dunkards bound for Westphalia. 

The Garden City Sentinel advocated dividing Kansas at the 200-mile line 
and forming a new state of the western half, with Garden City as the capital. 

Governor Martin issued a proclamation consolidating Wyandotte, Armour- 
dale and Kansas City into a city of the first class, called Kansas City. Officials 
elected were: T. F. Hannan, mayor; John J. Moffitt, clerk; Frank S. Merstetter, 
treasurer; W. S. Carroll, attorney; J. H. Lasley, engineer; John Wren, street 
commissioner; J. K. Paul, fire marshal; John Sheehan, marshal; M. J. Manning, 
police judge; Charles Bohl, W. T. Brown, William Clow, Edward Daniels, 
Thomas Fleming, Charles Haines, Samuel McConnell, James Phillips, Cornelius 
Butler and J. C. Martin, councilmen. 

Kenneth and Hoxie, Sheridan county, were consolidated. 

MAR. 8. About 250 Missouri Pacific shop employees at Atchison struck in 
protest against the Gould system. 

MAR. 9. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows grand encampment met at Leaven- 

The Order of the Eastern Star met at Newton. 

MAR. 10. A colony of 40 families from Berlin, Ontario, arrived at Garden 

Leverett W. Spring, author of Kansas, The Prelude to the War for the 
Union, resigned from the University of Kansas. The Topeka Daily Capital com- 
mented, "The loss of the professor would be more generally mourned if he had 
not attempted to write a history of Kansas." 

MAR. 11. A graveyard ghost in McPherson county turned out to be a man 
copying names from tombstones. It was said that the names were going to be 
used on a petition for an election to move the county seat to Galva. 

Ferdinand Fuller, member of the first party sent to Kansas by the Emigrant 
Aid Co. of Massachusetts, died at his home in Lawrence. He designed the first 
University of Kansas building. 

Fort Scott protested when the Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad im- 
ported cheap Italian labor. 

The Southwest Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at Mc- 


MAR. 12. John Maloy wrote a history of Morris county for the Council 
Grove Cosmos. 

MAR. 13. Dodge City saloons were closed on complaint of William B. 
"Bat" Masterson, peace officer. 

The Attorney General interpreted the act of the Legislature pertaining to 
school lands as prohibiting their sale until three years after the organization of 
the county in which the land lay. 

MAR. 14. Italians brought to Yates Center to work on the Verdigris and 
Independence railroad were withdrawn when citizens protested. 

MAR. 16. A Leavenworth census fraud was exposed. To boom real estate 
and secure larger legislative representation, 7,268 names had been added to the 
correct return of 22,000. 

The Christian Church convention met at Wichita. 

MAR. 18. The Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at Holton. 

The Kansas Evangelical Assn. met at Willow Springs. 

MAR. 19. Governor Martin and Frank H. Betton, Labor Commissioner, 
conferred in Kansas City, Mo., with the governor and labor commissioner of 
Missouri, regarding the Missouri Pacific strike. Their proposal for settlement 
was accepted by the workers. 

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad contracted to build 28 miles 
of road from Elvira, Chase county, via Bazaar and Matfield Green, to El Dorado. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Veteran Sentinel, Will C. Higgins, editor; the first newspaper in Stanton 

MAR. 20. Paola was lighted by gas from a 310-foot well. 

The U. S. District Court at Atchison granted an injunction to the Missouri 
Pacific, restraining strikers from obstructing traffic. 

MAR. 22. Electric lights were turned on at Abilene. "Time will tell," re- 
marked the Reflector, "whether it will be to the interest of the city to use the 
same to any extent." 

MAR. 23. Kiowa county was organized with Greensburg as temporary 
county seat. H. H. Patten, Jacob Dawson and C. P. Fullington were appointed 
county commissioners; M. A. Nelson, county clerk. 

Vice President Hoxie of the Missouri Pacific modified the proposals of 
Governors Marmaduke and Martin for settlement of the strike. The Knights of 
Labor considered the conditions unacceptable, and the strike continued with 
several displays of violence. 

MAR. 25. The Northwest Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met 
at Kirwin. 

MAR. 26. Wano, Cheyenne county, ten months old, had 30 business houses 
and 55 residences. 

MAR. 30. Thirty Missouri Pacific engines were disabled by strikers at 

APRIL 1. Cheyenne county was organized with Bird City as temporary 
county seat. J. M. Ketcham, W. W. McKay and J. F. Murray were appointed 
county commissioners; B. W. Knott, county clerk. 

Strikers at Parsons captured deputies, wrecked engines and disabled ma- 
chines in the Missouri Pacific shops. The Adjutant General was authorized to 
call out the National Guard. 


Hamilton county held its first election; Syracuse was chosen county seat. 
Officers elected were: L. C. Swink, W. D. H. Shockey and L. W. Hardy, com- 
missioners; Thomas Ford, clerk; Alvin Campbell, treasurer; C. H. Frybarger, 
probate judge; John Stanfield, register of deeds; Shade J. Denson, sheriff; John 
N. Sloan, coroner; William O. MacKinley, attorney; George W. Earp, clerk of 
the district court; John Robertson, surveyor; G. F. Rinehart, superintendent of 
public instruction. Kendall, a rival town, charged fraud and appealed to the 
Supreme Court. The court threw out the vote of Syracuse township and or- 
dered county officers to return to Kendall until the general election in November. 

Hunting antelope with greyhounds was a popular sport in Cheyenne 

Vol. I, No. 1, Hector Echo, C. C. Thompson, editor; the first newspaper in Greeley 

Vol. I, No. 1, Western Odd Fellow, Osborne, a monthly; Topliff and Richey, pub- 

APR. 2. The Rev. Philip Krohn, jpastor of the Abilene Methodist Episcopal 
Church, confessed to scandal charges which led to his suspension. He was a 
member of the State Board of Charities and a former member of the Kansas 
State Agricultural College Board of Regents. 

APR. 3. A regiment of the Kansas National Guard was sent to Parsons dur- 
ing the railroad strike. At Atchison, trains were running on schedule and 58 
men were at work in the shops. Only those who assisted in destruction were 
refused employment. Mayor S. H. Kelsey of Atchison said the city would pay 
for all damage to Missouri Pacific property within city limits. 

Fifty west-bound prairie schooners were passing through Oberlin daily. 

Greenwood county had over a thousand persons of foreign birth, includ- 
ing 219 English and Welsh, 192 Danes, 150 Germans, 125 Irish and 62 Scotch. 

APR. 5. The State Board of Agriculture crop report showed that the wheat 
acreage was 16 per cent less than in 1885 because of light yield and low price. 
Forty per cent of the wheat sown had been killed by cold and the Hessian fly. 

APR. 6. An anti-dude club was formed at Newton. Fines to be levied in- 
cluded $5 for carrying a cane during business hours, $10 for wearing kid 
gloves or a plug hat, and $20 for parting the hair in the middle. 

APR. 9. Paola voted $20,000 for building the Kansas City and Southwest- 
ern railroad. 

Wichita employed 527 persons in factories. Products included stairs, 
sashes, blinds, doors, flour, brick, cigars, crackers, clothing, saddles, harnesses, 
shoes, fence, carriages, millinery, pumps, plows, bedsprings, iron, marble and 

Thousands of trees were being planted on timber claims in Kearney county. 

The Santa Fe reduced railroad rates to California to $12 first class, $7 
second class. 

George C. Ropes, Topeka, was appointed Statehouse architect and J. P. 
Parnham, Lawrence, superintendent of construction. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Gove County Gazette, Gove City; Ralph L. Crisswell, editor and pro- 

APR. 12. The Supreme Court ordered a public canvass of the Hamilton 
county-seat election of April 1 at Kendall. 


APR. 14. A tornado struck Nemaha, Pottawatomie and Wilson counties, 
causing much property damage. 

The Rock Island took over all stock and franchises of the Omaha, Abilene 
and Wichita railroad. 

APR. 15. The Wichita Academy was renamed Lewis Academy in honor of 
Hiram W. Lewis, who gave $25,000 for a permanent endowment fund. 

APR. 16. Two steel barges were completed at Arkansas City for navigation 
on the Arkansas river. They were towed by the steamboat, Kansas Miller. 

The Hamilton county-seat election was declared illegal. The court or- 
dered offices kept at Kendall. 

APR. 18. El Dorado celebrated installation of its waterworks. Special 
trains brought visitors from Newton, Fort Scott and Wichita. 

APR. 20. Mrs. Mary Ellen Lease lectured at Wichita on "Equal Suffrage 
and Its Influence on Temperance." 

The U. S. Senate confirmed the appointment of Edmund G. Ross, former 
U. S. Senator from Kansas, as governor of New Mexico. 

APR. 21. The Santa Fe bought the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe of Texas, 
a system with about 800 miles of track. 

APR. 23. Two hundred zinc workers at Pittsburg struck for higher wages. 
The top salary for furnace men was $2.25 a day. 

APR. 24. A freight train was wrecked by strikers at Wyandotte. The en- 
gineer and fireman were killed. 

William Scully of London, England, now owned more than 70,000 acres 
of land in Kansas, largely in Marion, Dickinson, Butler and Marshall counties. 

APR. 27. Clay county voted a $100,000 bond issue to build a Rock Island 
extension through the county, the first proposition submitted by the road in 

Ford county voted a $144,000 bond issue for construction of a railroad 
from Dodge City to Red Cloud, Neb., by the Chicago, Nebraska, Kansas and 

APR. 30. Frank Wilkeson, Salina journalist, was the author of "Cattle- 
Raising on the Plains," published in Harper's Magazine. 

Governor Martin wrote on "The Progress of Kansas" and Sen. John J. 
Ingalls on "National Aid to Common Schools" in the North American Review. 

MAY 1. Work began on a $40,000 building for Bethany College, Lindsborg. 

MAY 4. The Missouri Pacific strike ended in accordance with an agree- 
ment reached at St. Louis by the congressional investigating committee and the 
Knights of Labor executive board. 

The Kansas State Sunday School Assn. met at Junction City. 
The Kansas State Dental Assn. met at Topeka. 

MAY 6. Fredonia held a calico ball that netted $45 toward the purchase 
of a town clock. 

Thousands of plover were slaughtered in Butler county. One hunter 
killed 2,000 in one day. Plover sold for 60 cents a dozen in Towanda and $2.50 
a dozen in New York. 

The Kansas State Homeopathic Medical Assn. met at Topeka. 

The Social Science Club of Kansas and Western Missouri met at Ottawa. 


MAY 11. Greensburg was chosen permanent county seat at Kiowa county's 
first election. Officers elected were: J. L. Hadley, J. W. Gibson and B. F. 
Gumm, commissioners; J. N. Crawford, clerk; H. H. Patten, treasurer; W. N. 
Hankins, probate judge; Frank L. Cruickshank, register of deeds; O. J. Green- 
leaf, sheriff; A. L. Bennett, coroner; J. W. Davis, attorney; J. K. Stephenson, 
clerk of the district court; O. L. Stockwell, surveyor; W. W. Payne, superin- 
tendent of public instruction. 

The Kansas State Eclectic Medical Assn. met at Wichita. 

The Knights Templar grand commandery met at Kansas City. 

MAY 13. Vol. I, No. 1, Eudora News, M. R. Cain, editor and proprietor. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Western Cyclone, Nicodemus; a Negro newspaper; Arthur G. Tallman, 
editor. Nicodemus was named for an ex-slave and located by Exodusters 12 miles northeast 
of Hill City, Graham county. Population was 333, of which 261 were Negroes. 

MAY 14. The Attorney General ruled that the Police Gazette could not be 
sold in Kansas. 

Hamilton county, population 4,000, had ten newspapers. 

MAY 15. The Rock Island purchased the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska 

An anti-claim-jumping society was organized in Trego and Graham coun- 

Montezuma was founded in Gray county. 

Cheyenne county held its first election; Bird City was chosen county seat. 
Officers elected were: John F. Murray, John Elliott and John G. Long, com- 
missioners; B. W. Knott, clerk; Charles I. Kerndt, treasurer; D. W. Cave, pro- 
bate judge; H. E. Kingsley, register of deeds; George W. Reynolds, sheriff; 
James A. Scott, coroner; Joseph Crow, Jr., attorney; Edwin M. Phillips, clerk of 
the district court; J. A. Hoffman, surveyor; Etta Linn, superintendent of public 

The directors of the Kansas State Reading Circle met at Topeka. 

MAY 17. Water was turned into the Eureka irrigating canal for the first 
time. It was intended to provide a controlled water supply to farmers in Ford 
county. The project was conceived in 1882 by George and J. W. Gilbert, and 
work began in 1884. The president of the company was A. T. Soule, the "Hop 
Bitters" millionaire of Rochester, N. Y. 

MAY 18. The Kansas State Medical Society met at Atchison. 

The Knights of Pythias grand lodge met at Salina. 

MAY 19. The Seventh Day Adventists met at Topeka. 

MAY 22. Great Bend had 300 buildings under construction. 

The Kansas State Music Assn. met at Topeka. 

MAY 26. N. S. Goss published a revised catalog of his Birds of Kansas. 

MAY 28. Strawberries sold at four cents a quart in Parsons. 

The military cemeteries at Forts Dodge and Lamed were abandoned. 

MAY 29. A directors meeting at Chanute voted to consolidate the follow- 
ing railroads with the Chicago, Kansas and Western: Walnut Valley and Col- 
orado; Pawnee Valley and Denver; Independence and Southwestern; Emporia 
and El Dorado Short Line; Colony, Neosho Falls and Western. 

MAY 30. Over 6,000 attended the dedication of the National cemetery at 


MAY 31. The Fort Dodge military reservation of more than 12,000 acres 
was settled by near-by residents. Every quarter section was taken within 24 
hours. The government had abandoned the fort several years before. 

JUNE 1. The Grand Opera House, Topeka, was sold to L. M. Crawford, 
Topeka, who owned opera houses in Topeka, Atchison, Wichita, and the Kansas- 
New Mexico circuit. 

JUNE 3. Lane county was organized with Dighton as temporary county 
seat. Joshua Wheatcroft, J. J. Schaffer and G. H. Steeley were appointed com- 

JUNE 5. Vol. I, No. 1, Caldwell Weekly Times, D. D. Leahy, editor and publisher. 

JUNE 6. Patrick Fleming, one-time county attorney of Rawlins county, 
was hanged by a mob for the murder of five homesteaders. 

The Ancient Order of Hibernians met at Leavenworth. 

JUNE 8. The State Sheriffs' Assn. met at Topeka. 

JUNE 9. The Kansas State Pharmaceutical Assn. met at Emporia. 

JUNE 10. Completion of the Missouri Pacific to Salina was celebrated by 
1,500 persons. 

Electric lights were in general use at Clay Center, which claimed to be 
the first city in the Republican valley to use electricity. 

The Smoky Hill Editorial Assn. met at Wa Keeney. 

The State Board of Health met at Topeka. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Sherman County Dark Horse, Eustis; J. H. Tait, editor; Tait and Frank 
T. Pearce, proprietors. 

JUNE 11. The report of the commission appraising the Salt Springs lands 
in Saline, Lincoln, Mitchell, Cloud and Republic counties fixed valuations at 
from 50 cents to $50 an acre, totaling about $75,000. When sold, the money 
was to go to the State Normal School, Emporia. 

JUNE 13. Street car service was begun at Garden City. The first ride was 
free. Cars were designed for 15 persons but could hold 50 when all "hanging 
on" room was used. 

JUNE 15. C. C. Olney fenced 3,000 acres in Ottawa county with barbed 

The first state Negro militia, the Garfield Rifles, was organized at Leaven- 

The United Presbyterian Church convention met at Topeka. 

JUNE 17. Seward county was organized with Springfield as temporary 
county seat. Walter I. Harwood, E. M. Campbell and Edward A. Watson 
were named commissioners; J. M. Wilson, clerk. 

The Kansas State Veterinary Assn. met at Topeka. 

JUNE 18. Paola had a free city library of 3,000 books. 

Cimarron drug stores were taxed $700 each annually for selling whisky. 

Seven thousand acres of land adjoining Paola were leased for oil and gas 

Reminiscences of Early Days, a pamphlet by Scott Cummins, was pub- 
lished at Canema, Barber county. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Cherry vale Republican, S. L. Smith, editor; L. A. Sheward, publisher. 
JUNE 19. Directors of the fair association met at Topeka and adopted the name, Kansas 
Fair Assn. 

JUNE 23. N. S. Goss, ornithologist, discovered that the snowy plover is a 
Kansas bird. He secured three specimens in Comanche county. 


A branch office of the Louisiana state lottery was located at Topeka. 

JUNE 24. Vol. I, No. 1, Logan Republican, B. F. Coffman, editor and publisher. 
JULY 1. Fifteen thousand persons attended the interstate Sunday School 
assembly at Ottawa. Dr. Lyman Abbott of New York spoke. 
Vol. I, No. 1, Little River Monitor, T. J. Robison, editor. 

JULY 4. A colony of Swedes settled in Clay county. 

JULY 5. Gen. John A. Logan spoke at the Methodist Episcopal Assembly 
at Lawrence to an estimated crowd of 40,000. 

A Moonlight Boy, a novel by Edgar Watson Howe, Atchison, was pub- 

JULY 7. The Republican state convention at Topeka nominated the follow- 
ing state ticket: John A. Martin, Atchison, Governor; A. P. Riddle, Girard, 
Lieutenant Governor; E. B. Allen, Wichita, Secretary of State; Timothy J. Mc- 
Carthy, Larned, Auditor; J. W. Hamilton, Wellington, Treasurer; S. B. Brad- 
ford, Carbondale, Attorney General; J. H. Lawhead, Fort Scott, Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. 

The Kansas and Missouri Press Assn. met at Topeka. 

JULY 9. The American Coursing Club was organized at Topeka. 

JULY 14. The Prohibition party state convention at Emporia nominated the 
following state ticket: C. H. Branscombe, Douglas county, Governor; D. W. 
Houston, Anderson county, Lieutenant Governor; W. B. Klaine, Ford county, 
Secretary of State; C. H. Langston, Douglas county, Auditor; William Crosby, 
Jefferson county, Treasurer; W. S. Waite, Lincoln county, Attorney General; 
Mrs. C. N. Cuthbert, Sumner county, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The State Board of Pharmacy met at Topeka. 

JULY 15. Lane county held its first election; Watson was chosen county 
seat. Officers elected were: G. H. Steeley, John L. Schaffer and C. E. Hous- 
ton, commissioners; T. J. Smith, clerk; W. H. Lee, treasurer; V. H. Grinstead, 
probate judge; Maurice Roche, register of deeds; D. G. McClellan, sheriff; P. B. 
Dick, coroner; T. J. Womack, attorney; E. G. French, clerk of the district 
court; P. W. Hey, surveyor; Grace Hoover, superintendent of public instruction. 

JULY 16. Hundreds of women and children were engaged in the silk-cocoon 
industry. The majority of them were Russian Mennonites in Marion, Harvey, 
Sedgwick and Reno counties. Miss Mary M. Davidson, Junction City, wrote a 
manual for beginners in silk culture. 

JULY 20. A suit was filed in the Supreme Court to compel the return of 
Rush county offices and records to Walnut City from La Crosse. 

Rep. Edmund N. Morrill, Hiawatha, demanded that the Secretary of the 
Interior detain Chaco, the Apache murderer of the McComas family in 1883, 
until evidence could be furnished to warrant his conviction. Mrs. McComas 
was a sister of Eugene Ware, Kansas poet. 

JULY 22. Jacob Stotler sold his interest in the Wellington Press to A. L. 
Runyon, veteran newspaperman and father of Damon Runyon. 

JULY 25. The Denver, Memphis and Atlantic railroad reached Norwich. 

JULY 26. Mr. Desmond, U. S. A., a novel with scenes and incidents laid at 
Fort Leavenworth, by John Coulter, formerly of the Leavenworth Times, was 
published by McClurg's, Chicago. 


JULY 27. Kansas departments of the G. A. R. and the W. R. C., accom- 
panied by the Modoc and Flambeau clubs, left Topeka in 14 railroad coaches 
to attend the national G. A. R. encampment at San Francisco. 

Willie Sell, 16, was sentenced to life imprisonment for murdering his fam- 
ily at Osage Mission (St. Paul), in March. 

Clay Center was building $15,000 and $75,000 hotels, a $25,000 opera 
house, and eight $8,000 brick houses. 

JULY 28. The Wichita Piscatorial Society left in a special car, decorated 
with tall corn, to spend a month in the Minnesota lake region. 

JULY 29. The Sheridan county seat was moved from Kenneth to Hoxie, 
ending all residence at Kenneth. 

Work began on the Rock Island bridge across the Kansas river at Topeka. 

JULY 30. The steamer Kansas Miller, made a trip from Arkansas City to 
Fort Smith, Ark., with a cargo of 100,000 pounds of Kansas flour. 

AUGUST 3. Stevens county was organized with Hugoton as temporary 
county seat. John Robertson, H. O. Wheeler and J. B. Chamberlain were 
named commissioners; J. W. Calvert, clerk. 

A thousand men were working on the Rock Island between Topeka and 
St. Joseph, Mo. Graders were at work on the Santa Fe extension from Arkansas 
City to Galveston. The Missouri Pacific was laying track from El Dorado to 

AUG. 4. The Democratic state convention at Leavenworth nominated the 
following state ticket: Thomas Moonlight, Leavenworth, Governor; S. G. Isett, 
Chanute, Lieutenant Governor; W. F. Petillon, Dodge City, Secretary of State; 
W. D. Kelly, Leavenworth, Auditor; L. P. Birchfield, Jewell county, Treasurer; 

A. S. Devenney, Johnson county, Attorney General; W. J. A. Montgomery, Clay 
Center, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The Negro Knights Templar met at Topeka. 

AUG. 5. Seward county held its first election; Fargo Springs was chosen 
county seat. Officers elected were: E. M. Campbell, P. W. Kimball and Charles 
Mayo, commissioners; Oliver Leisure, clerk; A. T. Ragland, treasurer; L. A. 
Etzold, probate judge; George W. Ferner, register of deeds; G. W. Nelley, 
sheriff; Dr. C. M. Carpenter, coroner; C. J. Traxler, attorney; W. E. McClure, 
clerk of the district court; A. L. Stickel, surveyor; Charles Edwards, superin- 
tendent of public instruction. 

AUG. 7. The Topeka Daily Capital listed 44 fairs to be held in the state 
during the year. 

AUG. 10. Scott county held its first election; Scott City was chosen county 
seat. Officers elected were: H. M. Cranor, C. Garrett and Eugene McDaniel, 
commissioners; Charles S. Reed, clerk; W. R. Hadley, treasurer; Thomas Poul- 
son, probate judge; C. C. Hadley, attorney; B. F. Griffith, register of deeds; 

B. F. Daniels, sheriff; Dr. J. F. Bond, coroner; S. T. Burgess, clerk of the dis- 
trict court; William E. Daugherty, surveyor; Miss Lulu Boling, superintendent 
of public instruction. 

AUG. 14. Vol. I, No. 1, Little Sand-Pounder, Abilene. It was "devoted to the science 
of pounding sand in a rat hole." 

AUG. 16. Vol. I, No. 1, Clay Center Evening Times, D. A. Valentine, editor. 

AUG. 18. The Attorney General ruled that "any woman over 21 years of 
age is a qualified voter at a school meeting." 


Shawnee county led all others with a school population of 14,505 and an 
apportionment of $7,397.55. Leavenworth was second and Sedgwick third. 

AUG. 19. The State Board of Railroad Commissioners reduced freight rates 
on wheat and corn five to ten percent. 

AUG. 20. The Supreme Court ordered a canvass of the Seward county 
election returns. All votes cast in the "Owl building" at Fargo Springs were 
ordered thrown out. The ballots cast at the "wagon box" were to be accepted. 

AUG. 22. Amos A. Lawrence died at Nahant, Mass. He was treasurer of 
the New England Emigrant Aid Co. and gave nearly $12,000 toward founding 
a Free-State college in Kansas. The sum eventually went to the University of 
Kansas. The city of Lawrence was named for him. 

AUG. 25. Samuel N. Wood was kidnaped at Woodsdale, Stevens county. 
Hugoton had been declared temporary county seat. Citizens of Woodsdale 
wanted to postpone the election, holding that the county did not have sufficient 
population to qualify for organization. Wood, the leader of the Woodsdale 
faction, was seized by Hugoton partisans and taken on a "hunting trip" to the 
Texas Panhandle. 

Street cars began running at Council Grove. 

The Anti-Monopoly state convention opened at Topeka. 

AUG. 31. The Supreme Court issued a writ of habeas corpus ordering the 
abductors of Sam Wood to produce his body in court. 

Reno county voted to issue $200,000 in bonds to the Rock Island and 
$125,000 to the Fort Smith, Kansas and Nebraska railroad. 

The Geuda Springs, Caldwell and Western railroad was completed to 

SEPTEMBER 1. Vol. I, No. 1, Broom Corn Reporter, Fort Scott; Solomon Schulein, 

SEPT. 2. Cove county was organized with Gove City as temporary county 
seat. Jerome B. McClanahan, William Stokes and Lyman Raymond were ap- 
pointed commissioners; D. A. Borah, clerk. 

The Missouri-Kansas bridge across the Missouri river at Leavenworth 

The African Methodist Episcopal Church conference met at Topeka. 

SEPT. 3. The Parsons and Pacific railroad grade was completed to Mound 

The Denver, Memphis and Atlantic railroad was completed to Coffeyville. 

Sam Wood, who was kidnaped at Woodsdale, August 25, was rescued by 

SEPT. 4. Vol. I, No. 1, Geuda Springs Crank. It was established for "the elevation of 
public morals and horsethieves." 

SEPT. 6. The Western National Interstate Fair Assn. met at Lawrence. 

SEPT. 8. A sugar-cane factory began operation at Fort Scott. 

SEPT. 9. The Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad began work on its 
depot at Topeka, laid the first rail in Shawnee county, and had 25 miles graded 
and ready for track. 

Stevens county held its first election; Hugoton was chosen county seat. 
Officers elected were: J. E. Hunt, J. B. Chamberlain and W. L. Clark, com- 
missioners; J. W. Calvert, clerk; C. W. Kirby, treasurer; William Guinn, pro- 
bate judge; H. F. Nichols, register of deeds; A. P. Ridenour, sheriff; W. J. D. 


Holderman, coroner; J. L. Pancoast, attorney; W. E. Allen, clerk of the district 
court; G. B. Teams, surveyor; J. P. Cummings, superintendent of public instruc- 

The Emporia Normal school board of regents reported that all but 20 
acres of the Salt Springs land had been sold for $78,882, which was $3,362 
more than the appraised value. 

Nineteen Osage county druggists made 2,812 liquor sales in June. "Rea- 
sons for purchase" totaled 215. Indigestion came first, biliousness second. 

The Universalist Church conference met at Seneca. 

SEPT. 13. The enlarged edition of Daniel Webster Wilder's Annals of Kan- 
sas was issued. It contained 1,196 pages, the largest book ever printed in the 
state. The price was $5 a copy. 

SEPT. 14. The Southern Kansas Academy at Eureka was dedicated and 
opened for classes. 

Electric lights were turned on at Junction City for the first time. 

Judge Brewer in the U. S. Circuit Court ruled that the Santa Fe had au- 
thority to build through other states and to acquire the Gulf, Colorado and 
Santa Fe railroad of Texas. 

SEPT. 15. The first passenger train over the Missouri Pacific extension 
traveled from Wichita to Hutchinson. 

Kansas Wesleyan University, Salina, opened. 

SEPT. 18. A Fort Scott oil well yielded six barrels a day with an estimated 
value of $8 to $10 daily. 

SEPT. 20. Fifteen members of the Topeka Bicycle Club left on a two-day 
cycling trip to Junction City for the state meeting of the League of American 

Sherman county was organized with Eustis as temporary county seat. 
L. J. Gandy, O. D. Dickey and Rufus Edwards were named commissioners; 
J. H. Tait, clerk. 

E. C. Walker, Jr., editor of Lucifer, the Light Bearer, and Lillian Harman, 
daughter of his partner, were arrested at Valley Falls on a charge of unlawful 
cohabitation. On the preceding day they had contracted a free-love marriage, 
the ceremony being performed by Moses Harman. 

SEPT. 21. The Kansas National Guard went into camp at Fort Riley. 

SEPT. 23. A new town on the Rock Island in Brown county was named 
Horton in honor of Albert H. Horton, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

The Coolidge Border Ruffian reported high winds in Hamilton county: 
"Two quarter sections of land were blown into this office. Anyone having lost 
their claims during this blow can have same by removing the property and 
paying for this advertisement." 

SEPT. 27. An estimated 20,000 persons attended P. T. Barnum's circus at 
Topeka. "The Greatest Show on Earth" was also scheduled for Junction City 
and Emporia. 

SEPT. 28. Thirty Years in Topeka, by F. W. Giles, was published. 

The V/omen's Christian Temperance Union met at Cherryvale. 
SEPT. 29. Central Kansas College opened at Great Bend. 

SEPT. 30. Track-laying began on the El Dorado and Walnut Valley railroad. 
The state assembly of the North American Knights of Labor was organized at Topeka. 


Governor Martin issued a proclamation against importation of cattle from 
Illinois, Ohio and Canada because of pleuro-pneumonia. 

OCTOBER 1. Larned street cars began running. 

OCT. 4. A woman's suffrage convention at Leavenworth was the first of 
11 to be held in the state. Others were at Abilene, Lincoln, Florence, Hutch- 
inson, Wichita, Anthony, Winfield, Independence, Fort Scott and Lawrence. 

OCT. 5. The Independent Order of Good Templars met at Topeka. 

The Improved Order of Red Men met at Emporia. 

OCT. 6. The G. A. R. state reunion began at Emporia. 

OCT. 7. The Presbyterian Synod of Kansas met at Emporia. 

OCT. 9. The Chicago, Kansas and Western railroad filed an amended 
charter to build and operate 52 lines in Kansas with an estimated 7,274 miles 
of track. Capital stock was $154,000,000, said to be the largest of any railroad 
company in the country. 

OCT. 10. A colony of 50 persons settled near Coolidge in Hamilton county. 

Wild turkeys were plentiful in Ford and Clark counties. 

OCT. 12. The Southwestern Kansas Exposition was formally opened at 
Garden City by Governor Martin. 

Nearly 5,000 men and 3,000 teams were working on the Chicago, Kansas 
and Nebraska Rock Island railroad. 

The I. O. O. F. grand lodge met at Topeka. 

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod met at Waterville. 

OCT. 14. Independence was lighted with electricity. 

E. C. Walker and Lillian Harman, defendants in the "free love case," 
were found guilty and sentenced to 75 and 45 days in jail. They appealed to 
the Supreme Court. 

The Kansas Society of Friends met at Lawrence. 

OCT. 17. Topeka's steam brickyard, with a capacity of 50,000 bricks daily, 
was in operation. 

OCT. 18. The Topeka pension agency was said to be the fourth largest in 
the nation, with 26,000 names on the rolls. 

OCT. 19. Gove county held its first election; Gove City was chosen county 
seat. Officers elected were: Lyman Raymond, John W. Campbell and James 
Hamilton, commissioners; D. A. Borah, clerk; F. F. Wright, treasurer; J. H. 
Jones, probate judge; L. F. Jones, register of deeds; J. W. Hopkins, sheriff; 
W. H. Crater, coroner; P. J. Cavanaugh, attorney; William Murphy, clerk of 
the district court; F. B. Cope, surveyor; G. G. Lehmer, superintendent of public 

OCT. 21. Republicans praised Charles Curtis as the most successful county 
attorney in the state. The Topeka Daily Capital said "the people of Shawnee 
county are proud of their faithful son. He did his duty despite the jeers and 
threats of the whisky element." 

Partisans of Kendall swore out warrants for the arrest of members of the 
Hamilton county election board. They were arraigned at Kendall and denied 
bail. A writ of habeas corpus was secured and the men were escorted home 
by the sheriff and citizens. 

The General Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches of Kansas met at 



OCT. 23. Holbrook Hall, gift of Miss Mary Holbrook of Holbrook, Mass., 
and Boswell Hall, gift of Charles Boswell of West Hartford, Conn., were dedi- 
cated at Washburn College. 

OCT. 24. The Sixth Kansas cavalry held a reunion at Pleasanton. 

OCT. 26. The American Woman's Suffrage Assn. met at Topeka. Delegates included 
Julia Ward Howe, Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony. 

OCT. 27. The Kansas Anti-Horse Thief Assn. met at Parsons. 

NOVEMBER 1. The Adjutant General authorized a Negro National Guard 
company at Topeka. 

St. Aloysius' Catholic Church was dedicated at Wichita. It cost $75,000. 

The Kansas Central Elevator Co. purchased the "largest cornsheller in the 
world," invented by Kansas men. 

Nov. 2. Garden City organized a Law and Order League to aid in enforc- 
ing the prohibitory law. 

A settlement of broomcorn growers from Illinois was established near 
Garden City. 

The peanut crop in Kearney county averaged 30 bushels per acre. 

The general election was held. For governor, John A. Martin, Repub- 
lican, defeated Thomas Moonlight by about 34,000 votes. Other state officers 
elected were: A. P. Riddle, Girard, Lieutenant Governor; E. B. Allen, Wichita, 
Secretary of State; Timothy J. McCarthy, Lamed, Auditor; J. W. Hamilton, 
Wellington, Treasurer; S. B. Bradford, Carbondale, Attorney General; J. H. 
Lawhead, Fort Scott, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Nov. 3. Vol. I, No. 1, Ford County Republican, Dodge City; Rush E. Deardoff and 
M. W. Sutton, editors and publishers. 

Nov. 4. The Young Men's Christian Assn. of Kansas met at Ottawa. 

Nov. 5. Fifty-six prisoners in the state penitentiary were under death 

Marley K. Kittleman, Harper, defeated Charles K. Gibson in a foot race 
at Wichita that attracted sportsmen from New York, San Francisco and other 
cities. Betting was said to involve more than $100,000. Kittleman's time for 
the 125 yards was 14.25 seconds. 

The Young Women's Christian Assn. of Kansas held its first meeting at Ottawa in 
connection with the Y. M. C. A. meeting. Miss Anna S. Campbell, Fort Scott, was elected 
president; Miss May L. Parker, Topeka, secretary. 

Nov. 6. The Sterling syrup works closed for the season after making over 
40,000 gallons. 

Hamilton county commissioners threw out the votes of an entire precinct 
because of fraud and ordered the records moved to Syracuse. An armed mob 
at Kendall threatened to shoot anyone attempting to remove them. 

Nov. 8. Sam Purple was hanged by a mob near Jetmore for the murder 
of his wife and two children. 

Sherman county held its first election; Eustis was chosen county seat. 
Officers elected were: C. E. Bennett, John Bray and E. L. Lyons, commis- 
sioners; G. W. Benson, clerk; J. E. Rule, treasurer; Lewis E. Tobias, probate 
judge; E. W. Penny, register of deeds; R. G. Albright, sheriff; A. E. Tice, cor- 
oner; W. K. Brown, attorney; A. E. Keller, clerk of the district court; F. S. 
Palmer, superintendent of public instruction. 

Nov. 9. The Supreme Court ordered Hamilton county commissioners to 
canvass the vote in Coombs precinct, thrown out three days before. 


Nov. 16. Snow Hall, K. U.'s new natural history building, was dedicated. 

Dodge City voted a $140,000 bond issue for the Denver, Memphis and 
Atlantic railroad extension to Kingman. 

Chase county voted an $80,000 bond issue for the Chicago, Kansas and 
Western railroad. 

Nov. 17. Governor Martin designated Richfield as temporary county seat 
of Morton county and named Frank Robinson, D. D. Sayer and James McClain 
as county commissioners; E. F. Henderson, clerk. 

The Missouri Valley Unitarian Church conference met at Topeka. 
The Kansas Academy of Science met at Emporia. 

Nov. 19. Gas was found at Beloit at a depth of 145 feet. 

Nov. 25. A 22-inch coal vein was struck near Admire City, a new town 
on the Missouri Pacific. 

Nov. 26. The Rock Island had 1,000 men and 300 teams working near 

Nov. 27. Nearly nine-tenths of "the counties voted railroad bonds during 
the year. One state officer commented: "The tendency of some of the new 
counties to rush headlong into debt is alarming. It will bankrupt them. Some- 
thing must be done by the Legislature to prevent this reckless voting of bonds." 

Nov. 29. The first engine and caboose on the Kansas, Pacific and Western 
railroad reached Pratt. 

There were 1,667 post offices in Kansas. Seventy-five had been discon- 
tinued during the year and 180 established. Names changed included: Bangor, 
Coffey county, to Gridley; Barnard, Linn, to Boicourt; Bismarck, Wabaunsee, 
to Halifax; Blue Mound, Linn, to Bluemound; Brandley, Seward, to Richfield, 
Morton; Bridge, Saline, to Chico; Churchill, Ottawa, to Tescott; Colorado, Lin- 
coln, to Beverly; Cuwland, Hodgeman, to Ravanna; Dallas, Norton, to Oro- 
noque; Debolt, Labette, to Stover; Deerton, Labette, to Valeda; Fawn Creek, 
Montgomery, to Fawn; Fort Harker, Ellsworth, to Kanopolis; Grand View, 
Morris, to Delavan; Guilford, Wilson, to Benedict; Gypsum Creek, Saline, to 
Digby; Harwoodville, Seward, to Fargo Springs; Hatfield, Sedgwick, to Mays; 
Holden, Butler, to Brainerd; Howe, Rush, to Lippard; Kenneth, Sheridan, to 
Hoxie; Lucas, Pawnee, to Marshall; Maud, Kingman, to Calista; Memphis, 
Bourbon, to Garland; Mid-Lothian, Harper, to Freeport; Naomi, Mitchell, to 
Excelsior; Newcastle, Cherokee, to Stippville; Ozark, Anderson, to Kincaid; 
Pliny, Saline, to Gypsum; Reno Centre, Reno, to Partridge; Rooks Centre, 
Rooks, to Woodston; Salt Creek, Reno, to Abbyville; Satanta, Comanche, to 
Comanche; Shilo, Ness, to Harold; Ship, Comanche, to Shep; State Line, Chey- 
enne, to Rogers; Tiblow, Wyandotte, to Bonner Springs; Tolle, Butler, to Win- 
gate; Ulysses, Clark, to Lexington; Waseca, Johnson, to Holliday; Zamora, 
Hamilton, to Kendall. 

The Attorney General ruled that Wallace county was still organized under 
the law of 1868 although in the "grasshopper year" of 1874 the entire popu- 
lation left the county and the records were lost. Wallace was attached to Ellis 
county for judicial purposes in 1875. Resettlement was rapid in 1886, and a 
full set of officers was elected. 

Nov. 30. Dickinson county voted a $276,000 bond issue to the Chicago, 
Kansas and Western, the Santa Fe, and the Chicago, St. Joseph and Fort Worth 


DECEMBER 1. Dr. A. A. Holcombe, State Veterinarian, reported widespread 
fatality among cattle from cornstalk disease. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church, Diocese of Kansas, met at Topeka. 

DEC. 2. A 45-inch coal vein was discovered at Cato, Bourbon county. 

Wellington now had street cars, a waterworks, gas and electricity. 

DEC. 3. Chautauqua county grew 100 bales of cotton in 1886. 

The Great Bend Tribune remarked that the number of railroads under 
construction to every little town in western Kansas "is only equalled by the 
number of street railways, waterworks, electric lights, colleges and children to 
fill them. A town of 150 inhabitants that hasn't at least four trunk lines and 
all these other advantages is considered too unimportant to put on the maps." 

DEC. 6. The first train over the Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad ar- 
rived at Topeka. 

DEC. 7. A 40-inch vein of coal was discovered at Clyde. 

The Kansas State Horticultural Society met at Emporia. 

DEC. 8. The first state sanitary convention met at Wichita under the auspices of the 
State Board of Health. 

The State Board of Trustees of Charitable Institutions met at Topeka. The biennial 
report recommended a ward for insane convicts in prison. Under existing laws the insane 
were sent from prison to asylums. 

DEC. 9. The Leavenworth city council refused to install electric lights. 

DEC. 10. Beloit had completed a 100-bedroom hotel at a cost of $25,000. 

Samuel J. Crawford, state claim agent at Washington, D. C., reported 
that over 275,000 acres, valued at $1,381,000, had been patented to the state 
in lieu of lands in Indian reservations. Crawford recommended that railroad 
land grants be adjusted by federal agencies. He pointed out that railroads fre- 
quently violated terms of the grants by failing to build over the specified routes. 

DEC. 14. The Kansas State Grange met at Olathe. 

The Kansas Shorthorn Breeders Assn. met at Topeka. 

DEC. 16. A 42-inch vein of coal was located in Clay county. 
The Kansas State Veterinary Assn. met at Topeka and reorganized as the Kansas State 
Veterinary Medical Assn. 

DEC. 20. The Cedar Vale Star was taking stovewood, coal, vegetables, ap- 
ples and chickens on subscriptions. 

Kansas still had 2,000,000 acres of government land, enough for 12,000 
families, according to the State Board of Agriculture. 

DEC. 22. The Supreme Court ordered Governor Martin to organize Wich- 
ita county and locate the county seat at Leoti. 

DEC. 23. The Topeka, Salina and Western and the Kansas and Colorado 
railroads consolidated as part of the Missouri Pacific. 

DEC. 24. Governor Martin proclaimed Leoti the temporary county seat of 
Wichita county. R. F. Jenness, S. W. McCall and J. F. Brainard were named 
commissioners; Lilburn Moore, clerk. 

The 20th district court declared the Pratt county seat election of October, 
1885, illegal, allowing the county seat to remain at luka. 

DEC. 26. Gen. John A. Logan, for whom Logan county was named, died 
at Washington, D. C. 

DEC. 28. The Kansas State Teachers Assn. met at Topeka. 

The Kansas Academy of Language and Literature met at Topeka. 




AGRICULTURE: The late summer drouth caused the worst crop year since 1874. Total 
acreage as computed by the State Board of Agriculture was 52,572,160, including 2,693,760 
acres of unorganized land. Farm acreage totaled 25,607,413 acres, and farm values were 
$431,405,347. A summary of crop statistics for 1886: 

Crop Acres Bushels Value 

Winter wheat 982,029 13,580,592 $7,961,946.00 

Spring wheat 83,503 990,441 520,557.00 

Corn 5,802,018 139,569,132 37,966,031.80 

Rye . 164,819 2,525,385 1,004,480.00 

Barley 34,100 728,368 214,497.00 

Oats 1,178,642 35,777,365 8,860,603.55 

Buckwheat 2,110 33,213 23,665.10 

Irish potatoes 99,394 7,274,765 4,402,305.50 

Sweet potatoes . 3,585 358,500 358,500.00 

Castor beans 30,641 306,410 459,615.00 

Cotton 682 204,600* 16,368.00 

Flax 87,904 879,040 791,136.00 

Hemp 158 110,600* 5,530.00 

Tobacco 409 245,400* 24,540.00 

Broom corn 68,399 38,633,500* 1,352,172.50 

Millet and Hungarians #70,600 l,141,200f 4,873,751.00 

Tame grasses 690,325 l,100,580f 6,387,751.00 

* Pounds, 
t Tons. 


Animals Number Value 

Horses 572,059 $51,485,310 

Mules and asses 83,642 8,364,200 

Milk cows 627,481 15,687,025 

Other cattle 1,460,652 40,898,256 

Sheep 664,761 1,329,522 

Swine 1,965,869 11,795,214 

ASSESSMENT OF PROPERTY: The following valuations were given: city lots, $46,- 
967,259.80; farm lands, $142,657,158.35; personal property, $55,491,972.18. 

BANKS: Seventy-five banks were included in the tabulation published by the Secretary 
of State, as compared with 54 in 1885. Resources totaled $7,715,134. 

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: The State Insane Asylum, Topeka, had 508 patients 
and 107 employees; the State Insane Asylum, Osawatomie, had 400 patients and 87 em- 
ployees; the State Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth, Lawrence, had 30 pupils; the 
Institution for the Education of the Blind, Wyandotte, had an average attendance of 67; 
the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, Olathe, had 202 students; the 
State Reform School, Topeka, had 95 boys, and buildings to provide for 200 were under 

CHARTERS: Banks, building and loan, trust companies, 241; boards of trade, fairs, 
merchant and civic assns., 49; cemetery and funeral assns., 57; churches and affiliated organ- 
izations, 255; coal and mining industries, 38; creameries and dairy organizations, 5; gas, 
light, water and power companies, 47; grain, milling and elevator companies, 16; hotels, 17; 
insurance companies, 15; livestock and poultry, produce companies, 15; lodges, clubs, guilds 
and benevolent societies, 66; printing and publishing companies, 15; railroads, 124; real 
estate, town and immigration companies, 255; schools and colleges, 8; stage lines and 
freighting companies, 6; street railways, 37; telegraph and telephone companies, 20; mis- 
cellaneous, 122. Total number of charters for the year, 1,408. 

EDUCATION: There were 7,520 organized school districts in 91 counties with 6,791 
schoolhouses and 9,387 teachers. Of 497,785 children of school age, 365,239 were actually 
enrolled. School terms averaged six months. 

The University of Kansas for the year 1886-1887 had a faculty of 27 and a student body 
of 489, including 14 graduate students. Kansas State Agricultural College had an enroll- 
ment of 428 and a faculty of 18. The State Normal School, Emporia, had an enrollment 
of 724 and 13 instructors. All three schools reported an urgent need for books. 

FINANCES: The State Treasurer's fifth biennial report showed total receipts of $4,- 
792,655.26 since July 1, 1884, as against disbursements of $4,962,894.17. The balance in 
the treasury at the end of the fiscal year was $584,273.16. 


INDUSTRY: Assessors' rolls for March 1, 1886, listed 795 mechanical and manufac- 
turing firms in the state, employing 11,320 persons at total wages of $5,158,612. Capital 
invested amounted to $16,369,724. Cost of raw materials purchased was $31,651,913, and 
the value of finished products was $48,471,406. 

INSURANCE: Fire insurance written by 88 companies authorized to do business in the 
state totaled $120,046,025. Life insurance sold by 21 authorized companies amounted to 

POPULATION: The biennial report of the State Board of Agriculture gave the popu- 
lation as 1,406,738, an increase of 138,208 over the preceding year. The largest city in 
the state was Leavenworth with 29,150; Topeka, 25,005; Kansas City, 21,229, and Wichita, 

RAILROADS: Sixty-four railroads operated 4,517 miles of main track in Kansas. Total 
earnings were $62,766,858.90 for the year ending June 30, 1886. Freight totaled 16,- 
260,673 tons, an increase of 705,278.07 tons over 1885. During the first ten months of 
1886, 950 miles of new track were laid, more than in any other state. The aggregate value 
of all railroad equipment as fixed by the State Board of Railroad Assessors was $32,434,- 

WEATHER: The mean temperature for 1886 was 52.96 degrees. The highest tem- 
perature recorded was 105 on August 16, and the lowest was 18 on January 9. Rainfall 
over the state averaged 24.24 inches, 11.02 inches below the annual average. The drouth 
during July, August and September was the first serious one since 1874. 

Background Notes on the Bourne 
Lister Cultivator 


TN the drier regions west of the Missouri river, corn was frequently 
-* planted by the lister planter. The lister planter, in reality a 
double-moldboard plow with a drilling device for the seed, was used 
extensively in the lighter soil areas of Kansas. It presented the ad- 
vantages of increased yield, resistance to drought and wind erosion, 
and reduced operating costs. It was adopted by many farmers 
before a tool suitable for cultivating the ridges and furrows had 
been developed. The farmer depended on the existing tools which 
were inadequate. Consequently, there was a real need for a new 
lister cultivator. Midwestern tanners experimented with adapta- 
tions for the existing corn-cultivator and eventually invented several 
new machines more adaptable to this particular type of cultivation. 
Interest in the development of a lister cultivator ran high during 
the period 1883-1900. 

The history of the lister planter and the general evolution of the 
lister cultivator has been described thoroughly by James C. Malin 
in his study, Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas. 1 The 
purpose of this brief report is to relate the personal factors and the 
motivating influences around one particular invention by Daniel M. 
Bourne of Cool, Kan. 

Among the early settlers who made their homes in and near the 
Solomon valley were Mr. and Mrs. Daniel M. Bourne, who came to 
Kansas in 1876. The story of this family is typical of many frontier 
families. Daniel Montague Bourne was born near New Bedford, 
Mass., December 27, 1848. When he was four years old, he moved 
with his parents, the Franklin Bournes, to Oshkosh, Wis. He was 
married to Amelia Jane Spencer of Stockbridge, Wis., on September 
26, 1875. 2 According to Amelia Bourne: 

There was a lot of advertising being done and it sounded like the Solomon 
Valley flowed with milk and honey. So Daddy decided he would come out 
and see for himself, and he was so taken with the country that he bought the 
farm which we still own. 3 

PATRICIA M. BOURNE, of Delphos, a granddaughter of Daniel M. Bourne, is a senior 
in arts and science at Kansas State College, Manhattan. DR. A. BOWER SAGESER is profes- 
sor of history at Kansas State College. 

1. James C. Malin, Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas (Lawrence, 1944), 
pp. 210-231. 

2. Children born to this family were: Leona, 1876; Harry, 1877; Bessie, 1879; Richard, 
1881; Gordon, 1883; Bert, 1892; Essie, 1898. From family records. 

3. "Recollections," MS. written by Amelia Bourne, January 1, 1932. Manuscript is in 
the possession of Mrs. L. M. Ballou of Delphos, Kan. Mrs. Ballou's maiden name was 
lassie Bourne. See Footnote 2. 



In late September, 1876, Mr. and Mrs. Bourne and their baby 
daughter arrived by train in Solomon. Their new homesite was 
40 miles northwest of Solomon. Bourne had purchased in the spring 
of that year the rights of an original homesteader for the sum of 
$600, having paid $100 down with the balance due the first of 
October. This quarter section was located three miles east and 
three miles north of Delphos, in south-central Cloud county. Family 
records show that the Bournes experienced the usual problems 
typical of such a frontier community. In time, Bourne enlarged the 
farm holdings. 

However, Bourne did not limit himself entirely to farm work. He 
became interested in a general store and post office in the Cool 
community. Near the store was a stone house and a blacksmith 
shop. This small village was located eight miles north of Delphos 
and four miles east and two miles north of Glasco. In the fall of 
1883, Bourne mortgaged his farm for $1,500 to buy the business at 
the country store, and the family moved to the new community. 4 
The local press frequently spoke of Bourne as "the Cool merchant." 5 

Bourne found that he enjoyed the work of a blacksmith. He be- 
gan his blacksmithing career at a time when there was a great deal 
of demand for a lister cultivator. From his own experience and 
from that of his farmer neighbors, he knew that no implements, up 
to this time, would adequately control the weeds in the rows and 
the ridges. He set himself to the task of making a shovel that could 
be attached to the shank of a regular cultivator. He soon named 
this shovel Bourne's Wing Bull Tongue for cultivating listed corn. 6 

After making several sets of shovels for the local farmers, Bourne 
decided to patent his invention. He secured the services of Munn 
& Company of New York, publishers of the Scientific American. 
The patent was issued December 14, 1886. 7 Two weeks later the 
Scientific American published a lengthy description of the new in- 
vention. 8 At the time, patent attorneys advertised extensively in the 
local newspapers, and the following week, the description was re- 
printed in the Glasco Sun. g 

According to the Scientific American, the chief objects of the in- 
vention were "to provide a shovel that will cultivate the bottom of 

4. From an interview with Mrs. L. H. Cool. The buildings were owned by Frank 
Wilson of the Cool community. Mrs. Cool's maiden name was Bessie Bourne. See Foot- 
note 2. She married L. H. Cool of that community and lived near the site of the Cool 
store and post office. 

5. Glasco Sun, January 1, 1887. 

6. Ibid., May 28, 1887. 

7. The patent is now in the possession of Bert A. Bourne, Delphos, Kan. 

8. Scientific American, New York, January 1, 1887, p. 6. 

9. Glasco Sun, January 8, 1887. 



(No Model.) 

No. 354,381 



Patented Deo. 14, 1886, 




7). Jit. (2,-t^L 




the furrow, and at the same time trim the edges." 10 The description 
likewise stressed that the shovel could be used on the riding or 
walking cultivator. The accompanying diagram of the Bourne 
model shows the chief problems of design. Figure 1 shows how the 
shovels would operate in the lister row. 11 Figures 2 and 3 show how 
the shovel was curved and pointed to work more effectively in the 
row and on the sides of the ridges. 

After securing the patent, Bourne advertised the invention in the 
local press. Usually a modified drawing of Figure 1 was used by the 
printer. The shovels sold for three dollars per pair. The advertise- 
ments, like many others, carried indorsements by local users of the 
new shovel. 12 

The Wing Bull Tongue had to compete with several other lister 
cultivators. The Clyde Carriage Company sold the Kirlin listed corn 
cultivator and many farmers endorsed the success of this machine. 13 
The rate of invention was high. The January 27, 1887, issue of The 
Republican-Empire, Concordia, published a list of Kansas inventors. 
On this list were a cultivator, a planter and a harrow patented by 
F. M. Dougan of Seneca, and a garden cultivator and a seed drill 
patented by C. C. Hunter of Concordia. 

Family records offer no evidence as to the number of shovels 
made by Bourne, but there was sufficient blacksmithing business to 
enable him to hire a clerk to help run the store. Bourne did not 
find a manufacturer to produce his machine. Soon his invention 
was replaced by a better one. In fact, most of the inventions were 
replaced by the disc sled-type cultivator. 

The years following the Bournes' entrance into the store and 
blacksmithing business were years of general hard times. Few 
people could pay their bills, and Bourne carried too many accounts 
on his books. He eventually closed the store and the family 
returned to the farm. They were not free from debt until 1898. 14 

While Bourne's invention was not a great success, his experience 
brings out more clearly the role of the local farmer in the inventive 
process. Then, as now, many of the machine problems were solved 
on the scene. Daniel M. Bourne was one of many who tried to meet 
the need for more adaptable farming machinery in a pioneer country. 

10. Scientific American, loc. cit. 

11. Photograph of the original patent. 

12. Glasco Sun, May 28, 1887. This particular advertisement carried an endorsement 
by Frank Wilson of the Cool community. 

13. Clyde Herald, April 20, 1887. This machine had been in use for three years. 

14. Interview with Mrs. L. H. Cool. 


Vincent B. Osborne's Civil War Experiences 

PART Two: SEPTEMBER, 1862- JULY, 1865 

[Stationed Near Fort Scott, September, 1862] 
E left Fort Riley 19 the [2nd] of Sep. to go to Leavenworth 

where we were ordered The first day we marched as far 
as Manhattan I had the pleasure of visiting one of my friends Dr. 
[E. L.] Pat[t]ee who lived at Manhattan that day This was a small 
but thriving town at the junction of the Blue river and Kansas and 
it is situated in a very pleasant section of country The soil is good 
The inhabitants are trying to have an institution of learning erected 
here with good prospect of success Dr. Patee still belonged to the 
army and got Maj Fisk to issue an order for him to accompany us 
and the next morning he started with us and was with us till we 
arived at Fort Scott. 

The 2nd day after leaving Fort Riley we recieved orders to go to 
Lawrence instead of Leavenworth and we turned our course to- 
wards that place The third day I was taken sick with a fever and 
headache and was compeled to get into the ambulance and I rode in 
the ambulance till I got to Lawrence We crossed the Kansas river 
at Topeka the capital of Kansas The teams were ferried acrossed 
but the Cav'y forded it We remained at Lawrence a few days 
during that time I was confined to the hospital with Beaveas[?] 
Fever while we were at Lawrence a Co. of infantry passed there 
on their road to Leavenworth where they were to be organized into 
the Eleventh Kansas. I saw two persons that were in the 2nd 
Kansas under its first organizeation Lieut Lindsay, and George 
Bacon, in that Co. We were ordered from Lawrence to Fort Scott 
but were to escort three large siege guns to the latter place. These 
guns were hauled on very heavy artilery wagons by oxen The 
oxen were poor and very slow not going but about twelve miles a 
day The day I left Lawrence I was able to ride my horse and kept 
getting better till I was well 

Our force now consisted of four companies of 2nd Kansas These 
were A, B, C, and D and we were under the command of Maj Fisk 
Capt Crawford of Co A had got permission of Gen Blunt to take 
his Co. by way of Garnett Anderson Co. where most of them lived 

19. Copy Missing. 



before enlisting in the army The third morning of our march we 
left the rest of the companies and by turning more to the right went 
by way of Ohio City to Garnett arriving there about noon Sunday 
passing through town and camped near it on the south side Then 
the Co were dismissed by Capt [Samuel J.] Crawford but were 
to be back Tuesday night without any exception And then those 
that lived in the vicinity each took the road home 

The rest of us put up what tents we needed and then we done 
what pleased us most Some saddling their horses and going to 
Camp Meeting one of which was being held in the vicinity I re- 
mained at camp not having entirely recovered from being sick 
Monday night the young folks had a dance in town and we were 
all invited The tickets were one dollar a couple the dance was kept 
up till morning and they had a good supper Tuesday in the 
afternoon it rained very hard and continued till the next morning 
Tuesday night nearly all of the Co came in and the next morning 
about nine oclock we left Garnett. Garnett is pleasantly situated 
on the prairie about a mile from the south Fork and four from the 
north fork of the Pottawatamie. The country around this town is 
high rolling prairies of good quality but subject to drowth and 
timber is not abundant Unimproved prairie land is worth from 
two and a half to three dollars per acre timber from ten to twenty 

We traveled in a southeast direction after leaving Garnett till 
we got on the road that the rest of our detachment had passed over 
and we overtook the guns about nine oclock Wednesday night at 
a small town called Mapleton where we camped that night The 
next morning Maj Fisk came back and put us on duty as rear guard 
marching in the rear of the guns Our train went on with the rest 
of the command arriving at Fort Scott about two oclock and Co A 
got there about five oclock P. M. We camped about a half a mile 
from the Fort and south east of it Fort Scott is situated on 
Marmiton creek but does not look as though it was in a prosperous 
condition And is in a weak position to defend should an attack 
be made upon it The country around it is mostly high rolling 
prairie with good soil 

The morning after we arived at Fort Scott we marched out to 
Dry Wood Creek where the rest of the regiment were camped and 
joined them again having been seperated about three months 
Corn had become very scarce about Fort Scott but there was plenty 
of grass on the prairies The day after we got to Dry Wood we 
moved camp and all of the regiment camping together Co. A on 
the right and D on the left the whole regiment camping in line We 


had anticipated before we got back to the regiment that when we 
got back we would have some rest but in this we were dissapointed 
Forage had to be procured and we had to go long distances for it 
The Second day after we got to Dry Wood a detail was made out to 
go after it At first the detail was from Co E, C, and B and con- 
sisted of fifty men and were under Command of Capt [John] 
Gardner but Capt. Gardner did not think it safe to go out with 
this number and twenty five more were detailed from Cos A and D, 
and put under command of Lieut [H. L.] Moore and were sent to 
overtake Capt Gardner When we were detailed nothing was said 
about taking any rations or blankets along with us and we sup- 
posing we would be back at night did not take any along with us 
We went east from Dry Wood^ getting our forage the third day 
near the east line of Vernon County Missouri. 

The third night we kept our horses saddled all night and our 
arms ready to pick up and put on at any moment We were alarmed 
about twelve oclock by one of the pickets firing. We roused up 
got in line and stood about a half an hour The sentinel reported 
that a man came riding towards him and on being halted turned 
his horse and run away and he fired after him Then the seargent 
of the guard went out to see what the firing meant and not hearing 
the sentinel halt him was fired on by the sentinel and he returned 
the fire and they exchanged several shots before finding out their 
mistake After we acertained what the cause of the firing was we 
laid down and slept as well as we could till morning for the night 
was very cold The next day about three oclock in the afternoon 
we arived at camp 

After getting back to camp we learned that Capt Crawford had 
left the day before with about one hundred men twenty of which 
were of Co. A to escort a train to Col Richie 20 who was in command 
of two regiments of Indians and camped about forty miles south of 
our camp. About this time Col Richie had a skirmish with the 
enemy after which he fell back to a creek twelve miles south of 
our camp and there the train was delivered to him. Then Capt 
Crawford came back to camp ariving here the day after we did 
The next morning I was detailed to go for forage We went up 
Dry Wood and got corn loading sixteen wagons and got back to 
camp about eight oclock P. M. the same day 

When we arived at camp I learned that all of the available force 
of the regiment were just starting for Humbolt, a town on the 

20. Col. John Ritchie, Second Indian home guards, formerly lieutenant colonel of the 
Fifth Kansas cavalry. 


Neosho forty miles west of Fort Scott A report having come in 
that the enemy had made a raid upon that place Each Co took 
one team to haul thier rations and cooking utensils and nothing 
more was taken Orders were also issued to have the camp moved 
to Fort Scott the next day by those whose horses were not fit to go 
with the rest of the regiment After I learned this I eat supper 
and then went on overtaking the Co. about two miles from camp 
Col. [W. F.j Cloud had command of this expedition and took his 
whole brigade His brigade consisted of the 2nd Kansas Cav'y 
Rabbs battery and two Indians regiments We went south to the 
Indian camp and the Indians joined us we turned west and kept 
marching till about nine oclock A. M. occasionally halting for the 
battery and team to overtake us At that time we halted and got 
breakfast stopping an hour and a half for that purpose Then we 
mounted and kept on till five oclock P. M. At that time we met 
a Co. of the Ninth who had come through Humbolt and they re- 
ported that no enemy had been there We halted now and 
camped staying till morning 

Col Cloud now called a council of war with the result of which 
was for Col Cloud to take all the best mounted men in 2nd Kan 
they taking three days rations on thier horses, and proceed down 
the Neosho and acertain where the enemy were and whether they 
had been up the Neosho in any considerable force Capt. Craw- 
ford was sent back to camp with the train and those whose horses 
were not fit to go on and was to take charge of camp when he got 
back Capt Rabbs battery and the Indians regiments went back 
also About sunrise the next morning we went on Seargent [Ezra] 
Romine and four men of Co. A were detailed as an escort for Col 
Cloud I was on the detail We marched south till about noon 
when we arived at the Osage Indian Mission There we halted 
fed our horses killed a fat steer roasted meat and eat dinner This 
is a Catholic mission [and] was in a thriving condition before the 
war broke out but it is now on the decline the Indians having taken 
part with the rebels 21 The whites at the Mission treated us very 
civilly and gave us all the information of the enemy that they could 

About two we saddled mounted and went on down the river 
crossing about a mile below the mission and then taking a trail 
which kept about a mile from the timber We halted about an 
hour after dark on the prairie where there was neither wood or 
water and unsaddled picketed our horses and lay down and slept 

21. This mission, founded in 1847, was not molested by soldiers or guerrillas of either 
side during the Civil War; and the school was not suspended during the war years. 


till daylight the next morning Then we got up saddled mounted 
and went on About ten oclock A. M. we came to a creek and 
finding cattle halted killed some and got us some dinner. We also 
unsaddled and picketed our horses About twelve oclock M. we 
saddled mounted and crossing the creek went on down the river 
After traveling about two hours we came to a small settlement 
where we stoped fed our horses and rested ourselves for an hour 
Here we acertained that the enemy had heard of our advance and 
had gone south so far as to make it hopeless to pursue them. 

We crossed the river at this place and started back The valley 
of the Neosho whenever the land comes into market will present 
many inducements to settlers The soil is good timber plenty 
The prairies are beautifully rolling and covered with luxuriant 
grass After crossing the river we went about twelve miles and 
stoped on a creek where there was plenty of wood water and grass 
and unsaddled picketed our horses and lay down In about an 
hour an alarm was given and the men were roused up got in line 
and after waiting some time were dismissed The cause of the 
alarm was a vidette who was stationed some distance from camp 
said he saw two men coming towards him and he thought he heard 
a large body of men coming still behind them he came into camp 
and told the officer of the guard what he had seen and then the 
officer of the guard alarmed the camp Col Cloud after hearing the 
cause of the alarm had the vidette brought to him and asked him 
whether he fired his piece or was fired on and on being answered 
in the negative told him to go right back to his post and never 
again leave his post till he fired his piece or was fired on A 
recoinoitreing party was sent out but could find nothing The 
cause of the alarm was probably nothing but imagination 

The next morning we got up by daylight we were up saddled 
and mounted and went on still following the creek up that we 
camped on Col Cloud and his escort went in advance and after 
going about twelve [miles] we saw some men who we took to be 
Indians driving cattle down the creek on the oposite side We 
crossed and gallopped our horses on after them and on over taking 
found out that we were mistaken about thier being Indians They 
proving to be some whites who had been living down the Neosho 
but were now leaving thier homes thier houses having been robbed 
by the rebel Indians and thier property taken or destroyed They 
were going up into the settlements north of the Indian lands They 
were very glad to see us and would have given us our breakfast if 
we would have waited for them to cook it. While we were talking 


the regiment crossed the creek and went on in advance of us We 
had no road after leaving this creek taking a northeast direction 
across the prairie We stoped once about an hour and let our horses 
eat grass and then went on We got to Cow Creek about one 
oclock P. M. but did not stop only just long enough to let our 
horses drink Col Cloud and his escort went on in advance and 
turning to the right went down by where Col Richie had been 
camped Col Cloud examined things about camp and came to the 
conclusion that no one had been there since Col Richie had left 
Col Bassett 22 did not follow us taking a nearer route with the regi- 
ment After we passed the camp we saw several Indian ponies and 
were delayed at least two hours trying to catch some of them 
Then we got into the military road and kept following it till after 

The regiment was a few miles in advance of us And Col Cloud 
did not wish to ride very late so turning off the road went about a 
quarter of a mile from it and we unsaddled piketed our horses and 
remained here till daylight We kept a guard on all night each man 
standing an hour and a half At daylight we got up saddled and 
mounted and went on It rained all the latter part of the night 
wetting our blankets and clothing so as to make very heavy About 
nine oclock A. M. we got to the Indian camp and they got us some 
breakfast we were very hungry not having eaten anything for 
nearly two days We heard that all the troops had been ordered 
to go south and that our camp equipage was now on the road 
About ten oclock we went on to Fort Scott ariving there about two 
P. M. and Col Cloud getting us an order for forage we went and 
drew it and fed our horses 

[Expedition Into Missouri, October, 1862]' 

The regiment got within five miles of Fort Scott before they knew 
any thing about being ordered south and were very much dissa- 
pointed supposing they would rest a few days But when meeting 
the train turned back and went as far as Dry Wood when they 
halted and got something to eat and stayed at that place till about 
dark Then every thing was packed up and they went on marching 
till about eleven oclock at night when they stoped and unsaddled 
picketed thier horses and lay down till morning. Col Cloud re- 
mained at Fort Scott till a little after dark and then we left that 
place and went on after the regiment overtaking them about twelve 
oclock at night after they had stopped And we lay down till morn- 

22. Lt. Col. Owen A. Bassett, second in command of the Second Kansas cavalry. 


ing The next morning we went to the company and got breakfast 
but returned to headquarters again About sunrise we saddled 
mounted and went on After going a few miles we saw some one 
riding across the prairie in gallop and Col Cloud sent Ed Wilson 
and me after him on overtaking him we saw he was a boy about 
fifteen years of age but we took him to the Col who after question- 
ing him considerably let him go Then we went on to Lamarr the 
county seat of Barton County and stoped to feed and get dinner 
Rabbs battery and the two Indian regiments were in advance of us 

Before we got dinner a messenger came in reporting that the 
Indians had been attacked by the enemy and we went on as quick 
as possible on double quick but when we overtook the Indians the 
skirmish was all over the enemy having gone away so far as to 
make it useless to pursue them This skirmish occured about seven 
miles south east of Lamarr The enemy numbering about seventy 
and they were watching the road probably to supprise Gen Blunt 23 
and his escort as they passed south But Gen Blunt had already 
passed and the Indians coming up were close upon them before 
they saw them Volleys were exchanged and then the enemy re- 
treated on double quick They were on foot but we believed they 
had horses some where in the timber nearby Two of our men 
were wounded one white man and one Indian but not mortally 
It was not certainly known that any of the enemy were hurt 
After deliberating about this some time we went on about five 
miles and camped at Golden Grove where we got plenty of corn 
to feed but water was scarce 

The next morning by sunrise we were again on the march The 
inhabitants around Golden Grove apeared to be very much afraid 
of us Even the women and children hiding in the brush I saw 
one woman in the morning when I went to water my horse She 
looked to be about eighteen years of age was bearheaded and had 
a child in her arms under a year old She apeared to be turibly 
fritened and run into some thick brush as soon as she saw me After 
watering our horses we went back to camp and the regiment having 
gone we went on after them overtaking Col Cloud in a short time 
Eight miles from Golden Grove the regiment found water enough 
for thier horses, it was in pools to the right of the road It was 
eighteen miles before we got to timber after leaving Golden Grove 

23. Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt was commander of the District of Kansas, at this time, 
with headquarters at Fort Scott. He became Kansas' first, and only, Civil War major 
general on November 29, 1862. 



The first timber was on a medium sized creek in which was plenty 
of water After crossing we went up on a narrow prairie and 
halted for the train to close up then went on to a small town 
called Oregon 

At Oregon we crossed another stream of considerable size on 
which was a large flour and saw mill There was a company of Mo. 
S. Militia stationed at this place; the first we had seen The regi- 
ment halted here to feed but Col Cloud went on to Sarcoxie a town 
eight miles from Oregon and which was our place of destination 
with his escort We arived there about four oclock P. M. [October 
3rd] We went immediately to Gen Solomons [?] headquarters 
where we found Gen Blunt We got forage here and fed our horses 
and the Gen. ordered the cooks to get us some supper and a good 
supper we got too About dark we were dismissed by Col Cloud 
and sent to our company The regiment having just came in and 
were sent out on the prairie south of town where we found them 

Sarcoxie is a medium sized town situated in the timber on a 
medium sized creek and is nearly deserted by the citizens It was 
the residence of the rebel Gen. [James S.] Rains before the war 
broke out and has been a general rendezvous for the rebels before 
it was occupied by our troops Here was where the rebel army 
was first organized and was the place where the rebel portion of 
the legislature met after Gen [Nathaniel] Lyon took possession of 
Jefferson City and Boonville At this time the rebels were camped 
at Newtonia about twelve miles south of Sarcoxie A detachment 
of Solomons brigade had an engagement with them a few days 
before we got to Sarcoxie and were obliged to retreat having several 
killed and wounded and a large number taken prisoners 

We got orders before dismounting to get supper and prepare our- 
selves with one days rations and forty rounds of ammunition and 
to be ready to march again at nine oclock P. M. We got supper 
eat and were ready by the time, but we did not move till about 
twelve then we started out taking a road which went nearly due 
south we marched about six miles and stoped the head of the 
column resting at the timber we dismounted and stood to horse 
till morning the night had become very dark accompanied with 
some rain I was sent for by Capt Crawford for an orderly and 
I was his orderly till the next night 

At daylight we moved on until our advance guard drove in the 
enemies pickets, then halted, formed our line, and waited a short 
time when we heard the artilery commence firing, it having taken 
another road, had come up and attacked the enemies right; this 


was our signal to move forward which we did immediately, but be- 
fore we arrived at Newtonia the enemy had fled. We had expected 
to have a severe battle with the enemy here. All the troops had 
come out from Springfield which with Gen. Blunts division 
amounted to twenty thousand men, and the enemy fled at the first 
fire. Not over a dozen men were hurt on either side. We pursued 
them to the timber, then came back to Newtonia. The Springfield 
troops went back towards Springfield, and we camped near the 
town. We killed all the hogs we wanted and procured plenty of 
forage for our horses. 

We remained here overnight and the next morning by nine oclock 
our train come up, by noon four Go's of the regiment were ordered 
to go out and meet a supply train, which was coming from Fort 
Scott. The Go's were A, D, I and K, and were under the command 
of Col. Cloud; Capt Moore 24 was second in command. We passed 
through Granby the principal town of the lead mines, and Sarcoxie, 
then went on towards Carthage stopping on the prairie about one 
oclock in the morning and remained untill daylight, then went over 
a creek to another road where we found the train, then stopped 
got us some breakfast of roast beef, and apples, which was abun- 
dant. Then we were divided, Go's K, and I, in advance and A, & 
D, were in the rear of the train, went through Granby, and arived 
at Newtonia at dark. We had no rations and the baggage train 
had left; So Capts Moore, and Russell, 25 demanded some hard bread 
of the Commissary, which was refused, when Capt Moore jumped 
up on a wagon and rolled off a box for each company, ordered the 
men to carry it away then gave the Commissary an account of it, 
which ended the matter. Early in the morning we marched on to 
Indian Creek, where the rest of the regiment was camped in a field 
near the creek, in the form of a hollow square, where we remained 
three days. It rained nearly all the time. The ground became 
very muddy, and we were glad to get away from there. 

One night the camp was alarmed and we got up and saddled, 
mounted, and stood in line, untill we were wet through, it proved 
to be a false alarm, and we went back to bed. 

About the 10th of Oc we left Camp Mud, went nearly east going 
through Gad Fly, and arrived at Hazel Bottom five miles from 
Keitsville on the 13th [of October], where we remained until 
the 16th. We did not recieve orders to march until two oclock in 
the morning, and the available force moved at four, leaving the sick, 

24. Amaziah Moore, captain of Company D. 

25. Avra P. Russell, captain of Company K. 


and dismounted men, and cooks, to come up with the baggage 
train. I was on guard and did not come off post until just as the 
regiment left. I was relieved at seven and went on finding the 
regiment at Kiettsville About twenty men of the company had 
gone out with what prisoners we had under a flag of truce to turn 
them over to the rebels and the regiment was waiting for them to 
get some distance ahead before starting About noon we left 
Kietsville taking the telegraph road arrived at Elkhorn Tavern by 
five oclock in the afternoon The train which had came with us 
from Kietsville was sent back after we had taken out three days 
rations and forty rounds of ammunition and we stopped there for 
the night We were on the battle field of Pea Ridge now where 
Gen. Curtiss had beaten the rebels in the spring The country 
round was rough rocky and covered with timber which made it a 
hiding place for hundreds of gurillas who improved it Before we 
had gone to sleep the pickets commenced firing and the remnant 
of Co. A were sent out to reinforce them remaining with them until 
sunrise the next morning then went back to camp. The men who 
had been out with the flag of truce had returned, having found 
the rebel pickets five miles northeast of Bentonville, where they 
exchanged their prisoners. At ten oclock we moved on to MdCol- 
lochs gap, on [?] creek which had been fortified by McColloch, 
about the time the battle of Pea Ridge was fought remained here 
one night 

About ten oclock the next day (the 18th) we left McColloch's gap 
taking the Fayetteville road went on about six miles when our 
advance guard was fired on by the rebels. Co. A, which led the 
column were sent to the right of the road mounted Co. D to the 
left dismounted and advancing through the timber soon came to a 
field in sight of the enemy who were standing their ground but 
when we fired on[e] volley into them they left as fast as their horses 
could carry them Our howitzers were brought up and a few shells 
fired after them One of our men was wounded and one horse dis- 
abled None of the enemy were killed or disabled so that they 
could not get away We formed our line and waited one hour then 
went on to Cross Hollows seeing nothing more of the enemy We 
found hats, coats, guns, &c. scattered allong the road among which 
was a rebel sabre made out of an old mill saw the blade was about 
three feet in length ground sharp on both edges wooden gripe 
with a single piece of steel for a guard 

After watering our horses, went back about half [a] mile and 
camped I was sent out on picket with six others, on post on a 


road east of Cross Hollow, where we remained until three oclock 
in the afternoon the next day, when the officer of the guard sent 
for us, to come in as the regiment had moved without his knowl- 
edge and we went to find them, but on arriving at Cross Hollow we 
met them, and went back [to our?] posts. The regiment had been 
joined by the Seventh M. S. M. and had been out to Mud Town 
but had not had any skirmish with the enemy. The rebels were 
camped at Elm Springs thirteen miles north of Fayetteville, where 
they intended to fight us, but the officers did not think it best to 
attack them there. The pickets were relieved about dark and we 
fell in to the rear of the regiment, marched about five miles back 
towards Pea Ridge, and camped. The next morning we were out 
of rations and made out our breakfast of roasted apples, and coffee, 
left camp early passed McCollochs gap and found the regiment 
three miles west of Elkhorn. Gen. [John M.] Schofields division 
had advanced as far as Elkhorn. The llth Kan. Inft. had arrived 
from Fort Scott, and were attached to Col. Clouds brigade. 

[Battle of Old Fort Wayne, October 22, 1862 2Q ] 

At three oclock P. M. [October 20] we recieved orders to march 
at six, taking everything. At dark we started out taking the Ben- 
tonville road, and marched until three the next morning, when we 
arrived at Bentonville. Gen. Blunt accompanied this expedition 
with the 2nd, (Col. Weir 27 ) and the 3rd, (Col. Clouds) brigades. 
We remained at Bentonville until four oclock P. M. of the twenty 
first of Oc. then marched on towards Maysville. Co. A & H of the 
2nd Kan. were the rear guard kept moving until three the next 
morning, when we stopped built fires and slept till morning. The 
night was very cold and we suffered considerable. 

By daylight Gen. Blunt sent back for us to come up on the double 
quick as he with only four companies of the 2nd had met the enemy. 
We went on through Maysville and found the Gen. four miles 
southwest of there, and eleven from where we were in the morn- 
ing. The rebel pickets were captured, and small parties were out 

26. General Blunt reported this engagement as follows: "After a severe night march 
of 30 miles I attacked the rebel forces of Cooper and Stand Watie this morning at 7 
o'clock. Their force estimated at from 4,000 to 7,000. The attack was made by my 
advance, consisting of the Second Kansas Volunteers and two mountain howitzers, and 
after a spirited engagement of less than an hour resulted in the complete and total rout 
of the enemy, with the loss of all their artillery, one battery of 6-pounder brass pieces, 
a large number of horses, and a portion of their transportation and camp and garrison 
equipage. They are now fleeing in disorder in the direction of Fort Smith. All my 
available cavalry and four mountain howitzers are now [October 22 2 P. M.] in hot 
pursuit. My loss, as far as known, is 4 killed and about 15 wounded. The Enemy's 
loss in killed and wounded is much greater. I have 30 prisoners. . . ." War of 
the Rebellion, Series I, v. 13, p. 325. 

27. Col. William Weer, Tenth Kansas infantry. 


to accertain the position of the enemy. Co A was sent to the right 
and advanced a half mile when we were joined by Co. H, and con- 
tinuing our advance another half mile, when we discovered the 
enemy about four hundred yards in front of us, then we run our 
horses over the fence, and attacked them. Lieut. [E. S.] Stover 
brought up the howitzers in front of us, and unlimbered and com- 
menced firing on the enemy, with shell. All of the regiment but 
Co A., and the howitzers were sent to the left, and dismounted, 
Lieut. Stover called for more men to work the howitzers and Lieut. 
[John] Johnston sent him several. We were posted on a high piece 
of ground and in full view of the enemy. The enemy had four 
pieces of artilery which they directed towards our howitzers but 
nearly all their shots were fired to high. The enemy were posted 
in our front and both to the right and left of us, in all numbering 
three thousand men, commanded by Gen. [Douglas H.] Cooper, 
but he was intoxicated and managed the battle unskilfully. Just 
as the howitzers fired their last shell, Capt Crawford with five com- 
panies of dismounted men charged on the rebel battery, and cap- 
tured it, the enemy retreating to the timber. This battle lasted 
twenty one minutes. On our side no troops were engaged but the 
2nd Kan Cav'y- until the rebel battery was captured, then Rabbs 
battery came up and fired after the enemy. We had three men 
killed and mortally wounded. The rebels lost thirty killed, and 
wounded, but no prisoner [s] were taken on either side. As soon as 
the Inft came up we were sent three miles to the right, where we 
captured a herd of beef cattle, then returned and camped on the 
battle field. The train came up at sundown, and we pitched our 
tents for the first night since leaving Hazel Botton. 

The next morning we moved our camp half a mile, but before 
we dismounted an allarm was given, and the Inft and artilerry 
we [re] formed in line on the same ground that we occupied the 
day before, and cavalry was sent out to reconnoitre, it proved to be 
a party of rebels who not knowing of the battle the day before 
were coming to the camp, but discovered their mistake in time to 
get away again. In the afternoon a scout of two hundred men 
were sent out under command of Maj Fisk, and after dark one 
hundred and fifty men were sent out on picket. I was one of the 
last detail. We went out through Maysville and were posted in 
small squads on several different roads, but saw nothing except one 
bushwhacker and he got away. 

At four oclock in the afternoon of the 24th we were relieved by 
the 6th Kansas. In the afternoon the weather turned cold very 


suddenly, and the wind rose, and it commenced snowing and the 
next morning the ground was covered three inches with snow, but it 
all went off in a few days, Maj Fisk returned on the twenty fifth, 
not having any action with the enemy. He had heard some women 
telling about the battle of Maysville, who said that we had just 
thirty one thousand men there, and that they were obliged to re- 
treat on account of our numbers. The scout went as far as Cin- 
cinnatti. The battery that was captured was issued to Co. B, it 
consisted of three six pound field pieces, and one twelve pound 
[howitzer]. I was detailed on the twenty fourth as messenger for 
a court martial. The 28th [Henry S.] Shannon, and [John Y.] 
Hewitt, were promoted to sergeants and [James A.] Gooch and 
[George W.] Spencer, to corporals. 

We left Old Fort Wayne the thirtieth of Oc. marched twenty 
miles and camped naming it Camp Solomon. The 13th Kan Inft 
arrived on the twenty eighth, and were attached to the 2nd, (Col. 
Weirs), brigade, the 3rd of Nov. we left Camp Solomon went 
twenty miles, and named the Camp Bowen. While here Maj 
Fisk took the available force of Co A, I, K and went down to 
Browns mill, eight miles from camp took posession while two com- 
panies of the llth run it. 

The 6th Capt. Crawford took the available force of the rest of the 
regiment, and went out on a scout went through Cane Hill where 
he met some rebels who fled and he pursuing them captured six 
wagons, and an ambulance, on Cove Creek but not having any 
teams to haul them away burned them. All the mills in the neigh- 
borhood of camp were taken posession of by the army, and in this 
manner large quantities of flour was produced. The 14th as the 
Co. were going to take their baggage to Browns mills, I requested 
Lieut. [Gideon M.] Waugh, the judge advocate, to relieve me 
which he did. We arrived at the mill about noon and had the 
tents pitched when a detail came round calling for three men of 
each company, we went out were gone all night and when we 
arrived at camp the next morning the company was gone, but we 
took their trail went back to Camp Bowen, then southwest twenty 
miles where we found the division all camped, this camp was named 
Babcock. The 16th I was on another scouting party we passed 
between Camp Bowen, and Browns mills, and arrived at Elm 
Springs about sundown went on three miles when night set in, 
dark and rainy when we turned back went about five miles, and 
the night became so dark that we could not find the road, stopped 
at a bushwhackers house lay down by the side of the road, and slept 


till morning. The next morning we got up cold and wet and rode 
twenty miles to camp where we got breakfast. . . . 

[At this point there are three pages lacking from the manuscript, 
pages which described events between November 17 and November 
22. In an official history of the Second Kansas cavalry it is stated 
that "On the 17th of November [1862] Captain Crawford tvas sent 
with one hundred (100) men to Carthage, Missouri, to reinforce the 
escort to a supply train en route from Fort Scott, and returned on 
the 26th." Osbornes narrative, which resumes on November 23, 
indicates that he was a member of this detail.] 

. . . command was called up, and formed in line but were 
sent to quarters in a half an hour. The pickets were reinforced 
and changed their position. A party of rebels had charged on the 
picket post, took the sentinel prisoner, and drove the rest into the 
town. The next morning Lieut Moore took twelve men and went 
out to the line road to see if the train had passed on that. Capt 
Gardner took a detail and went down Spring river to a mill where 
he procured some flour which was issued to the men, cattle were 
killed and we did not suffer with hunger. Lieut Moore did not 
return until after dark he accertained that the train was on the 
road, and would camp near Sherwood that night. 

The next morning we left Carthage taking a southwest direction 
intending to intersect the line road in the rear of the train, but the 
train not having passed we went to far, then turned to the north 
and camped at a cornfield at night sent some messengers to 
Sherwood where the train was found, and we were camped near 
their route. The next morning we took the advance marched 
until night when we stopped the next day we went in the rear. 
We arrived at camp about sundown the 26th While on our return 
several bushwhackers were captured among which was the no- 
torious Fay Price The division was still camped at Camp Babcock, 
but was short of rations. Early in the morning of the 27th we re- 
cieved marching orders, left camp by sunrise. This time the whole 
division moved taking three days rations, but the train was left. 
We went south on the Cane Hill road halted at Cincinnatti for 
supper but went on after dark several miles, then stopped for the 


[Engagement at Cane Hill, Ark., "November 28, 1862 2S ] 

At five oclock the next morning we resumed our march the third 
brigade in advance. The 1st battalion, Maj. Fisk commanding, 
of the 2nd Kan. was the advance guard, then Rabbs battery and 
the llth Kan. next the 2nd battalion of the 2nd Kan. next the 
Indians. We followed the road as far as Rheas mills then turned 
to the right, went up a steep hill, and taking the ridge road kept 
on towards Cane Hill, kept on until nine oclock when the brigade 
halted, excepting Rabbs batterry, and the advance guard, which 
went on and attacked the enemy. The enemy were in line readdy 
for them but expecting them on the main road had stationed their 
battery so as to command it. 

When the enemy commenced firing on Capt. Rabb his batterry 
was in the woods and he could get but two peices into position 
when he replied and sent the other pieces forward on open ground 
where they unlimbered and they with Stovers howitzers soon 
silenced the rebel battery which was taken away by the enemy 
Before Rabb fired a shot he had two men killed and some horses 
disabled Maj Fisk was wounded by a piece of a shell in the top of 
the head. 

As soon as we heard the firing we mounted passed the llth on 
double quick turned to the right came out on a high hill several 
hundred yards to the right of Capt Rabbs batterry which was shell- 
ing some timber in front of us. Gen. Blunt now sent a messenger 
to the batterry to have them cease firing and we charged into the 
timber and took a position and sent back for a batterry Capt 
[Henry] Hopkins brought his up and the llth came up to support 
it, the enemy were firing on us with shell but Hopkins soon silenced 
them and they fell back 

We now took a circuitous route and comming into the town found 
the second brigade there but we soon passed them left the road 
on our right went through fields and by roads and came in sight 
of the enemy near the foot of the mountain their battery was 
placed in position about half way up and the cavalry at its foot. 
Co. C was sent forward to the left of the road dismounted Cos. 
A & D, took posession of the road mounted Co. C, soon discovered 
the enemy and opened a brisk fire on them and Co. A were dis- 

28. Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis' report of this engagement stated: "General Blunt, 
with his division, made a forced march and attacked the enemy yesterday morning at 
Cane Hill, Ark. The battle lasted for several hours. The enemy, under General Marma- 
duke, began to fall back about 1 o'clock, but retreated, fighting till sundown. The 
victory was complete. Our loss is not great. The enemy much more. Our forces camp 
on the battle-field. The enemy has retreated to Van Buren." War of the Rebellion, 
Series I, v. 22, Ft. 1, p. 41. 


mounted and went forward to assist them After firing several 
rounds the enemy opened on us with shell and we retreated about 
a hundred yards and waited for the battery. E. Wilson was 
wounded in this action. 

Rabb soon came up and fired some shell at the enemies batterry 
when it was taken up the mountain, and the 1st Indian, and 2nd 
Kan. charged up the mountain continually skirmishing with the 
enemy, who kept firing, and falling back, we followed them about 
two miles on the mountain when the llth, and 6th, were sent up 
and relieved us, they followed the enemy until dark. Once the 
enemy charged back on the 6th, killed several, and mortally wound- 
ing Lieut. Col. [Lewis R.] Jewell, who fell into their hands, but the 
6th soon retook the ground, and the enemy still retreated. 

About dark the enemy sent in a flag of truce, offering to give up 
Col. Jewell and wished to know what would be done with their 
dead and wounded, when Gen. Blunt told them that their dead 
would be burried, and their wounded delivered to them outside of 
our lines. The battle had lasted from ten in the morning until six 
at night and the enemy retreated fourteen miles with us after them, 
and continued their retreat during the night. Their loss was ninety 
killed, and wounded, ours was not so severe only one man in the 
2nd was killed. Lieut Col. Jewell died in a few days. Maj Fisk 
was sent to Kansas where he remained six months, and recovered. 
The 2nd Kan. camped at night on the head of Cove Creek, and the 
rest of the command went back to Cane Hill. This battle was 
named Cane Hill, and was fought on the 28th of November 1862. 
The next morning we went back to Cane Hill, and details were 
sent out to bury the dead and bring in the wounded. The 30th 
our train came up and we camped in a field just east of Cane Hill. 

The 31st two hundred men were detailed out of the regiment 
for a scout with Capt. [Hugh] Cameron in command, the other 
officers were Capt. [Arthur] Gunther, Lieuts [John A.] Lee, [W. 
M.] Hook, [P. B.] Mitchel[l], and [A. T.] Lavella [Lovelette]. 
About two oclock P. M. we started out went out to the grand 
guard where Capt. Guenther took half the men and went over the 
mountain on the ridge road while Capt. [Hugh] Cameron took the 
rest, and went over on Cove Creek followed it down meeting 
Capt. Guenther fifteen miles from where we separated, then kept 
on down Cove Creek to Olivers store, there halted. The enemy 
were camped two miles below we remained here half an hour, 
then faced about went back eight miles, then turned went up a 


mountain, and went back towards the rebel camp went up near 
enough to the camp to see their fires, formed plattoons and dress 
paraded around for an hour, then started back towards Cane Hill. 

It was now nearly daylight, we went about two miles, and 
stopped fifteen minutes to feed, then went on up a creek Sergt. 
[C. A.] Archer had command of the rear guard and remaining a 
few moments after the scout left a rebel Capt. and soldier, rode up 
spoke to Archer not having any idea that there were any Feds 
about But Archer supprised them by inviting them to dismount 
and fork over what arms they had, which they did and were taken 
back to Cane Hill prisoners. The rebels had this road picketed 
and we being between their pickets and camp took them prisoners 
as we came up to them and took them to Cane Hill. About eleven 
oclock we arrived at Evansville where we halted fed our horses 
and killed hogs roasted meat and eat dinner then mounted and 
went to Cane Hill arriving there at four oclock P. M. having marched 
about seventy miles in twenty six hours. 

In the afternoon of the 4th of Dec. Cos A, D, I and K were sent 
out on another scout under command of Capt Russell seperating 
at the grand guard as before Cos A, and D, taking the ridge road 
under command of Lieut Moore but arriving at the descent of the 
mountain discovered the enemies camp in the valley Then they 
formed a line and watched them some time then went back to camp. 
But Capt Russel had not returned Gen. Blunt could not believe 
that the enemy were advancing and sent the same Cos. back the 
next morning under command of Capt Moore. When we arrived 
at the mountain the enemy had stationed their pickets and we 
driving them in formed our line in sight of their camp and they 
sent up a regiment of cavalry and we fell back our rear guard 
skirmishing with their advance for five miles when they gave up 
the pursuit. We arrived at camp about dark. 

Early the morning of the 6th fifty men were detailed to go out 
to the pickets with the howitzers we were to arrive at the picket 
post by daylight. Capt. Cameron was in command and having 
one of his parades delayed starting until nearly daylight. We met 
the pickets near the foot of the mountain As Gen. Blunt had 
anticipated the enemy had attacked them at daylight and driven 
them in On meeting them we halted and retreated half a mile 
formed a line but no enemy approached The 2nd & 3rd brigades 
were called out and formed a line two miles to the rear of us The 
llth brigade was sent back to guard the train which was at Rheas 


Mills. About nine oclock we advanced to the foot of the mountain 
and the enemy were seen on its top. Here we remained until 
two in the afternoon occassionally exchanging shots with the enemy 
Col. Bassett came up with the regiment at noon. 

At two oclock Capt Crawford took Co. A, and went up to see 
what force the enemy had there We dismounted and went up as 
skirmishers sheltering ourselves as much as possible behind trees 
and arrived at the top with out discovering any enemy then kept 
on about thirty rods when we saw about a dozen fired on them 
and they retreated one of them had a flag he got behind a 
tree and waved it at us and then put spurs to his horse and was 
out of sight in a moment We now halted and in a few minutes 
fell back to the top of the mountain and formed an ambush ex- 
pecting the enemy to soon return Capt Crawford sent back for 
a Co of infantry to come up and relieve us Co H of the Eleventh 
came up and took our place and we went back and mounted and 
went back to the rest of the regiment which was nearly a half mile 
from the foot of the mountain Soon after Co. I was sent up dis- 
mounted and the Infantry Co. came back 

We remained here in this position about an hour when we knew 
by the firing on the mountain that the enemy were advancing and 
the infantry Co was sent back and Co A and D of the 2nd were 
sent up soon after We dismounted leaving our horses about half 
way up the mountain Co D went to the right a report having 
came in that the enemy were flanking us there Co A went up and 
went in among those that were there every man sheltering him- 
self as much as possible behind rocks and trees I fired one shot 
to the flagbearer and the flag dropped just then but was caught 
by another man and I think I must have hit him or his horse 
by the time I got my gun loaded again orders were given to reserve 
our fire by Capt Crawford who saw that they were about to charge 
and soon they did charge on us we poured a deadly fire into thier 
ranks and then retreated down the mountain and very fast at that 
Albert L. Payne a private in Co A was severely wounded but suc- 
ceeded in getting down the mountain and was sent to the hospital 
immediately One of the Eleventh was severely wounded also. 

The enemy charged to the top of the mountain and halted and 
poured a shower of buckshot after us but with little effect and 
occasionally a rifle ball would pass After this we went down the 
mountain and did not go up any more that night as it was sundown 
now we fell back about a half a mile and remained till after dark 


and then fell back across a field staying there some time A few 
companies of the Eleventh coming here we fell still father back 
and halted a short time after which we were allowed to go back 
to camp and get some supper 

We fed our horses at camp but did not unsaddle expecting 
orders to go back in a short time but we did not go till about 
three oclock the next morning At that time we mounted and 
went out to where the Cove Creek road and the ridge road sepe- 
rate halted there built fires and got warm and then Co A was sent 
down the ridge road to guard it We went about a mile and 
halted and remained there till daylight While there we heard 
the heavy rumbling of artilery and tread of cavalry on the other 
road and we supposed that they would attack us early in the 

[Battle of Prairie Grove, December 7, 1862 29 ] 

At daylight we went back to the other road but we were sent 
back to the same place again Soon after Co C was on another 
road still father to our right The rest of the regiment and Cos 
D, F and H of the Eleventh were guarding the Cove Creek road. 
About nine oclock we heard cannonading several miles northeast 
of us and it continued some time About ten oclock we recieved 
orders to fall back and we went back This regiment was the rear 
guard leaving Cane Hill and we marched on at a common gait 
till we got within a mile of Rheas mill when we again heard can- 
nonading to our right and each regiment turned to the right and 
marched on double quick in that direction This was about one 
oclock and by two were close upon the enemy The road we 
traveled over was bad enough at any time but it was at this time 

29. Of this major engagement, near Fayetteville, General Blunt, on December 8, 
reported: "This place [Prairie Grove], on yesterday, was the scene of a hard-fought 
and bloody field, resulting in a complete victory to the Army of the Frontier. The rebel 
forces, under Generals Hindman, Marmaduke, Parsons, and Frost, numbered 25,000. My 
whole force in the field did not exceed 8,000. I had been holding the enemy on the 
Boston Mountains for two days . . . holding them in check until General Herron 
could come up with re-enforcements. 

"On the 7th, they . . . commenced a flank movement on my left during the 
night . . . Their object was to cut off communication between myself and General 
Herron . . . They attacked General Herron at about 10 a. m., who, by gallant and 
desperate fighting, held them in check for three hours, until I came up and attacked 
them in the rear. The fighting was desperate on both sides, and continued until it was 
terminated by the darkness of the night. . . . the enemy . . . availed them- 
selves of the night to retreat across the Boston Mountains. The loss on both sides has 
been heavy. . . . The enemy's loss, compared with ours, is at least four to one. 
My artillery made terrible destruction in their ranks. They had greatly the advantage in 
numbers and position, yet Generals Marmaduke and Hindman acknowledged to me, in 
an interview under a flag of truce, that they had been well whipped. ." Ibid., 

pp. 69, 70. 

The rebel casualties were placed at 1,000 killed and nearly 2,000 wounded The 
union losses were: 175 killed, 800 wounded and over 260 missing. Ibid., pp. 76, 83, 86. 


so crowded that in some places it was nearly impossible to get 

When at the scene of action we came very near rushing up to 
the rebel army thinking it was our own The rebels were in a 
thick grove of small timber the trees being from four inches to a 
foot in diameter The rebel Gens intention was to get in our rear 
and capture our train. And willie Col. [Charles A.] Carroll with 
his cavalry regiment was making fients on Cane Hill while he and 
his army took another road which lead to Fayetteville This road 
has been guarded by the Sixth Kansas but by some mistake they 
had been drawn off for a few hours and the rebel army allowed to 
pass The meeting of Gen Herron 30 and the enemy was unexpected 
by Gen Herron. His advance guard had stoped to feed and on the 
enemy charging up to them threw them into confusion immedi- 
ately About two hundred were taken prisoners and the regiment 
they belonged to the Arkansas First lost thier train Gen. Herron 
succeeded in getting the rest of his men into line and the battle 
comenced And they fought till after Gen Blunt got there with his 
division In this battle Gen Herron showed himself to be a brave 
and efficient officer and the men under his command done thier 
part nobly 

When we found out the position of the rebels we turned to the 
left and went down into a large cornfield leaving the infantry 
just at the edge of the timber where they formed a line to be ready 
to recieve the enemy Hopkins and Rabbs batteries were placed 
on the left where they could see the rebel battery and they opened 
fire upon it and soon silenced it Aliens battery was placed on on 
the right I[t] was but a short time before the infantry were en- 
gaged and the 2nd Kansas were dismounted and went forward in 
line passed the tenth and went up and some of us formed on the 
right of the Eleventh Two Cos E and H formed on the left of the 
Eleventh and were under command of Capt Crawford three 
companies of the 2nd A C and G were on the right of the Eleventh 
but did not have any field officer over them each Co acting inde- 
pen[den]tly Where Col. Bassett was I do not know At least 
he was not there 

Soon the enemy advanced on us again and after we had com- 
menced firing the Tenth came up and formed on our right The 
timber where we were was clear of underbrush but in advance 
of us where the enemy [was] the underbrush was thick and it 

30. Brig. Gen. Francis J. Herron, at this time, commanded the third division of the 
Army of the Frontier which was headed by Brig. Gen. John M. Schofield. 


made it difficult for us to see them We did not fire by volleys 
but each man fired when he saw some enemy to shoot at and 
the enemy fired in the same manner After we had been engaged 
some time Col Weir came along on foot swearing it was our own 
men that we were firing on so we reserved our fire for a few 
moments but they kept firing on us whenever they had a good 
opportunity We soon found out that it was the enemy that were 
firing on us and then our men rushed forward sheltering them- 
selves as much as possible behind trees and opened a brisk fire 
on them and kept it up some time Joseph Ballance of Co A 
was severely wounded in the breast about this time and was 
carried of [f] the field 

We kept up this fire till about sundown when the enemy being 
largely reinforced charged forward in line and we were compeled 
to fall back the infantry into the field but we went back to our 
horses and mounted but remained in line The enemy advanced 
to the edge of the field and then our batteries opened thier fire 
with shell and kept it up till dark The enemy got one battery into 
position on our right and commenced firing at us with shell One 
came just over the right of Co. A and passing over us struck a 
horse in Co. C not more than sixty paces behind us killing him 
instantly but did not hurt the rider We then moved back some 
distance. Aliens battery opened on the rebel battery and soon 
silenced it and they moved it away 

At dark the firing ceased as if by mutual consent We fell 
back about a mile from the position of the enemy and lay down for 
the night The infantry stacked arms and lay down near them 
the cavalry went and got corn fed thier horses but did not un- 
saddle and the horses were kept in line as near as possible till 
morning We lay down near our horses but did not sleep very 
sound The night was cold and not one of us were allowed to 
build a fire 

About eleven oclock Lieut Johnson came and waked four of us 
up to go out with him to discover the position of the enemy and 
gave us instructions that if we ran into the enemy and got scat- 
tered to make the best of our way back to camp We went at 
first directly towards the enemy but when we got about half way 
acrossed the field we turned to the right and went about a mile 
still getting closer to the enemy and then turned around and came 
back about a quarter of a mile from the timber and paralell to it 
We came back to near where Rabb had his battery at dark and 
then turned towards our army Just as we turned back we heard 


sounds like artilery moving but in what direction we could not 
tell The enemy were probably still on the field at least it had that 
apearance On our road back we saw two men horseback and an 
ambulance but not knowing whether they were ours or not we 
struck the gallop towards them and they supposing we were the 
enemy turned to the right and run thier horses and mules as fast 
as possible towards our army and by that we concluded they 
were our own men and so they proved We went strait along in- 
stead of turning towards our army as they did but bringing our 
horses to a walk soon went to camp On ariving at our army Lieut. 
Johnston went to headquarters to report and the ambulance having 
arived before him. The driver reported that he had been driven 
in by the enemy who came near overtaking him We went back 
to our places and lay down About two oclock Nugent came and 
waked me up to have me go with the ambulances under a flag 
of truce to gather up the wounded but after I told him I had 
been out once before and he then excused me 

The next morning we got up at daylight mounted and moved 
back into the timber and built fires An armistice had been asked 
for by Gen Hindman till 6 oclock P. M. but which was not granted 
till that time but a short armistice was allowed During this time 
Gen's Blunt and Herron met the rebel Gen. [Thomas C.] Hindman 
under a flag of truce and at first Hindman claimed the victory but 
Gen Blunt told him that he would have to fight it over again and 
Gen Blunt said his force would be ready in fifteen minutes and 
Gen. Hindman rather than fight it over acknowledged himself 
whiped but said the day would come when his army would be 
victorious Giving as a reason why his army was whiped that his 
army was less in number to the army of Gen Blunt and Herron 
and then Gen Herron told him he would fight him man for man 
he would take five hundred one thousand or he would take his body 
guard against the same number of rebels and fight him and if that 
would not do he would fight him by himself but Gen Hindman 
declined this offer 

About nine oclock one days rations were brought to us of bacon 
and hard bread We not having any thing to eat since the night 
before the battle About noon it was acertained that the enemy 
were on the full retreat leaving thier dead on the field and many 
of the wounded were left in our possesion nearly every house 
having more or less of them We amedately took possession of the 
field after learning that the enemy were on the retreat The 2nd 
Kansas were sent about one mile from the field and camped for 


the night A detail was made out for a scout of fifty men and we 
were ready a little before sundown and went at first back to 
Rheas mill and then took the ridge road for Cane Hill and went to 
that place but saw nothing of the enemy We stayed at Cane Hill 
about half an hour and then went back the same way we came 
getting back to camp about four oclock in the morning we lay 
down by the fire and slept till daylight 

The loss of the enemy at the battle of Prairie Grove was four 
hundred and fifty killed and about fifteen hundred wounded Thier 
own report was sixteen hundred and fifty in killed and wounded 
Some of our reporters place the enemies loss at twenty five hundred 
Our loss was about five hundred killed and wounded most of which 
were in Herrons division Two companies of this regiment E 
K lost eighteen killed and wounded Capt [Avra P.] Russell of 
Co. K was mortally wounded and has since died The loss of the 
other Co that were engaged was but slight One in Co. A was 
severely wounded but not mortally 

The ninth of Dec we went into camp at Rheas mill pitched 
tents and got us some thing to eat once more The first night in 
camp I was so nearly worn out that I could not sleep well not 
having slept any of any consequence for the three nights previous 
The next day we stayed in camp all day The Tenth [llth?] we 
went to Carie Hill once more and camped the same place we were 
when we were there before While on our road to that [place] 
we met several secesh ambulances which were going to the battle 
field after the wounded they were under a flag of truce 

Nearly every house in Cane Hill has wounded in and flags of 
truce come in nearly every day At first we were obliged to issue 
rations to thier wounded but after a few days they sent in rations 
for them Our sick and wounded were sent to Fayetteville A. L. 
Payne and J. Balance were sent there and five that were sick of 
Co A were sent there also M. Stern was sent to take care of them 
The Second and Third brigades occupied Cane Hill after the battle 
but did not have near as much duty to do as when we were here 
before The details for forage and picket are by companies so 
that it is not near as hard on the privates as when details are made 
from every company for these purposes 

Dec twentieth Go's A and D were detailed for a scout and were 
under command of Capt. Crawford We started with one days ra- 
tions at daylight and taking the Cove Creek road went down as far 
as Oliver's store met two flags of truce one which was bringing 



in provisions for the wounded and the other had despaches for Gen 
Blunt The first one was inside the picket before we met it the 
other was near Oliver The last one we met was just as we were 
turning a bend in the road and we were as near as fifty paces be- 
fore seeing one another We then kept on till as near as twenty 
paces when both parties halted and the flag bearer first saluted 
first with his hand and then lowered the flag Lieut [John M.] 
Mencer who was in command of the advance guard returned the 
salute with his hand and then rode up to the flag bearer and asked 
for what purpose the flag was sent in and on being answered sent 
it back to Capt. Crawford who was at the head of the column 
and Capt. Crawford allowed them to go on towards camp We 
saw nothing of the enemy at Oliver but some of the inhabitants 
said there was a rebel picket one mile father on but as no confidence 
could be placed in what they said Capt Crawford did not think 
it best to go any father so we started back towards camp 

The Valley of Cove creek had the apearance of having been 
occupied by large bodies of troops very recently Signs of camp 
could be seen nearly all of the way from our picket to Oliver a 
distance of eighteen miles There was no forage on the road and 
rebel horses suffered in consequences Every tree that had horses 
tied to them had the bark knawed of [f] even walnut trees had the 
bark knawed of[f] by them grape vines two and three inches 
in diameter were knawed clear off We came back by the ridge 
road but had a very steep mountain to ascend and on getting to the 
top found ourselves at the same place where we were on the fifth 
of this month when the enemy were camped in the valley below 
This mountain is so steep as to make it nearly impossible for two 
good horses to pull an empty wagon up Nothing more of im- 
portance occured before we got to camp except that the advanced 
pickets got frightened at our advance and fell back on the main 
body of the picket but no shots were fired We arrived at camp 
about nine oclock P. M. having rode almost incessantly since day- 
light and our horses and ourselves were fatigued very much. 

[March to Van Buren, Ark., December 27-28, 1862] 

Dec 26 we recieved orders to be ready at seven oclock A M the 
morning of the 27th with three days rations of bread, meat and so 
forth and a peck of shelled corn on our horses and three days rations 
in the wagon to march from Cane Hill Cane Hill is the name of 
a coledge situated about a mile from Boonsboro but most of the 
Federal soldiers nearly all call both the town and college Cane 


Hill it was formerly a thriving place but the war has left its 
mark The inhabitants were almost to a unit secesh but have 
nearly all left now There are about four hundred and fifty 
wounded secesh in the different hospitals at Cane Hill 

We left Cane Hill the morning of the twen[ty] seventh equiped 
according to orders and marched towards Van Buren This was 
a general movement of the whole army and our object proved to 
be to take Van Buren and Fort Smith from the rebels The first 
division went in advance, in the following order the Kansas 2nd 
was the advance guard for the main army then the rest of the third 
brigade under Col Cloud the 2nd brigade under Col Weer. We 
had no skirmishing on the first days march the advance halted 
about a mile north of Olivers store and rested till morning At 
daylight the next morning we started on passed Olivers store 
and took the Van Buren road which led down [?] creek about 
half a mile and then went up the mountain Gen Herron arrived at 
Olivers store a few minutes after we arived but halted till our di- 
vision had passed and then fell in behind us They came down 
on the telegraph road from the battleground . . . 

[There is a brief gap in the manuscript here, the account lacking 
only a part of the events of December 28, 1862. According to the 
official military history, the Second Kansas cavalry "moved rapidly 
forward" on the 28th, "met the enemy's pickets sixteen miles from 
Van Buren, drove them back, and met a regiment of Texas cavalry 
at Dripping Springs. At this place Lieutenant Colonel Bassett was 
ordered, with six squadrons, by Brigadier General Herron to make 
a detour to the right, and gain a road two or three miles further west, 
which caused him to enter Van Buren half an hour behind the ad- 
vance. Captain Moore, in command of the other three squadrons, 
maintained the advance into Van Buren, and supported by a regi- 
ment of Missouri cavalry, drove the Texas regiment, before re- 
ferred to, into and through Van Buren, and captured their baggage 
train, consisting of twenty-five wagons; the entire advance under 
Colonel Cloud:' 

Osbornes narrative picks up the story again as the Texans are 
being driven out of Van Buren.] 

. . . two men but were soon compelled to retreat again This 
stand was made to save their train which was just ahead of them 
They retreated through Log Town to Van Buren We charged 
after them until we arrived at the top of the hill over looking Van 
Buren where we halted and waited for the rest of the regiment 
We had expected to have a battle here. The streets apeared very 


quiet and the cavalry we had been pursuing was galloping down 
the river below town and entering the woods were out of sight 
in a few moments. Three steamers could be seen on the river one 
was ferrying troops across the river the others were going down 
the river 

Col. Cloud soon ordered a charge and we charged through the 
town and down to the steamer which was being used as a ferry 
boat and dismounted and commenced firing into her and she soon 
hoisted the white flag the rebel soldiers who were on board 
jumped of [f] and swam to the shore and escaped The rebel Gen. 
Sharpe [?] was on board and got a ducking with the rest. Leav- 
ing a guard with this steamer Col. Cloud took the rest of his men 
and went down the river after the rebel train. 

About four miles below Van Buren we came in sight of the 
steamer Key West she was on a sand bar and was easily captured 
and a guard left with her and Col. Cloud kept on after the train 
which he captured two miles father down A few moments after 
he left, the steamer Rose Douglass came in sight we having passed 
her coming down She was hailed and ordered to land which she 
did These steamers were loaded with corn and hard bread 
negros were throwing corn off the Rose Douglass and would not 
stop until fired on The captured train was nearly useless to us 
the wagons were old and worn out and the mules looked as if 
they were strangers to corn or any other kind of feed the wagons 
were loaded with rebel soldiers baggage When Col Cloud came 
back he went on board of the steamers examined their cargos and 
ordered them to return to Van Buren he going up on the Rose 
Douglass The train was turned over to Capt Cameron who took 
it to Van Buren 

Cos A & D started back towards Van Buren but before arriving 
there heard cannonading in that direction when Co. A went down 
to the river bank hailed the steamer and told Col. Cloud of it and 
he ordered the boat to land. The firing proved to be the rebels 
They had posted a batterry on the river bank opposite Van Buren 
and were shelling the town. Our artilerry and infantry had not 
yet arrived so the rebels having no resistance shelled the town 
for an hour. Aliens batterry was brought up on double quick and 
fired a few shots at the rebel batterry and it was taken away One 
man belonging to Co H was killed and some ladies living in town 
were wounded Several rebel hospitals were in town filled with 
sick and wounded rebel soldiers whose lives were in as much danger 
as ours. 


When the rebel batterry was silenced Gen. Blunt came down 
got on board the Rose Douglass and ordered it to go up to town. 
We now went back into town arriving there about sundown Gen. 
Blunts division had arrived and were formed along the levee We 
found the regiment camped back away from the river on low 
ground near McGees house Col. Cloud took two sections of 
Aliens batterry after dark and went down and complimented 
the rebel camp which he had discovered while coming up the river 
killing several of the enemy The loss of men was small on both 
sides although we had skirmished nearly all day we had not got 
into any close action The rebel army was all on the south side of 
the river excepting the 1st Reg. Texan Partisan Rangers whicft 
was camped at Dripping Springs and was the one that we had 
skirmished with during the day. 

The next morning the reg't saddled and left camp at ten oclock 
and went down the river after the rebels and to get all the ser- 
vicable horses and mules we could find. We went about fifteen 
miles saw some rebels across the river in several places when we 
found some negros ferrying some stock across and sent for them 
animals which they had taken over but night coming on were 
obliged to go back with out them. When we came in sight of 
Van Buren we saw the steamers we had captured burning and no 
camp fires were to be seen and the place seemed to be evacuated 

During the day General Blunt had recieved orders from St. Louis 
to fall back across the Boston mountains immediately and the army 
had moved out of the town We went back to the same place 
where we stayed the previous night but before lying down re- 
cieved orders to shell two days rations of corn for our horses and 
be ready to march by five oclock the next morning At daylight we 
were ready to move but were delayed by negro reffugees who 
were going north with us The train we had captured was un- 
loaded and mostly given to them A few hogsheads of sugar and 
some hard bread was all we retained of our captures the rest was 
destroyed As soon as the negros were ready and started we 
followed them forming the rear guard going back The night of 
the 30th we camped at Olivers store where we drew some rebel 
hard bread as our ration had been consumed it was not hardly 
fit to eat It tasted as though it was made of beans boiled mashed 
and mixed with flour and then baked. The next day went up Cove 
Creek and camped at its head near the picket post 

New Year day we left Cove Creek and went past Cane Hill to 
Rheas Mill where we found our regimental train and camped pitch- 


ing our tents once more. The man who had been detached in 
April for a batterry had returned during our absence they had 
been in Tennessee nearly all the time while absent. The 2nd the 
division moved again with the 2nd Kan. as rear guard as usual in 
a retrograde movement at night camped at Willow Springs went 
on the next day to Elm Springs where we remained several days. 
Gen. Blunt was removed from the command and ordered to 
Kansas. Gen. Schofield assumed command of the division and 
brigaded it again The 1st brigade consisted of the 6th 9th & llth 
Kansas & the 3rd & 9th Wis. and Aliens batterry. Col. Weer in 
command the 2nd brigade consisted of the 2nd 10th & 13th Kansas 
and Rabbs batterry Col. Cloud in command the 3rd brigade had 
all the Indian regiments and Hopkins batterry. The 3rd of Jan 
we escorted some officers to Bentonville and returned the 4th The 
army was reviewed by Gen. Schofield on the 7th The transporta- 
tion was reduced to one wagon to a Co. Cos A & D had drawn 
A tents when at Fort Riley, these were returned to the Q. M. and 
we drew Sibley tents 

[Hospital Duty, January 10-March 25, 1868] 

The 10th I was detailed as an attendant in hospital at Fayette- 
ville I was p[l]aced on duty in the ward where [Albert L.] Payne 
& [Joseph] Ballance were The room was small and had only five 
pat[i]ents in it one of whom died the 12th another, Culverson of 
the 20th Iowa, died the 20th he was severely wounded in the 
thigh had been neglected when first wounded if his leg had 
been amputated at first his life could have been saved J[ames] 
Hill and Silas Snook of Co. A of the 2nd Kan died of disease the 
10th of Jan. 

The 8th of Feb. orders were recieved to remove all the sick and 
wounded of the 1st division to Fort Scott. The 10th we started 
taking eight patients who could not sit up two ambulances only 
were furnished in which beds were placed and two men placed in 
each The other patients were obliged to ride in transportation 
wagons the wagon beds were filled with straw then mattresses 
laid on it and four who could not sit up placed in one but patients 
who could sit up were placed eight in each wagon Surgeons 
[E. L.] Pat[t]ee and [A. J.] Ri[t]chie had charge of the hospital. 
We passed Jones mill and Maysville crossed Cow Skin river and 
arrived at Neosho on the 15th We drew eight days rations at Col. 
[W. A.] Philipps camp on Cow Skin The 16th left Neosho The 
18th the rear guard had a skirmish with Livingstons gurillas one 


Lieut and one private was killed and three privates mortally 
wounded Two scouts were captured Denton & McKinney but 
pretending to be sutlers were paroled one of them had Dr. Patees 
horse and saddle and all the Drs. papers these fell into the hands 
of the enemy. 

The night of the 19th it rained all night and until four in the 
afternoon the 20th when it turned to snow and snowed for several 
hours. The patients nearly all got wet making them uncomfort- 
able we arrived at Dry Wood at night had some trouble with 
the teamsters who would not take the train where the patients 
could be taken care of but the master of transportation made them 
remove the train to a house where the patients were taken out and 
the blankets dried The 22[ncJ] of Feb. we arrived at Fort Scott 
and the patients were placed in the Gen. Hospital there While on 
the road the patients suffered very much but one died he from 
sickness. I was placed on duty in Ward A. 

The 19th of March all the patients were removed from the hos- 
pital and started for Leavenworth Payne and Ballance had per- 
mission to go home and remain until the last of April. March 25th 
I was relieved from duty in the hospital, and the 28th left Fort 
Scott for Springfield where the regiment was stationed I met the 
6th 10th & llth at Dry Wood they were going home on furlough 
passed Rouse Point Greenfield and arrived at Springfield on the 
31st. The regiment had arrived there about the 15th of January 
and were on duty at the post as escorts, pickets, &c. 

[Regimental Activities, April-October, 1863] 

The 21st of April an escort was detailed out of the regiment to 
escort Maj Weed to Fayetteville we were absent six days and 
marched 220 miles. [Manuscript torn. About three lines are miss- 
ing] . . . and drew Sharpes Carbines the 18th [of May] drew 
Colts Army revolvers The 19th [of May] the regiment left Spring- 
field for a scout went through Cassville and Kiettsville had a 
skirmish near Bentonville the 22nd captured eleven prisoners 
then sent a flag of truce to Fayetteville but Lieut Ballard then 
turned went back through Neosho Pineville and Carthage had a 
skirmish near the latter place the 26th Here the dismounted men 
were sent to Fort Scott for horses and the others went back through 
Mt. Vernon to Springfield arriving there on the 29th At Mount 
Vernon Col. Cloud hearing that Vicksburg had fallen had a 
salute fired but on arriving at Springfield news was recieved that 
it had not. 


The 18th of June I was detailed to go to Greenfield on duty with 
five others we arrived at Greenfield at sun down and returned 
the next day. The 28th of June six men were detailed out of the 
Co. to go after forage we went through Bolivar and found corn 
about twelve miles northwest of the town, loaded our wagons and 
came back through Humansville to attend a dance then through 
Bolivar and arrived at Springfield the 3rd of July. The next day 
had a grand review. The 15th of July Brig Gen. John McNeil 
relieved Col. Cloud of the command of the district All of the regi- 
ment left . . . [Manuscript torn. Two or three lines are lack- 
ing.} for Cassville. The 21st Co. A left for the same place as an 
escort for the pay master and on arriving at Cassville were ordered 
back by Gen. McNeil, and on the 30th were detailed as an escort 
for Gen. McNeil and placed on duty the same day. 

The 3rd day of August I was detailed for duty as messenger and 
was on duty every other day until the 13th of Oc. Col. Cloud 
took the regt and the 1st Arkansas Inft. and two sections of Rabbs 
batterry and went into the Indian Nation joined Gen. Blunt pur- 
sued the rebels as far as Perryville Choctaw Nation then came 
back towards Fort Smith and fought a battle at the Devils Back 
Bone routed the enemy and then took possession of Fort Smith 
& Van Buren the 1st of Sep 1863. 

About the last of Sep Gen. McNeil went to St Louis on business 
leaving Col. John Edwards of the 18th Iowa Inft in command of 
the district. A few days after a force of rebel cavalry came into 
the state from Ark Commanded by Shelby & Coffee 31 They passed 
through Neosho, Greenfield, Stockton, Warsaw and Cole Camp 
burning all the court houses as they went. They were defeated 
near Syracuse and came back. [Manuscript torn. Two or three 
lines are missing.] 

. . . stationed at Springfield and went out after them, but 
was too late to overtake them before they crossed the Osage river 
going north so he retired to Buffalo where he remained until the 
13th of Oc. when Gen. McNeil arrived from St Louis and assumed 

The 14th orders were recieved for all of the Co. that could be 
spared from Springfield to go to Buffalo. We started at ten oclock 
at night and arrived there a distance of thirty five miles before 
daylight. At eleven oclock in the forenoon the command left 
Buffalo and marched to Bolivar. Early in the morning of the 16th 
we left Bolivar and went through Humansville and camped on 

31. Confederate colonels Joseph O. Shelby and John T. Coffee. 


Sac river at night Maj [E. B.] Eno of the 8th M. S. M. came 
up at dark and reported that the enemy had passed through 
Humansville in the afternoon on their way south Gen. McNeil 
ordered his command to saddle and we moved out to intercept the 
enemy at Stockton we marched all night and arrived near Stock- 
ton at day light but the rebels had taken another route we did 
not meet them. We remained here long enough to get breakfast 
and then went on to Greenfield remained there over night and 
in the morning went on to Sarcoxie We heard of the enemy 
several times and found their trail. They had avoided passing 
through any towns after leaving Humansville As they were going 
towards Cassville two messengers were sent to that place to 
alarm the troops at that place. /The 19th we left Sarcoxie and went 
to Cassville. Col. [E. C.] Catherwood of the 6th M. S. M. took 
all the troops except the escort and leaving Cassville to the left 
went on to Keittsville. We had followed the trail of the enemy 
nearly all day they having passed during the night. 

We left Cassville early the morning of the 20th [of October] 
joined Col Catherwood near Keittsville then went on to Sugar 
Creek The next morning we left Sugar Creek on the Fayetteville 
road but turned off of it near Cross Hollows went east to the ford 
of White river where we camped for the night. The next day we 
went on to Huntsville. We met a flag of truce before entering the 
town and while the Gen. was talking to the bearer of the flag the 
escort charged into the town drove out a Co. of rebels who were 
stationed there and captured about a dozen rebels. The 23rd we 
left Huntsville and went about twenty miles and camped At night 
a messenger arrived from Cassville with orders for Gen. McNeil 
to go to Fort Smith and assume command of the district of the 
frontier. Capt. [C. G.] Laurant and Lieut French were sent back 
to Springfield to finish all business which was left unfinished. 

The 24th we marched through Kinston and over a range of the 
Buffalo mountains On the decent we discovered the enemy in 
the valley below. They were busy preparing their supper evi- 
dently thinking that we could not get our artilerry over the moun- 
tains and they were not afraid of our cavalry as they had twice as 
many men as we had but they were mistaken about the artilerry 
it had been brought up and was soon posted on a high point and 
commenced shelling their camp and they saddled and went on up 
another mountain. We went down into the valley where we found 
plenty of fresh beef and pork all ready to cook and plenty of forage. 
We remained there till morning and then went on after the rebels 


The mountain was so steep that it took all day for the artilerry 
and train to get over the first one and the infantry was left to 
guard them the cavalry went on to the head of Big Piney where 
we camped for the night. The enemy being all mounted and not 
having a wheeled vehecle of any kind got so much the start of us 
that we could not overtake them before they crossed the Ark river 
but Maj [Thomas J.] Hunt of the 1st Ark. Cav'y skirmished with 
their rear guard every day. 

The 26th the cavalry moved only four miles and waited for the 
artilerry and infantry to come up. The train did not get in until 
about dark. The morning of the 27th the mountain Feds as they 
were called executed a man who as they said had deserted from 
them twice he appeared very indifferent to his fate and was not 
pittied any by the soldiers. The same day we arrived at Clarks- 
ville and camped there one night Oc. 28th we left Clarksville 
on the telegraph road for Fort Smith. Col. Catherwood left us 
when near Osark for Springfield taking the detachments of the 
1st Ark Cav'y and the 6th & 8th M. S. M. Capt [Henry] Hopkins 
and his Co. had a skirmish with the enemy the 29th on Mulberry 

[Regimental Activities, November, 1863-D ecember, 1864] 

Oc. 30, Gen. McNeil arrived at Fort Smith with his escort. Col. 
Cloud was in command of the District. The posts in the district 
were Fort Smith Van Buren Fayetteville and Fort Gibson. The 
company arrived from Springfield the 1st of Nov. and the next day 
Gen. McNeil assumed command of the District of the Frontier. 
Co. A, the escort was given quarters in the garrison and we had 
a stable for our horses We remained in quarters until April [1864] 
but most of the Co. was absent at times going to Springfield once 
and to Fort Scott once Gen McNeil went to St Louis in Jan. leav- 
ing Col [William R.] Judson of the 6th Kan in temporary command 
of the district and before he could return the state of Ark was set 
off into a seperate department and Gen. J. M. Thayer ordered 
by Gen Steelle 32 the department commander to assume command 
of the district of the Frontier. 

Gen. Thayer assumed command in Feb. The Indian Territory 
belonged to the Department of Kansas and Gen Blunt was assigned 
to the command of it. The town of Fort Smith belonged to one 
department and the garrison to the other, and the Generals were 
each jealous of the other. Gen. Thayer had nearly all of the troops 

32. Maj. Gen. Frederick Steele. 


and Gen Blunt most of the transportation. The 24th of March 
Gen. Thayer moved out with his army, and joined Gen. Steelle 
about a hundred miles southwest of Little Rock In the latter part 
of March 1864, the troops of the department of Ark. moved out 
to assist Gen. [Nathaniel P.] Banks in his expedition on Red River. 
Gen Thayer took all the troops that could be spared from Fort 
Smith and marched out and joined Gen. Steelle about one hundred 
miles southwest of Little Rock. They went as far as Camden and 
fought several battles, but Gen. Banks having retreated the whole 
rebel army marched on them and they fell back to Little Rock. 

The 17th of April Gen. Blunt recieved orders from the war de- 
partment at Washington for him to report to Maj Gen. Curtis at 
Fort Leavenworth Kansas, and his district was attached to the 
Department of Ark. He took about forty of the Co. and went to 
Kansas, Col. [William R.] Judson of the 6th Kan. assumed com- 
mand of the district. The whole available force at Fort Smith did 
not then amount to six hundred men, and many aprehended an 
attack from the rebels, but the enemy were too much engaged else- 
where to molest us. The 16th of May Gen. Thayer arrived with 
his army and assumed command of the district. He had the forts 
which had been commenced finished, and had a line of rifle pits 
dug from Peteau river to the Ark. Thereby completely encircling 
the town. 

As warm weather advanced the gurillas spread over the country 
attacking any small party of our troops that they could find The 
telegraph was cut so often that it was impossible to keep it in re- 
pair and it was given up in Aug. Mail parties were fired on and it 
became neccessary to abandon the regular mail and send parties 
through with it at long intervals without letting any one know when 
it would go or when it was expected to return. The 26th of July a 
battalion of the 6th Kan which was camped on Mazzard prairie, 
eight miles from Fort Smith was attacked by a brigade of rebels 
commanded by [Gen. R. M.] Gano and lost 16 men killed and one 
hundred men were taken prisoners. The mounted men nearly all 

Several other attacks were made on detachments of the command, 
but only one more was successful. That was made on a supply 
train on Cabin Creek fifty miles north of Fort Gibson in the Chero- 
kee Nation. A train of two hundred and fifty wagons was lost 
there all loaded with Commissary and Q. M. stores This was a 
severe loss to the army as it was short of rations before, and were 
now obliged to subsist on half rations. Forage was even less abun- 


dant than rations and many horses died for want of it. In the 
three cavalry regiments not fifty servicable horses were left by the 
1st of Dec. 

In Dec Maj Gen [E. R. S.] Canby who commanded the Military 
Division of West Miss, ordered the posts of Fort Smith and the 
ajacent posts to be evacuated. He removed Gen. Steelle from 
the command of the department of Ark. and assigned Maj Gen 
[Joseph J.] Reynolds to the command of it. Four steamers came 
up to Fort Smith loaded with forage and returned loaded with 
Q. M. stores About the first of Jan. orders were recieved from 
Lieut Gen. Ulysses S. Grant not to evacuate the posts of Fort Smith, 
Van Buren and Fayetteville and ordering Gen. Reynolds to for- 
ward supplies as soon as possible to those posts. Four steamers 
arrived on the 15th with supplies. 

[Rebel Attack on the Steamboat Annie Jacobs, January 17, 1865] 

On the 16th of January 1865 I was releived from duty as Messen- 
ger at District Headquarters Fort Smith, Arkansas, by order of 
Brig. General J. M. Thayer commanding officer District of the 
Frontier and ordered to report to my Company Commander for 
duty The Co. were at Clarksville Ark a post sixty five miles by 
land below Fort Smith and four miles from the Arkansas river on 
the north side The river was in boating condition and boats were 
at Fort Smith ready to start for Little Rock Transportation was 
furnished my companions and myself on board the steamer Annie 
Jacobs and daylight the morning of the 17th found us on board 
of her ready for starting to Clarksville 

Before the sun was up we were on our way We passed the Ad. 
Hine near Van Buren she was on a sand bar but working hard to 
get off Afterwards passed the steamer Chippewa where she was 
wooding with dry rails and over took the steamer Lotus wooding 
and stopped to wood ourselves near her While wooding the 
steamer Chippewa passed us but we were ready to start before 
the Lotus We passed two small towns Osark and Roseville with- 
out seeing any rebels but just below the latter town a woman 
hailed us and told us that the enemy were waiting for us about 
three miles below her story was hardly credited but we made 
some preperations for an action with them 

On ariving in sight of Joy's ford four miles from Roseville we 
discovered the Chippewa lying still on the south bank of the 
river. Col. [Thomas M.] Bowen of the 13th Kansas now procured 
a field glass and looking at her said that he thought that she was 


wooding at first but soon said that she was on fire soon after 
that we could see the flames distinctly with the naked eye The 
officers now held a consultation about what was best to do Col. 
Bowen said to run through that we had more of an escort than the 
Chippewa and were able to run through Lieut Col. B assert did 
not like this plan but allowed it to be carried out. 

When about a mile from Chippewa we discovered the enemy 
on the south bank of [the] river but did not see their artilery until 
they fired a shell at us which struck in the water about thirty paces 
to the right in the water; now for the first time we found out that 
we were in a sad predicament to go ahead we would have to go 
within sixty paces of their artilery and we had gone to far to turn 
back everything was in confusion no particular officer had com- 
mand and all were giving orders Lt. Col. Bassett finally ordered 
the boat to run itself aground on the northern bank and the pilot 
succeeded in turning her and she soon struck the ground about 
ten feet from the waters edge during this time the enemy kept up 
an incessant fire both with their artilery and small arms two shells 
struck the boat one passed through the pilot house doing but little 
injury and one through the cabin neither of them burst untill after 
they had passed through the boat 

As soon as the boat struck the reffugees with which she was 
loaded commenced getting off double quick time By this time our 
men had ceased their firing and prepared to leave the boat After 
most of the reffugees were of [f] I jumped off and started for the 
river bank just before arriving there I was requested to help tie 
up [the] boat having done this I started up the steep bank nar- 
rowly escaping being hit by a musket ball which passed just over 
my shoulder and very close to my neck After getting to the top 
of the bank I stepped a few paces back and seeing one of my com- 
panions Charles Wells lying down in a hollow to keep clear of the 
balls which were flying pretty thick around us asked him how he 
liked that he did not make an audible answer but got up and 
went father back into the woods 

I turned and started back towards the river and had not gone 
more than three paces when a shot from their artilery and a 
volley of musketry poured into the timber a musket ball struck me 
about three inches above the knee. 33 My companions done every- 

33. Col. Thomas M. Bowen, reporting the attack on the steamboats, stated: "Private 
Vincent B. Osborn, of the Second Kansas Cavalry, had his thigh bone shattered whilst 
making the cable of the Jacobs fast on shore. His leg was subsequently amputated and 
his life is lost." War of the Rebellion, Series I, v. 48, Pt. 1, p. 16. 

The colonel was mistaken in predicting Osborne's death from the amputation. It is 
noteworthy that Osborne, in his own account of the affair does not mention his bravery 
under fire in tying up the boat. Modesty seems to have been characteristic of the man. 


thing in their power to make me comfortable and when the men 
arived from the 2nd Kansas I was happy to find several of my Co. 
with them they and the officers, Dr. Hunt 34 especially, were very 
kind to me offering their assistance to me I slept but little during 
the night being compelled to lie on my back all the time and not 
being used to that could not go to sleep I partook very freely of 
wine and whiskey during the night drinking three bottles of the 
former and one of the latter at last daylight came, and then I was 
removed to the train 

Just before starting I wishing to know what Dr. Hunts opinion 
of the severity of my wound and not wishing to put the question 
directly to him said Dr this is a pretty severe wound Yes said he 
its a terrible wound this answer settled the question in the af- 
firmitive in my mind about my leg being amputated I was carried 
by six men to the wagon and laid in carefully The wagon was a 
common six mule government wagon and not very easy to ride in 
but ambulances had been sent for and were to meet us on the road 
about sunrise we started for Clarksville I suffered considerably 
of the jar of the wagon but not more than I had expected The 
rebels had all left during the night and the next day preperations 
were made to remove the boats The Annie Jacobs was found to 
be disabled so that she had to be towed of [f] but the Lotus was able 
to be taken down the river. 

About half way to Clarksville the ambulances met us and I was 
moved into one and we pushed on to Clarksville ariving there a 
little after dark There I met some more of my friends who took 
me up into a room where I remained that night Capt [N. Z. ?] 
Strong AAA Gen'l of the 2nd brigade came to see me and had 
some supper brought to me which was very acceptable as I had 
eaten nothing since I had been wounded except a few canned 
peaches Soon after eating supper Drs [Joseph P.] Root and [John 
S.] Redfield came in and examined my wound and prescribed 
water dressing to be put on it but did not tell me what they 
thought of the severity of my wound Two of my Co volunteered 
to keep it wet during the night It did not pain me much now and 
being very tired I soon fell asleep and slept till morning the next 
morning I looked at my leg and saw that it had already turned a 
deadly color and all hope of saving it was blasted 

34. Maj. S. B. Hunt, surgeon-in-chief of the District of the Frontier. 


I passed the fore noon quietly but about noon the Drs all came 
in half a dozen or so and said they had come for a final examination 
but their looks belied what they said as I could read in their faces 
that they thought the case hopeless but they looked at my leg and 
soon gave their decision that they should have to take my leg off 
I made no pa[r]ticular objection and a table was brought in and I 
was laid upon it my pants cut off and Dr. [Albert W.] Cheneworth 
applied the chloroform to my nostrils In a moment I was asleep 
and on waking up saw Dr. Root bandaging my stump Dr. Red- 
field holding it for him I had not the slightest recolection of it 
being taken off 

I was placed on a stretcher and carried about a quarter of a mile 
to where the hospital had been established This was in a house 
situated on a hill just north of the town a healthy pleasant place 
I was put in a room about sixteen feet square by one of the southern 
windows five or six more patients were placed in the same room 
but they all left but one in a couple of days that one was shot 
through the shoulder and was confined to his bed William Paul of 
my Co. was detailed as nurse for me and he done it faithfully My 
leg was dressed with water and every night two men came up from 
the company to sit up with me and keep my stump wet with cold 
water To the men of my Co and to Co F of the 6th Kansas I shall 
always owe a debt of gratitude which I can never repay they 
done everything in their power to alleviate my suffering and they 
shall long hold a place in my memory 

Wm Paul remained with me until the 10th of March and then 
went to the Co. which was stationed at Louisburg Ark. The 12th 
I started for Little Rock As Clarksville is situated four miles from 
the river I was obliged to ride that distance in an ambulance. A 
boat was expected down the river the same day but for some 
reason was delayed five days and I remained at Spadras Bluffs dur- 
ing the time. At night the 17th the Lotus came down and I was 
taken on board and the next morning started for Little Rock 
stopped three hours at Louisburg and arrived at Little Rock at 
eight oclock P. M. The next day I was removed to the Gen. Hos- 
pital at that place. I had been gaining slowly all the time from the 
1st of March and continued gaining I was discharged the 8th day 
of May 1865 but remained in the hospital until the 7th of July, 
when I left Little Rock for home. I did not get able to walk until 
the 19th of June. 

Bypaths of Kansas History 


From the Council Grove Press, May 18, 1861. 

A strange custom prevails amongst the uncivilized Indians of the West. 
When a chief, brave, or notable squaw dies or is killed, besides the usual 
funeral ceremonies of burial, a horse belonging to the deceased or his friends 
is led to the grave and shot. This is done so that the disembodied spirit 
may ride away into the happy hunting ground. While on a visit to the 
Kaw villages below town, a few days ago, we saw no less than four dead 
horses lying near as many fresh made graves. 


From the Neosho Valley Register, lola, March 17, 1869. 

The citizens of lola who deal in swine will, undoubtedly, be interested 
in the fact that the Board of Trustees of the incorporation have passed an 
ordinance which prohibits the running at large upon our streets of the porkino 
fraternity. And in order that any of these troublesome quadrupeds, that may 
unfortunately set the law at defiance, a "calaboose" or pound is in process 
of erection wherein they may be taken and properly cared for by the Marshal. 
This we conceive to be a move in the right direction. It is a notorious fact 
that, of all the animal creation, the swine is the biggest hog, and that they 
take as little thought of the inconvenience to which they put men and women 
when they deliberately root the gate off the hinges, and destroy the "garden 
sass," as if we were all delighted to see their cunning pranks, and had no 
angry passions that occasionally take a rise. But there is hope now that they 
may see the error of their way, and, in fear of the wanderings up and down 
through the town of our Marshal who will prove to them to be an evil one, 
they may be induced to go and root no more. 


From the Newton Kansan, November 28, 1872. 
Engine No. 37 "Buffalo" was drawn in Monday night from the front, 
it having been ditched the other day beyond Larned by its namesakes. 


From the Dodge City Times, October 6, 1877. 

Frank Edwards spent a short respite in the lime kiln this week, until some 
of his "friends" obtained a key from the marshal and let him out. This 



surprised our hero, and struck him as not being good law. When his trial 
came up he appeared before the terrible Judge, and brushing the lime from 
his afterdeck as he spoke, said: "There's something wrong, Jedge, if I was 
legally drunk, what was I unlegally let out for?" With this the case went to 
the court who said no complaint had been made and it was therefore not a 
legal drunk. 

From the Times, October 13, 1877. 

HE AND SHE. She is of the "speckled and sorrel persuasion," and he is 
the man who bends pleasantly over the aggravated violin at the Saratoga. She 
arrayed herself in a costume "too sweet" and met him on the boulevards. 
He, overcome at the sight, fell to emulating the dreamy notes of the distant 
fog-horn. She gathered the back of a chair and made a loving and af- 
fectionate endeavor to caress him. The attempt was abortive, and he put 
out the fire in one of her eyes. The eye went into the sables of grief and 
she appealed to the majesty of the law. The counsel for defendant said she 
was one who flaunted her frailties to the world and could not recover. But 
the City attorney said it was a Magdalena that waited at the tomb to waken 
the crucified savior, and that the city had been insulted and must be pacified. 
Why lengthen the story? He paid one dollar and so did she. Selah. 


From the Caldwell Commercial October 19, 1882. 

Even Lo [the common name for an Indian in the frontier days] is not 
free from domestic difficulties. However much he may lord it over his 
poor squaw, it often happens that she refuses to submit to abuse or even 
neglect. Our hired man had the satisfaction of witnessing an instance of 
that kind on Tuesday afternoon, while coming up from Fall creek. Half 
way up the hill he met a buck on horseback who hailed him with "How 
John! Swap?" "Swap what?" the h. m. asked. "Moccasin," Lo replied. 
Our hired man shook his head and passed on. He had gone but a few 
steps when Lo turned his horse and came after. A short distance on, where 
the road bends down from Main street, a squaw was seen stooping over as 
if in the act of tying up something. Lo reached her first and addressed her 
with a few guttural grunts, to which she apparently paid no attention. As 
our h. m. neared the party, he discovered that Mrs. Lo was in tears, and 
appeared otherwise greatly distressed. Suddenly she started up and grabbed 
hold of the saddle upon which her lord and master was seated, and attempted 
to pull him off. Failing in this she seized the lariat rope and began thrashing 
her hubby and his horse with an energy betokening deep and dire passion. 
Mr. Lo chuckled a little and endeavored to get away, but his faithful spouse 
hung to him. 

The reporter watched the scene for ten or fifteen minutes, and when he 
left the squaw was tugging at the rope and occasionally giving her Indian 
lord and his horse a lick with it. How the ruction ended, he could not 
say, but is satisfied that Mr. Lo had to come to terms with his incensed 
spouse. The h. m. gave it as his opinion that the buck had rode off and 



left the squaw to get to camp the best way she could, but finally concluded 
to return and let her ride behind him. When he reached her she was too 
mad to get on the horse or to do anything else, except to give him a 
lesson in conjugal duty, and she did it in the best way possible. 


From the Thomas County Cat, Colby, August 19, 1886. 
Buckeye barber shop, W. M. Northrup, proprietor. 

If you want as good a shave 

As any barber ever gave, 

Call on me at my shaving saloon, 

At morn or eve, or sunny noon. 

I'll cut your hair or shave your face, 

Or dye your hair with equal grace. 

Rooms, chairs, and towels clean, 

Scissors sharp and razors keen, 

And as light a hand 

As any barber in the land. 



From the Baxter Springs News, May 26, 1894. 

TAKE A BATH. Some arrangements should be made whereby the bath 
house could be used once a week at least. There are people in this town who 
need a bath. If a sufficient amount of patronage was assured the house would 
be opened. Make a resolution to bathe occasionally and we will have a 
chance to use the bath house. 


From the Minneapolis Messenger, October 3, 1895. 
A. R. Goodwyn tells of rather an amusing incident but what might have 
proven a serious accident which occurred near the Lincoln county line. 
Aaron Woody with his family lives in a small dug-out near Barnard and 
one night last week Sam White's cattle broke out and one of the steers 
weighing about sixteen hundred pounds wandered onto the roof of the dug- 
out and when directly over the bed occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Woody he 
went like McGinty to the bottom, striking the bed but fortunately he fell 
across the head board and not directly on the sleeping occupants. Mr. 
Woody finally got the steer off and looked after the injuries of his wife and 
child. The latter he at first thought had been killed and a doctor was sent 
for and it speedily recovered and no serious injury except a terrific scare re- 
sulted from the accident. This is a great country where cattle wander on 
top of the houses and fall in on people while they are asleep. 

Kansas History as Published in the Press 

Heinle Schmidt's column of southwest Kansas history, "It's Worth 
Repeating," has continued to appear regularly in The High Plains 
Journal, Dodge City. Included among subjects in recent months 
were: the part wells played in early settlement, January 24, 31, 
1952; a review of Stanley Vestal's Queen of Cowtowns, Dodge City, 
February 21; a description of and quotes from a recently discovered 
promotion pamphlet issued in the middle 1880's, March 6, 13, 20, 27; 
the battle of Fort Coon, by Robert M. Wright, April 10, 17; the 
story of the Hinkle ranch, Clark county, by Fred Hinkle, April 24, 
May 1, 8, 15, 22, 29; and Purdyville, Hodgeman county, by E. W. 
Harlan, June 5. A pamphlet containing 27 stories from "It's Worth 
Repeating," entitled Ashes of My Campfire, was recently published. 

Ernest Dewey's series of historical stories and legends has con- 
tinued to be published regularly in the Hutchinson News-Herald. 
Some of the recent articles were: "Old Border Town [Trail City] 
Now Hardly a Memory," February 3, 1952; "Warmth of Her Life 
[Mrs. W. M. Smith] Lingers After Death," February 17; "Mother 
Bickerdyke Was Saint to Her Soldiers," March 16; "Bemis Bilked 
Barber County Until Persuaded to Hurry Away," March 23; "His 
Nickname ['Pistol Pete' Eaton] Was Not Just a Boast," April 13; 
"They All Laughed When Ned [Buntline] Got off the Train," April 
27; "His [David L. Payne] Hunger for Land Made Him Relentless," 
May 11, and "Hatred for Railroads Finally Brought Death [to Saul 
Riley]," June 8. An article by Ruby Basye relating an experience 
of her family with Al Jennings, train robber, was printed in the 
News-Herald, June 15. 

Articles in the Bulletin of the Shawnee County Historical Society 
of Topeka, March, 1952, included: "Washburn's Campus: John 
Ritchie's Gift," by Paul Adams; part 7, "First Congregational Church 
of Topeka," by Russell K. Hickman; "Recollections of Baseball in 
Topeka," by Louis E. Frazer; "Earthquakes in Topeka"; "My Experi- 
ences During the Flood [1903]," by Iva Maze; "Joseph Groff 
Waters," biographical sketch; "The History of Topeka," from Radge's 
Topeka Directory, 1883-1884, by Joseph G. Waters, and a con- 
tinuation of George A. Root's "Chronology of Shawnee County." 

The Whitley Opera House, Emporia, was the subject of a column- 
length article entitled "When Emporia Was Young," which appeared 



in the Emporia Gazette, April 15, 1952. Built in the early 1880's, the 
opera house was the scene of many theatrical performances by 
famous stage personalities until it burned in 1913. 

A one-column history of Antioch school, district No. 7, Marshall 
county, by F. W. Tebbut, was printed in the Frankfort Index, April 
17, 1952. The first school in the area was a subscription one taught 
by a Mrs. Stoner. The district erected the first schoolhouse in 1866. 

The struggle of Philip A. Emery in founding the State School for 
the Deaf at Olathe, was reviewed briefly in the Johnson County 
Democrat, Olathe, April 24, 1952. Emery opened the school late 
in 1861 with one pupil. A new building at the school has been 
named Emery Hall in his honor. 

Historical articles of interest to Kansans in recent issues of the 
Kansas City (Mo.) Star included: "Josiah Gregg, Misfit on the 
Frontier, Left Classic Account of Life in West," a biographical 
sketch of Gregg and a discussion of his Commerce of the Prairies, 
by J. Frank Dobie, April 25, 1952; "Grandeur of Kansas Plains Im- 
pressed Walt Whitman on Trip to West in 1879," by Charles Arthur 
Hawley, June 6, and "Wife Was a Constant Helper in the Career of 
William Allen White," by Ruby Holland Rosenberg, June 21. In 
the Kansas City ( Mo. ) Times were: "With Varied Interests, William 
Allen White Was Primarily a Man of Books," by Everett Rich, April 
16; "Heroic Nurse [Mother Bickerdyke] Fought Grim Nature and 
Austere Military Men to Save Wounded," a review of Nina Brown 
Baker's Cyclone in Calico, by Paul V. Miner, April 25; "Life on 
Prairies Failed to Make Men of Spoiled Sons of English Gentry," by 
Louis O. Honig, May 10, and "Wooden Bridge Dating From 1858 
Still Carries Kansans Across Stranger Creek," by Albert H. Hindman, 
June 14. 

Articles of a historical nature appearing recently in the Arkansas 
City Daily Traveler included: "Arkansas City Once Served as Door- 
Step to 'No Man's Land/ " by Arthur J. Emahizer, April 26, 1952; 
"Arkansas City Once Was Known as Honest-to-Gosh Ferryland," by 
Walter Hutchison, May 3, and "Oak Grove School's History Re- 
flects Growth of Arkansas City Area," May 24. 

Many of the historic and scenic points in Kansas are listed and 
pictured in the 48-page, May-June, 1952, issue of To the Stars, pub- 
lished by the Kansas Industrial Development Commission, Topeka. 
Designed as a tourist guide, the issue includes brief historical notes 
on many areas of Kansas. 


The Topeka Daily Capital has published a historical feature by 
Margaret Whittemore each Sunday in recent months. A few of the 
articles were: "Last Covered Bridge [near Leavenworth] Dates 
Back to 1859," May 4; "Grass Lodges First Residences in Kansas/* 
May 18; "Old Mission at Council Grove Honors Kaws," May 25; 
"First College in Kansas Baker University/' June 8, and "Fort 
Hays State College Is 50 Years Old," June 22. On June 4, Gen. 
Dwight D. Eisenhower's homecoming day, Miss Whittemore's article 
entitled "Ike's Home Attracts Tourists," was printed. 

Articles about historic sites in the Winfield vicinity printed in the 
Winfield Daily Courier, May 12, 1952, were: "Colorful Procession 
Haunts Scenic Tunnel Mill Vicinity," by Charles O. Booth; "Win- 
field's Main Street Follows Old Indian Trail," and the Indian legend 
of Kickapoo Corral quoted from writings of Margaret Hill McCarter. 

"Sketches of Pioneer Lore," by Walter S. Keith, have appeared 
in recent issues of the Coffeyville Daily Journal. Included were 
notes on the Osage and other Indians May 12, 19, 1952. 

A "See Kansas" series of illustrated articles on historic sites and 
historical collections of Kansas, by John Watson, have appeared in 
the Wichita Evening Eagle in recent months. Places discussed in- 
cluded: the museum of the Kansas State Historical Society, May 
15, 1952; Council Grove, May 21, and Dyche Museum, University 
of Kansas, Lawrence, June 19. 

Some of the history of Baileyville and the near-by area by Mrs. 
Bert Hay, Holton, has been published in recent issues of The Cour- 
ier-Tribune, Seneca, including May 22, 29, June 5, 12, 1952. 

A historical account of five cemeteries near Oswego by Wayne 
A. O'Connell, was published in the Chetopa Advance, May 22, 
the Oswego Democrat, May 23, and the Oswego Independent, May 
30, 1952. Included in the article were biographical information on 
Walt Mason, Kansas poet, and his comments on Oswego. 

The Clay Center Dispatch, May 24, and the Clay Center Times, 
May 29, 1952, printed a list of over 40 "lost" towns and settlements 
of Clay county. A brief historical note with location was included 
for each community. 

A 12-page 80th anniversary edition of the Baxter Springs Citizen 
was published May 29, 1952. Included in the issue were articles 
on the history of the Citizen and of Baxter Springs. 


Some of the history of the Kansas regiments during the Spanish- 
American War and the Philippine rebellion was recalled in a Memo- 
rial day article in the Pittsburg Sun, May 31, 1952. 

Included in the June, 1952, number of the Transactions of the 
Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, were "Kansas Weather 
1951," by R. A. Garrett, and "The Editor's Page," wherein several 
persons describe their favorite views in Kansas. 

A brief history of the Short Creek Baptist church, near Atchison, 
was printed in the Atchison Daily Globe, June 1, 1952. The church 
was organized in a school room, December 2, 1869, with G. M. 
Huntley as moderator. 

A letter from Percy G. Maxwell, descendant of a Marysville fam- 
ily, recalling early residents and incidents of the Marysville area, 
was published in the Marshall County News, Marysville, June 5, 

Kansas Historical Notes 

The 77th annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society 
will be held in the rooms of the Society in the Memorial building 
at Topeka on October 21, 1952. 

The annual meeting of the Kansas Association of Teachers of 
History and Related Fields was held at the Memorial building, 
Topeka, May 2 and 3, 1952. Speakers and their subjects were: 
"Was Moscovite Russia Imperialist? The Catholic Orthodox Strug- 
gle and Its Effect Upon Historical Interpretation/' O. P. Backus, 
University of Kansas, Lawrence; "James A. Farley, Master Politi- 
cian," Russell Windes, Jr., Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg; 
"Apportionment in the Kansas House of Representatives," C. S. 
Boertman, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia; "The Influence 
of the German Element in the United States," Leonard Baak, 
College of Emporia; "The Convoy Controversy 1917," V. R. East- 
erling, Kansas State College, Manhattan; "The Objectives of the 
Course in the History of Civilization," John W. Heaton, Baker 
University, Baldwin, and "The Objectives of the General Social 
Science Course," Verne S. Sweedlun, Kansas State College. George 
L. Anderson, University of Kansas, addressed the group at the 
luncheon session on "History Versus the Social Sciences." Officers 
elected were: Elizabeth Cochrane, Kansas State Teachers College, 
Pittsburg, president; Charles Onion, Fort Hays Kansas State College, 
Hays, vice-president, and Ernest B. Bader, Washburn University, 
Topeka, secretary-treasurer. F. R. Flournoy, College of Emporia, 
was the retiring president. 

Tribute was paid to W. W. Graves, St. Paul editor and historian, 
by a gathering of state and church officials, Indian chiefs, editors 
and friends in St. Paul, May 31, 1952. The Most Rev. Mark K. 
Carroll, bishop of the Wichita diocese of the Catholic Church, was 
the principal speaker, and Fred Brinkerhoff, Pittsburg, served as 
toastmaster. Graves published the St. Paul Journal for over 50 
years and is the author of more than a dozen books and pamphlets. 
His latest book, the second volume of his History of Neosho County, 
recently published, marks the end of his writing career. 

Directors elected by the Scott County Historical Society at a 
meeting in Scott City, June 3, 1952, were: John A. Boyer, Gene 
Henderson, Earl Van Antwerp, Harold Kirk, Tom Sherry, S. W. 



Filson, Mrs. C. W. Dickhut, Matilda Freed and Elmer Epperson. 
Nyle Miller, secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, was 
the principal speaker at the meeting. 

Mrs. E. G. Peterson was re-elected president of the Edwards 
County Historical Society at the annual meeting in Kinsley, June 
3, 1952. Other officers elected were: Lavina Trotter, first vice- 
president; Harry Offerle, second vice-president; Mrs. Leonard 
Miller, third vice-president; Mrs. Myrtle Richardson, historian; 
H. J. Draut, secretary; John Newlin, treasurer; Beulah Moletor, 
custodian, and Mrs. Hazel Buxton, publicity. 

The First Military Escort on the Santa Fe Trail 1829 is the 
title of a recently published 222-page book by Otis E. Young, based 
on the reports of Maj. Bennet Riley and Lt. Philip St. George 
Cooke. "This work attempts to show not only the actual day-by-day 
occurrences on the Santa Fe trail in the year 1829, but also to 
relate those events which led to the demand for such an escort, 
and an outline of the national developments which had their in- 
ception in this event." 

A 105-page illustrated booklet entitled Kansas-Missouri Floods 
of June- July 1951 was recently published by the Weather Bureau, 
U. S. Department of Commerce. Compiled under the direction 
of F. W. Reichelderfer, chief, U. S. Weather Bureau, the booklet 
is a record of the basic hydrometeorological data of the flood. 



November 1952 

Published by 

Kansas State Historical Society 



Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor 




George L. Anderson, 233 


CENTRAL KANSAS, 1859-1867 Sister M. Evangeline Thomas, 252 

With Father Dumortier's map of Catholic mission stations in the St. Mary's 
area (1866), facing p. 264. 





The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and 
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis- 
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be 
sent to the managing editor at the Historical Society. The Society assumes no 
responsibility for statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


The picture, showing the loading of cattle in the Kansas 
Pacific (now the Union Pacific) yards at Abilene, was sketched 
by the Kansas artist, Henry Worrall, for Frank Leslie's Illustrated 
Newspaper, New York, August 19, 1871. The original Leslie's 
caption was: "Kansas. Transport of Texas Beef on the Kansas- 
Pacific Railway Scene at a Cattle Shoot in Abilene, Kansas." 
Photo courtesy of Dr. Robert Taft. 


Volume XX November, 1952 Number 4 

The Administration of Federal Land Laws in 

Western Kansas, 1880-1890: A Factor in 

Adjustment to a New Environment 1 


THE careful interpretive studies of James C. Malin, 2 some of 
which have appeared in earlier issues of this Quarterly* have 
demonstrated that adaptation to the physical characteristics of the 
grassland region was the greatest single problem confronting the 
settlers in the western half of Kansas. Malin has shown that the 
successful types of adaptation were the results of folk-processes; and 
that the most fruitful technique for the historian is to study a 
community in its entirety, with the emphasis upon the role of indi- 
viduals as portrayed in local newspaper and manuscript sources. 

This study involves only certain selected phases of the question. 
It is based upon the assumption that the administration of the fed- 
eral land laws was an important component of the problem of adjust- 
ment. It is intended to illustrate the use that can be made of certain 
types of archival materials and to provide a background for further 
studies. It does not represent a commitment to the point of view 
that fraud and speculative activities constitute the most important 
aspects of the problem. 

It should be clear that the history of the administration of the 
land laws cannot be reduced to some capsule-like generalization 

DR. GEORGE LA VERNE ANDERSON is chairman of the history department at the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, Lawrence. 

1. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1944 meeting of the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association. 

2. "The Adaptation of the Agricultural System to Sub-humid Environment," Agricul- 
tural History, Baltimore, v. 10 (1936), July, pp. 118-141; Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt 
of Kansas: A Study in Adaptation to Subhumid Geographical Environment (Lawrence, 
1944); The Grassland of North America: Prolegomena to Its History (Lawrence, 1947); 
"Grassland, 'Treeless,' and 'Subhumid': A Discussion of Some Problems of the Terminology 
of Geography," The Geographical Review, New York, v. 37 (1947), April, pp. 241-250. 

3. "The Turnover of Farm Population in Kansas," v. 4 (1935), November, pp. 339- 
372; "The Kinsley Boom in the Late Eighties," v. 4 (1935), February, May, pp. 23-49 and 
164-187; "J. A. Walker's Early History of Edwards County," v. 9 (1940), August, "Intro- 
duction," pp. 259-270; "An Introduction to the History of the Bluestem-Pasture Region 
of Kansas: A Study in Adaptation to Geographical Environment," v. 11 (1942), February, 
pp. 3-28. 



that will faithfully portray developments in even a part of one state, 
much less accurately reflect developments in all the states and terri- 
tories west of the Missouri river. For too long a time a summary 
of the laws padded with quotable portions of congressional debates, 
and seasoned with the more dramatic generalizations of officials in 
Washington, has passed for a history of the subject. Even this 
formula is so diluted or distorted in some instances as to leave the 
impression that the operation of the federal land laws was relatively 
unimportant. In pursuing the study of a subject in an entirely 
different field Joseph Schafer remarked: 

The author's chief reason for calling sharp attention to the futility of the 
speculative method hitherto commonly used by historians in dealing with 
subjects of this kind is to protest against an outworn methodology. The "guess- 
ing game" is no longer permissible to those who claim the right to be called 
historians, in the American field at least. Like Hamlet, we demand "proofs 
more relative" than those supplied by ghosts. 4 

Much of the historical literature in the field of public land studies 
is vulnerable to this criticism. Also, it cannot escape the judgment 
Malin makes concerning population studies that are based exclusively 
upon printed federal materials: "As in outline surveys or general 
histories, it is writing from the top down and partakes too much of 
the fitting of generalizations to particular cases rather than arriving 
at the generalization from the study of the underlying detail." 5 

Another characteristic of many of the historical accounts of the 
public lands which this study seeks to avoid is the almost universal 
preoccupation of the writer with the large speculator, the "bonanza 
farmer/' the cattleman or the corporation. Thus Paul W. Gates 
excludes from a study of the homestead law the "many farmers who 
speculated in a small way/' 6 The histories of the range cattle indus- 
try tend to limit land frauds to fencing the public domain and the 
use of hired or dummy entrymen. 7 The authors of a widely used 
general history accept this point of view so completely that they 
are able to say, "Land frauds in the cattle kingdom were so universal 

4. "Who Elected Lincoln?" The American Historical Review, New York, v. 47 
(1941), October, p. 63. 

5. "Local Historical Studies and Population Problems," in Caroline F. Ware (ed.), 
The Cultural Approach to History (New York, 1940), p. 300. 

6. "The Homestead Law in an Incongruous Land System," The American Historical 
Review, New York, v. 41 (1936), July, p. 652. 

7. Ernest S. Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman (Minneapolis, 1929), pp. 190-215; 
Ora B. Peake, The Colorado Range Cattle Industry (Glendale, Cal., 1937), pp. 69-84. 
Louis Pelzer, The Cattlemen's Frontier (Glendale, Cal., 1936), pp. 173-191. The reports 
of the registers and receivers of the local land offices and those of special agents that were 
sent to the General Land Office during October and November, 1884, are devoted almost 
exclusively to these forms of fraudulent practice. "Report of the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office," 1885, in Report of the Secretary of the Interior, House Ex. Doc. No. 1 
(serial no. 2,378), 49 Cong., 1 Sess. (1885-1886), v. 1, pp. 202-216. 


as to make impertinent the suggestion of mere individual wrong- 
doing." 8 This relegation to the realm of the "impertinent" leaves 
the individual settler a shadowy figure, always present, but rarely 
made the specific object of attention. How he came to be in a 
particular community; how he obtained his land; whether he was a 
permanent settler, transient drifter or would-be speculator; how the 
operation of the land laws affected his adjustment to his environ- 
ment if he stayed; these and many other questions have been 
answered only in a fragmentary way if at all. 

The nature of the problem of research in this field, if printed 
federal materials are used exclusively, can best be emphasized by 
quoting conflicting statements of two commissioners of the General 
Land Office. Each had access to the same type of material and 
each had come to the office from the Middle West after long periods 
of public service and political experience. William Andrew Jack- 
son Sparks was a member of the Democratic party and an anti- 
monopoly crusader; 9 his successor, William M. Stone, was one of 
the organizers of the Republican party. 10 Said Commissioner 
Sparks in 1885, after six months in office: 

I found that the magnificent estate of the nation in its public lands had been 
to a wide extent wasted under defective and improvident laws and through 
a laxity of public administration astonishing in a business sense if not culpable 
in recklessness of official responsibility. ... I am satisfied that thousands 
of claims without foundation in law or equity, involving millions of acres of 
public land, have been annually passed to patent upon the single proposition 
that nobody but the government had any adverse interest. 

The vast machinery of the land department appears to have been devoted 
to the chief result of conveying the title of the United States to public lands 
upon fraudulent entries under strained constructions of imperfect public land 
laws and upon illegal claims under public and private grants. 11 

Following these introductory remarks there are estimates of fraud 
under the several land laws ranging from 40% in the case of the home- 
stead law to 100% under the commutation clause of that law. 12 

Thus Commissioner Sparks, using materials accumulated by the 
preceding administrations, drew a blanket indictment that was 

8. Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager, The Growth of the American 
Republic (New York, 1942), v. 2, p. 94. 

9. There is a brief biography by Harold H. Dunham, in the Dictionary of American 
Biography (New York, 1946), v. 17, pp. 434, 435. 

10. Benjamin F. Cue, History of Iowa (New York, 1903), v. 4, p. 253. 

11. "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1885, loc. cit., pp. 
155, 156. 

12. Ibid., p. 223. In this report reference is made, pp. 201, 202, by Commissioner 
Sparks to his order of April 3, 1885, suspending the further entry of land in a group of 
Western states and territories including western Kansas. This order remained in effect 
until April 6, 1886, when it was revoked upon direct orders of Secretary of the Interior 
L. Q. C. Lamar. 


tantamount to saying that the settlement and development of the 
Western plains prior to 1885 was largely based upon fraud. 

The quotation given above is reasonably characteristic of those 
that have gained entrance into the general histories, but in fairness, 
Commissioner W. M. Stone should be heard in rebuttal. Making 
direct reference to the Sparks report of 1885 and quoting several 
paragraphs from it, he said: 

This wholesale arraignment of claimants on the public domain should not 
have been made without the most conclusive evidence to sustain it. It con- 
tains in express terms, without discrimination and without exception, a charge 
of the gravest character against these hardy and courageous pioneers of our 
advancing civilization well calculated to challenge the credulity of the lowest 
order of American intellect. 

This astounding condition of things . . . may or may not have existed 
during his administration, but it affords me infinite pleasure to inform you that 
during my more than four months of intimate connection with the duties of 
this office I have found no evidence of general misconduct on the part of our 
western settlers, and have failed to discover any general system of fraud pre- 
vailing upon the government in reference to the public domain. Instances of 
attempted fraud are to be expected, but justice requires me to say that they 
are exceedingly rare and notably exceptional. I speak now of the individual 

It is elementary to point out that both of the honorable commis- 
sioners could not be right and that the truth must lie somewhere be- 
tween the two extremes. It is more important to note certain 
factors, other than political, that may serve to explain their dis- 
agreement. The General Land Office, although charged with the 
responsibility of administering a landed heritage of imperial propor- 
tions, was handicapped by an undermanned staff, an antiquated 
building, a pint-sized budget and an overwhelming flood of busi- 
ness. 14 The information that came to Washington from the cutting 
edge of settlement was from special agents with too little time to 

13. "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1889, in Report of the 
Secretary of the Interior, House Ex. Doc. No. 1 (serial no. 2,724), 51 Cong., 1 Sess. (1889- 
1890), v. 1, p. 9. Commissioner Stone was much too optimistic. Statements that he 
thought would challenge "the credulity of the lowest order of American intellect" have 
come to be accepted almost without question as accurate descriptions of the administration 
of the federal land laws. There is no question concerning the existence of practices that 
the commissioners described as fraudulent. The question is whether they were well nigh 
universal and characteristic. N. C. McFarland, the predecessor of Sparks, wrote on August 
5, 1881, to J. R. Hallowell, United States district attorney for Kansas, "This fraudulent 
entry business has become too common as I have reason already to know." Correspond- 
ence of the United States District Attorney's Office, Kansas State Historical Society manu- 
script collections. Unless otherwise indicated all correspondence used in this paper is con- 
tained in this collection. 

14. Harold Hathway Dunham, Government Handout: A Study in the Administration 
of the Public Lands, 1875-1891 (New York, 1941), pp. 124-144. The chapter cited is 
entitled "The Inadequate Land Office." This study, which is a product of the seminar of 
Allan Nevins at Columbia University, illustrates a statement made earlier in this paper. The 
opening sentence of the paragraph in the preface, p. v., which describes the bibliography 
that was used is as follows, "Emphasis on the administration of the public lands did not 
call for an exhaustive analysis of the literature of the West." 


do an enormous piece of work; from partisans in the local land 
offices; from cranks and malcontents; as well as from honest settlers 
with legitimate complaints and views. The alternate advance and 
recession of settlement produced by alternate periods of drought 
and rainfall brought a complex mixture of humanity to an unfamiliar 
environment and piled entry upon entry, relinquishment upon re- 
linquishment and contest upon contest until even the plat books 
were hopelessly out-of-date and the basement and corridors of the 
land office were piled high with unclaimed patents, unsettled con- 
tests and unstudied correspondence. 15 "Going back to the wife's 
folks" may be just a convenient euphemism to the historian, but it 
more than doubled the work of the General Land Office. The 
sequence of entry, abandonment without record, relinquishment 
or sale may have added up to fraud in the humid regions farther 
to the east and south; but in western Kansas it may have meant 
that optimistic settlers, becoming discouraged by death, drought, 
dust and grasshoppers, were giving up the fight and were only 
trying to salvage enough from their battles with and on Uncle 
Sam's land to get out of the country. 16 For this reason, among 
others, the emphasis in this study is shifted from Washington to the 
local scene, from federal officials to individual entrymen, from the 
public domain of several millions of acres to the individual quarter 
section of 160 acres. Obviously broader questions must be consid- 
ered, but the center of attention is the individual entryman on a 
particular quarter section of land. 17 This paper is, in a sense, a pre- 
liminary move in the direction of studying the history of the opera- 
tion of the federal land laws in the western half of Kansas from the 
ground up. 18 

15. Any researcher with a specific project in hand who has used even a small portion 
of the mass of material in the General Land Office section of the National Archives, Wash- 
ington, D. C., with the assistance and guidance of skilled personnel and modern technical 
aids, will appreciate the difficulties that confronted the staff of the General Land Office when 
the public lands were being entered at the rate of several millions of acres annually. 

16. See article entitled "Governmental Evictions in Kansas" in the Kirwin Independent, 
July 7, 1887, for a suggestion that the homesteader was really just betting his $14 against 
Uncle Sam's 160 acres that he could live on the land for five years. 

17. A study somewhat comparable in objective was made in 1887 at the request of 
Commissioner Sparks. He directed that a thorough study be made of representative town- 
ships by special agents and inspectors to discover how the several land laws operated in 
particular instances. After giving specific directions for carrying out the study, Sparks 
stated its purpose as follows: "The purpose of these examinations is to ascertain what 
becomes of public land taken up under the public land laws, and the general character 
of the different classes of entries on different classes of land, and to what extent they are 
made to sell or mortgage, or for the benefit of land and loan agents, speculators, syndicates, 
and corporations." "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1887, in 
Report of the Secretary of the Interior, House Ex. Doc., No. 1 (serial no. 2,541), 50 Cong., 
1 Sess. (1887-1888), v. 1, p. 144. 

18. Almost without exception the examples selected involve entries west of the 98 
meridian. The principal local land offices for the area were located at Wichita, Salina, 
Concordia, Cawker City, Kirwin, Larned, Garden City, Hays, Wakeeney, Colby and 


Reduced to its simplest term, the process of alienating land from 
the public domain to private ownership under the pre-emption and 
homestead laws consisted of three steps: settlement, residence and 
improvement. The timber culture act required a sequence of 
breaking, planting and cultivating. The performance of these 
various activities had to be verified before the local land officers by 
the entryman through the filing of sworn affidavits and the sworn 
testimony of two witnesses. Indeed, there was so much swearing 
in the process that it is reminiscent of the medieval practice of corn- 
purgation or oath helping. 19 It was this same abundance of swear- 
ing that made perjury the most frequent offense under the land 
laws. Forgery was quite prevalent, but it was the swearing to the 
truth of the forged statement that made it actionable. If, in the 
judgment of the officers of the local land office, the final proof was 
satisfactory a final certificate was issued, and if no contest had been 
filed the entry would be reported to the General Land Office for the 
issuance of the patent. If the entry was contested the case was 
heard in the first instance at the local land office with the right of 
appeal to the commissioner of the General Land Office and ulti- 
mately to the Secretary of the Interior. 20 Under some circumstances 
entries that had been suspended because of the failure of the entry- 
man to comply with the law could be referred to the Board of 
Equitable Adjudication for final determination. 21 The almost 
limitless variation of this process of entry, proof, contest, appeal 
and patent; the numerous technical features of the laws; the fre- 
quent contradictions in the interpretations of the laws and the 
administrative procedures used in enforcing them imposed heavy 
burdens upon the individual entryman. In nearly two-thirds of 
the suspended entries referred from the area under consideration 

19. The following contemporary comments suggest that the act of swearing to the 
truth of statements contained in land entry papers had become so commonplace that it had 
lost its value as an inhibitant to fraud: "The fact is land law is almost disregarded. The 
people make affidavits much as they eat pie without any regard for their moral digestion." 
Frank Thanhouser, Garden City, to W. C. Perry, May 1, 1886. "It is a positive fact that 
a class of land lawyers in this country tell their clients that there is no danger of getting 
into any trouble by swearing what they please and a certain class are acting accordingly 
to the annoyance of honest settlers. . . ." Charles Morrison, Hillside, to W. C. Perry, 
June 25, 1887. "There has been to much looseness in these land claims and many persons 
think they are perfectly safe to swear to anything in a land claim or entry that in those 
cases false swearing is no crime this idea which is quite prevalent should be corrected and 
those persons who are disposed to swear falsely should be taught that it is perjury. . . ." 
L. V. Hollyfield of Cherryvale, to J. R. Hallowell, March 23, 1880. "Our atty's here 
claim there is no law against perjury and that there never was a party sentenced to the 
Pen. for this kind of false swearing in the state of Kansas. They argue this way: that a 
man is compelled to swear falsely in order to start a contest and whenever a party is com- 
pelled to swear in order to start a suit it is not considered a crime. . . . This presi- 
dent of affairs has existed in this county until perjury is considered witty and cute." C H 
Barlow, Goodland, to W. C. Perry, April 12, 1888. 

20. The contest division was established in 1887 upon the recommendation of Com- 
missioner W. A. J. Sparks. It was designated Division H. "Report of the General Land 
Office," 1887, loc. cit., pp. 435-438. 

21. There is no readily available source of information concerning this agency. 


to the Board of Equitable Adjudication, "ignorance of the law" was 
the reason given for failure to make proof within the required 
period of time. 22 

The position of the individual entryman was further weakened 
by the fact that the federal land laws did not make adequate pro- 
vision for the punishment of criminal fraud. So weak was the 
position of the government that W. C. Perry, United States district 
attorney, wrote warningly to a United States court commissioner: 
"I write this letter not for public use, as it is better not to let every 
one know the weakness of the federal statutes with reference to the 
punishment of frauds against the public domain." 23 Even the 
avenue of prosecution for perjury was so restricted as to permit all 
but the most glaring cases to go unpunished. In discussing a land 
case Perry defined perjury as'"wilful and corrupt swearing to some 
material matter, which was known at the time by the party so 
swearing to be untrue." 24 It had to be "positive, unequivocal, ma- 
licious and knowingly false." 25 There had to be proof that the 
alleged acts were intended to and did actually defraud the United 
States and not merely a private individual. 26 Moreover it should 
be noted that the statute of limitations barred prosecution after 
three years had elapsed 27 and that in all cases where the land in- 
volved had been passed to patent the district attorney was helpless 
and could prosecute only upon orders from the Attorney General, 
who in turn could act only if requested to do so by the Secretary 

22. H. Booth, former receiver of the Lamed land office, expressed the opinion that not 
one settler in a thousand could fill out the entry and proof papers correctly without assis- 
tance from an attorney. Larned Chronoscope, July 10, 1885. The editor of the paper 
agreed with Booth. The comments were inspired by the order issued on June 24, 1885, 
by Commissioner Sparks which curtailed the activities of land attorneys. Every suspended 
entry referred to the Board of Equitable Adjudication was of course open to contest. The 
fact that such a large number of vulnerable entries escaped contests has caused this writer 
to study the operations of the board in some detail. 

23. W. C. Perry to J. M. Tinney, U. S. commissioner at Kirwin, April 28, 1886. The 
letter was written from Topeka and concerned the D. N. Whipple case. On October 10, 
1885, Perry had written to A. H. Garland, Attorney General of the United States, request- 
ing more assistance because "... a large portion of the State is, or, rather, formerly 
was public domain and many cases have, and are arising out of frauds and perjuries 
perpetrated in the entries of public lands under the homestead, pre-emption and timber 
culture statutes and more will and should arise under these laws, as the violating thereof 
are notoriously and shamefully frequent." 

24. W. C. Perry to R. A. Grossman, Vilas, Colo., November 29, 1887. In another 
case Perry emphasized wilful and false testimony to "material matter." Letter to 
Charles Fickeissen, Buffalo Park, May 6, 1886. In an undated letter to J. M. Tinney, 
Kirwin, Perry included "a dishonest or corrupt motive" as part of his definition of perjury. 
In letters to R. G. Cook, U. S. commissioner at Dodge City, April 23, 1886, and to 
Thomas J. Richardson, special agent of the General Land Office at Wichita, November 9, 
1888, Perry commented upon the difficulty of securing convictions in perjury cases. 

25. W. C. Perry to C. W. Reynolds, Chalk Mound, July 9, 1886. Perry to A. D. 
Duncan, special agent of the General Land Office at Kirwin, October 20, 1886. 

26. W. C. Perry to C. H. Carswell, Coronado, December 7, 1887. Same to J. G. 
Allard, special agent of the General Land Office, Oberlin, June 12, 1888. 

27. The evidence in a case involving Charles Miller and Gust Mauer of Hays, seemed 
Van* lu e 522 *" d had r 6 ? 1 used by the former in iSSl, but it was not discovered until 
1885 thus talcing it out of the Statutes." A. D. Gilkerson to Perry, November 10, 1885; 
Perry referred to the statute of limitations in letters to Louden and Freeman of Ness City, 
February 4, 1887; and to Doctor H. Tant, Medicine Lodge, June 29, 1888. 


of the Interior. 28 Thus a fraud could be committed under the pre- 
emption act, the land be patented and sold to an innocent third 
party and the whole process go unnoticed and unpunished. 29 

The same legal and technical complications that laid heavy handi- 
caps upon the entrymen provided the foundation for the profitable 
activities of land attorneys, land agents, professional locators and 
chronic claim jumpers. It seems clear that these men contributed 
in considerable measure to the confusion and instability that were 
characteristic of communities during their early years. They made 
a practice of buying and selling relinquishments; 30 of hiring men 
to make entries in order to prevent legal entrymen from initiating 
claims to choice tracts; 31 of loaning money to prove up, 32 and in 
some cases of preventing by violence the entering of bona fide 
settlers. 33 Instances are on record of one of these agents secur- 
ing 12 quarter-sections on two separate occasions; 34 of another pay- 
ing individuals $5 for the use of their names in making homestead 
entries and retaining the claims until they could be sold to bona fide 
entrymen for $25 to $50, 35 and of a third getting control of a local 

28. W. C. Perry, to J. E. Anderson, Salina, February 25, 1889. Note in Perry's hand- 
writing on letter of June 13, 1887, received by him at Fort Scott from Lovitt and Sturman 
of Salina. 

29. In a letter to Thomas J. Richardson, special agent of the General Land Office at 
Wichita, May 26, 1888, W. C. Perry emphasized the difficulty of canceling an entry that 
had reached the final receipt stage and the land in question had passed in good faith to 
an innocent third party. Other references to the "innocent purchaser" doctrine are con- 
tained in letters from Perry to Clark S. Rowe, special agent of the General Land Office at 
Larned, March 20, 1888; to W. F. Galvin, Stockton, December 4, 1888, and to Rowe, 
March 16, 1888. 

30. A rapid examination of almost any newspaper published during the period under 
consideration in the western part of Kansas will confirm this statement. 

31. Randolph Burt, Gettysburg, to W. C. Perry, May 3, May 12, and June 2, 1886. 
Henry Kern, Palco, to Perry, April 2, 1889. The material relating to the activities of such 
large scale operators as J. L. Gandy, J. G. Hiatt and A. M. Brenaman is relevant, but is 
much too voluminous to be cited here. 

32. Land agents on frequent occasions mentioned "loans to make final proof" as a 
specialty. The Lane County Herald, Dighton, April 22, 1886, contained two examples. 

33. Allegations to this effect are so numerous in the incoming correspondence of the 
United States district attorney as to make listing impracticable. There is some reason to 
believe that "Homesteaders' Unions" and "Old Settlers' Protective Associations" were 
devices to protect illegal entrymen. W. C. Perry to E. E. Thomas, special agent of the 
General Land Office at Salina, July 31, 1886, relative to organized intimidation in Scott 
county; Perry to G. M. McElroy of Oberlin, August 27, 1886, concerning a similar organiza- 
tion in Cheyenne county; E. R. Cutler, Meade Center, to W. C. Perry, December 20, 1886, 
asking for help against mob violence in Meade county; J. Word Carson, Wakeeney, to 
Perry, November 22, 1887, calling attention to the situation in Greeley county; Charles P. 
Dunaway, Stockton^ January 2, 1888, to Perry asking him to investigate the activities 
of the Homesteader's Union in Rooks county. The Hoover case in western Ness county 
and the Widow Edsall case in Sherman county produced a voluminous correspondence 
with the district attorney's office during the spring and early summer of 1888. 

34. The Eye, Oberlin, September 18, and November 20, 1884, referring to the activi- 
ties of A. J. Cortell. The Cortell-Zimmermann contest case attracted a great deal of atten- 
tion m Ioo7-188o. 

35. The Lincoln (Neb.) Journal quoted in the Oberlin Eye, January 28, 1886, describ- 
ing the activities of the firm of Wilson, Tacha and Parker. S. F. McKinney wrote to 
W. C. Perry from Salina on April 7, 1887, "I . . . am a poor man & have a family 
to support & look after and I have got very poor health also & I have been swindled out of 
my land & home just by such law pettifoggers & western swindle schemers as this Robert 
W. Carter & J. W. Brooks & many others in Ellsworth that stand ready to gobble up a 
poor mans hard earned property & lie him out of it." W. Jones to Perry from Conway 
Springs, April 30, 1888. 


landoffice by placing beds and cots in front of the door for his 
"rustlers" to sleep on so that they could anticipate even the early 
rising settlers in making and shifting relinquishments, entries and 
contests. 36 In many cases they were the publishers or editors of the 
local newspapers and in some they were intimately familiar with 
local land office procedures either through previous experience or 
current connections. 37 The notion that a settler reached the frontier 
and "gazing upon almost endless stretches of rich agricultural land" 
made his selection does not fit the facts. More often than not he lo- 
cated his claim under the watchful eye of a land locator who may 
have located some other person on the same tract at an earlier 
date. 38 

The activities of land agents and attorneys received special at- 
tention from Commissioner W. A. J. Sparks in several of his annual 
reports 39 and in the day-to-day correspondence of his office. His 
determination to eliminate those who were engaging in dishonest 
practices is indicated in a number of letters written to law firms in 
Kansas towns. In November, 1885, W. A. Frush, of Garden City, 
was debarred from practice before any bureau of the Department 
of the Interior for failing to give a satisfactory explanation of a 
charge that he had forged the signature of an entryman in con- 
nection with the relinquishment of a timber culture entry. 40 During 
the same month Sparks was extremely critical of a circular issued 
by Milton Brown, also of Garden City, advising union veterans of 

36. "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1886, in Report of the 
Secretary of the Interior, House Ex. Doc. No. 1 (serial no. 2,468), 49 Cong., 2 Sess. 
(1886-1887), v. 2, p. 86. 

37. C. J. Lamb, editor of the Kirwin Independent, advertised real estate for sale in 
the issue for February 3, 1887; R. H. Ballinger, editor of the Larned Chronoscope and 
Henry Booth, receiver of the land office in Larned were partners in a real estate firm; 
Ed Martin, a loan agent in Oberlin had served as a clerk in the land office at Kirwin ac- 
cording to the Kirwin Independent, March 31, 1887. William Don Carlos of Kirwin began 
his career as chief clerk in the Kickapoo land office; his son, the junior partner in the 
firm, had been a clerk in the General Land Office in Washington, D. C. Ibid., March 10, 
1887. H. A. Yonge who became register of the land office at Kirwin in March, 1887, had 
been editor of the Beloit Democrat and a member of the firm of Yonge and Scott; Tully 
Scott had been appointed register of the Oberlin office at an earlier date. Ibid., March 31, 
1887. W. J. A. Montgomery, editor of the Stockton Democrat on March 26, 1886, ran 
the following advertisement: "Say If you want a good claim that you can put a pre- 
emption, homestead or timber entry on, call at this office. If you want to make your home 
here, buy a claim and lay your homestead or timber entry on it and save from 7 to 13 
years' taxes." The following land office officials were accused of having had illegal if not 
corrupt dealings with land firms: Tully Scott, Oberlin, Oberlin Eye, March 8, 1888; C. A. 
Morris, Larned, Larned Weekly Chronoscope, November 25, 1887; B. J. F. Hanna, and 
W. C. L. Beard, Wakeeney, Lane County Herald, August 25, and September 1, 1887. 

38. The firm of Borton and Spidle of Ness City advertised in the Lane County Herald, 
July 17, 1885, "Will locate you. Win a contest for you. Make out your final proof. 
Make out filing papers for you. Sell you horses and cattle. Furnish you money to pay 
out on your claims. Make a soldier's filing for you, if you cannot come in person, and 
win law-suits for you." One partner was a lawyer, the other a locator. 

39. The "Report for 1887" is typical. It is contained in Report of the Secretary of the 
Interior, House Ex. Doc., No. 1 (serial no. 2,541) 50 Cong., 1 Sess. (1887-1888), v. 1, 
pp. 134-136. 

40. Sparks to Frush, August 18, September 3, and November 21, 1885 "General 
Land Office Correspondence," A, Miscellaneous, pp. 233, 234, 272 and 449, in the National 


the Civil War that they were entitled to 160 acres of government 
land which they could obtain "without residence on the land" and 
informing them that the filing and locating could be accomplished 
"without their leaving their eastern homes." In his first letter to 
Brown, Commissioner Sparks asserted that "these statements are 
false and misleading and . . . can be regarded only as at- 
tempts to defraud either the soldier or the government or both/* 
In his second letter Sparks declared that the "statements in said 
circulars are unwarranted by any provision of the laws and are 
calculated to encourage and induce frauds upon the government in 
the procurement and promotion of illegal entries and claims. 41 In 
a letter to a third Garden City firm Sparks commented that their 
circular was a palpable invitation to fraud and that its apparent 
purpose was "to deceive soldiers, impose upon their widows and 
orphaned children and promote frauds on the government." Critical 
reference was made to their requirement of the soldier's discharge 
papers, a power of attorney and a fee of ten dollars. 42 In other 
letters Sparks asked one firm to explain charges that it had accepted 
a fee for filing a contest and then had dismissed the case without 
notice to its client; 43 and another one to explain why it had filed a 
contest, dismissed it without notice to its client, and then filed a 
fictitious contest against the client's entry. 44 

It should be apparent that the entryman's problem of adjustment 
to his new environment began with his first encounter with the local 
land officers and with those residents of the community who sought 
to exploit his ignorance for their own profit. It should be added 
that some entrymen had the benefit of honest and capable legal 
advisers when they became entangled in administrative regulations. 
The firm of William Don Carlos and Son, of Kirwin, was held in 
high esteem. The editor of The Independent, Kirwin, a critic of 
almost every other aspect of land office administration, stated that 
this firm was composed of "competent, energetic men, always wide 
awake and attentive to the interests of their clients. ... In the 
twelve or thirteen years that this firm has been doing business here 

41. Sparks to Brown, November 4, and December 12, 1885. Ibid., pp. 411, 412 
and 486. 

42. Sparks to Bennett and Smith of Garden City, December 23, 1885. Ibid., pp. 
12, 13. 

43. Sparks to Kimball and Reeves, Garden City, August 10, 1886. Ibid., 499, 500. 

44. Sparks to Morris and Morris, Larned, November 17, 1885. Ibid., p. 435. A sum- 
mary of the practices of the Garden City firms is contained in the "Report of the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office," 1886, loc. cit., pp. 85, 86. Larned Weekly Chrono- 
scope, November 25, 1887. An earlier instance is described in a letter of Secretary of the 
Interior Henry Teller to Commissioner N. C. McFarland, September 26, 1883, in Decisions 
of the Department of the Interior Relating to the Public Lands, v. 2, pp. 58-62. 


we have never heard them charged with unfair practice, or wrongful 
action toward their clients. " 45 

One phase of the operation of the land laws that was particularly 
productive of friction, insecurity and uncertainty was the invitation 
extended to all comers to contest the entry of any settler upon the 
public domain. 46 Entries were subject to contest at any time; and, 
if they escaped contest prior to the time that the entryman was 
required to make his final proof, the published notices, six of which 
were required in pre-emption and commuted homestead entries, 
were almost sure to produce a contest. There is some reason to 
believe that timber culture entries were particularly vulnerable to 
contest. 47 The possibility of encountering a contest must have 
operated as frequently to discourage improvement and cultivation 
as it did to encourage complete compliance. 48 In effect every tran- 
sient in a community and every person who had not exhausted his 
rights under the land laws was asked to keep his eye on the entry- 
man and advertise alleged noncompliance by filing a contest. In a 
sense the right to contest placed a premium upon snooping and 
exalted the role of the talebearer. When witnesses in the proof- 
taking process were asked questions concerning smoke from the 
chimney, chickens around the shack, lights in the windows and the 
exact diameter of trees, it seems clear that the land officials expected 
that neighbors in a community would see each other as actual or 
at least potential defrauders and therefore scrutinize even routine 
activities with the vigilance and zeal of a secret police agent. As 
commissioner of the General Land Office, W., A. J. Sparks intro- 
duced elaborate and detailed forms for the presentation of proof. 
The new procedures received some support in the newspapers of 
western Kansas, 49 but the preponderance of comment was in opposi- 

45. March 10, 1887. 

46. The Ness City Times reported a statement of the county attorney that three-fourths 
of the contestable claims in the county were already under contest and that in a few more 
weeks timber claims would be obtainable only by purchase. Reprinted in the Lane County 
Herald, May 1, 1885, together with an invitation to entrymen to come to Lane county for 
homesteads and timber claims. About six months later, October 29, 1885, the Herald reported 
that timber claims were becoming scarce in Lane county. The Rooks County Record, 
Stockton, April 29, 1887, in condemning the frequency of contests said, "There are few 
of the farmers in Rooks county whose titles are not open to attack on some petty techni- 

47. O. F. Searl, receiver of the land office in Salina, in discussing the contest case of 
Russell C. Harris vs. Anderson Stoops with W. C. Perry on June 21, 1887, stated the usual 
grounds for contesting timber claims as failure to plant and cultivate trees and the entering 
of land not naturally devoid of timber. Nearly three out of the eight pages of the Lane 
County Herald, October 15, 1885, were devoted to land notices which were for the most 
part announcements of contests against timber culture entries. 

48. The uncertainty involved in obtaining a final patent under the homestead, pre- 
emption and timber culture acts was emphasized in a letter written by George Cotton of 
La Crosse to W. C. Perry, July 29, 1887. 

49. Rooks County Democrat, Stockton, January 13, 1887. 


tion to them. The following critical comment appeared in the col- 
umns of the Rooks County Record: 

A government is in a big business when it tries to find out what kind of a 
crib the baby sleeps in, whether the farmer and his wife recline on wire-woven 
springs or ante-diluvian bed cords, or whether the woman of the house bakes 
her beans in a stone jar or brass kettle. Sparks is a thousand times more par- 
ticular about a homesteader's exact compliance with each infinitessimal iota of 
the law than he is with a railroad grant or the stock ranch of an English syndi- 
cate. Yet that is the general style of this great business administration, which 
constantly strains at gnats and swallows dromedaries by the caravan. After 
1888 there will be a new deal and a more just equation of the peoples' rights. 50 

The editor of the Kirwin Independent expressed his views in an edi- 
torial entitled "Tom Foolery." It was a mixture of general criticism 
of the Sparks policies and specific objection to the high costs of mak- 
ing proof that resulted: 

Commissioner Sparks of the General Land office is a beautiful beast, a red 
tape dude, a go-off-half-cocked sort of a man. When he assumed the duties 
of his office he also assumed that the people of the west were perjurers, 
swindlers and fugitives from justice at large in a Garden of Eden. . . . 

It wouldn't be quite so bad if all of this tomfoolery didn't have to be paid 
for out of the homesteaders pocket, but this arrant nonsense costs men who, 
as a class are poor, several extra dollars, in counties where, as a rule, dollars 
are scarce. Take this in connection with the swindle requiring claimants to 
advertise their lands, an act passed to benefit newspaper men, and the home- 
steader who has to shell out here and there to obstructionists along the road 
to a final proof, is not apt to entertain a very high opinion of the simplicity of 
a democratic form of government. 

As to Sparks we believe that he is honest, but he is the biggest old nuisance 
that ever a pioneer community had to depend upon for titles to well earned 
land. 51 

Just as contemporary reaction to Commissioner Sparks ranged 
from one extreme to the other so the contemporary evaluations of 
the contest process varied a great deal. Commissioner Sparks and 
those who supported his policies seemed to assume that a contested 
entry involved deliberate fraud either on the part of the contestee 
or the contestant, whereas his critics tended to look upon the right 
of contest as an almost automatic inhibitant to fraud. At no point 
does the doctrine of simple causation or broad generalization with 

50. November 26, 1886. 

51. January 6, 1887. The editor elaborated one aspect of his views in the issue for 
January 20, when he remarked: "Since Sparks became commissioner of the general land 
office he has so ruled and managed the business of the office as to make all the land 
fraudulently proved up on, cost honest settlers not less than $25 per acre. He suspicions 
dishonesty and so plans that those who are honest shall pay fifteen to twenty-five dollars 
costs in making a proof that ought to cost not over five or six dollars." It should be 
noted in passing that^the editor has suggested the answer to those who insist that home- 
stead land was "free" land, a subsidy from the federal government to the agricultural 
interests of the nation. 


respect to the administration of the land laws break down so com- 
pletely. Contests were initiated for almost every conceivable rea- 
son. Some were the results of poor advice given by land agents 
and professional locators; 52 others were encouraged by local land 
office men because the fees in such cases constituted a large por- 
tion of their remuneration; 53 and still others were deliberate at- 
tempts to secure desirable tracts of land. 54 There were friendly 
contests to conceal a fraudulent entry until the relinquishment 
could be sold to an innocent third party. 55 There were collusive 
contests initiated by friends or relatives to bar a legitimate contest 
or to "smuggle" a tract of land, that is, keep it from being legally 
entered until a son reached his majority or a friend could enter it. 56 
The most vicious contests were outright cases of blackmail and were 
accompanied by violence or threats of violence. 57 They were com- 
menced by professional claim jumpers to force a legal entryman to 
fight a contest or pay the contestant to withdraw his suit. 58 Fre- 

52. W. J. Calvin to the editor of the Larned Chronoscope, February 19, 1886; Thomas 
J. Richardson, special agent of the General Land Office, Wichita, to W. C. Perry, January 
4, 1887; E. Sample, Medicine Lodge, to Perry, October 16, 1887; B. W. Dysart, Ansonia, 
Ohio, to Perry, October 15, 1888. 

53. "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1885, loc. cit., p. 42. 

54. Mrs. M. E. Warner, Oxford, wrote several letters to J. R. Hallowell urging him 
to continue the legal sifting of claims in Pratt county and the canceling of fraudulent 
entries so that she might be able to secure one of the canceled entries. Her letter of July 8, 

1885, is particularly relevant. C. O. Erwin, Harper, wrote to W. C. Perry on April 11, 

1886, accusing several men of making fraudulent proof, asking to be informed of the best 
method of procedure in securing one of the claims, and offering Perry a $100 fee for 
securing one of the claims for him; M. B. Bailey, Wichita, to Perry, January 12, 1889; 
Larned Weekly Chronoscope, September 30, 1887. 

55. "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1886, loc, cit., pp. 85, 
86; ibid., for 1887, pp. 149, 150; D. H. Henkel, U. S. circuit court commissioner at Wa- 
keeney, to W. C. Perry, January 25, 1888. 

56. There are several cases described in the Decisions of the Department of the Interior 
Relating to the Public Lands. Some examples are: R. W. Satterlee vs. C. F. Dibble, v. 
2, pp. 307, 308, in which the original Dibble entry was contested by three different rela- 
tives; A. Moses vs. J. B. Brown, v. 2, pp. 259, 260, wherein the right to contest was 
denied to S. H. Brown, a relative of the plaintiff; and Caroline E. Critchfield vs. W. M. 
Pierson, v. 1, pp. 421, 422, which involved a divorce on the grounds of adultery in order 
to qualify Mrs. Critchfield as a contestee. Charles Fickheisen, Buffalo Park, to W. C. 
Perry, April 29, and May 16, 1886; M. B. Bailey, Wichita, to Perry, January 12, 1889. 

57. E. C. Cole, U. S. commissioner at Larned, to W. C. Perry, April 15, 1887; Rooks 
County Record, May 20, 1887. The Eye, Oberlin, January 19, 1888, reprinted the fol- 
lowing comment from the Atchison Champion: "For a number of years past persons in 
the western third of Kansas who have in good faith, entered land as timber claims, have 
been annoyed and harassed by a class of irresponsible and mischievous vagabonds who 
have made it a business to go prowling around to find a few bushes and saplings on timber 
claim entries as a basis of contest, making these few scattering trees an excuse for annoying 
and expensive litigation, instituted solely for the purpose of blackmail." On April 9 1889 
W. C. Perry wrote to J. M. Barrett, register of deeds at Canton, concerning an unsigned 
letter accusing B. A. Dupree and Joe Smalley of instituting contests and then offering to 
drop them for $250. An unsigned letter to Perry dated April 11, 1889, quoted the follow- 
ing from a telegram from F. G. White of McPherson, "R. A. Deupree and Jack Smalley 
are m the business of Swearing out contest papers for the purpose of Black Male fsicl and 
then compel parties to By [sic] them off. . . ." 

58. W. J. Crumpton in a letter to the Larned Chronoscope, February 19, 1886 em- 
phasized the blackmail aspect of many contest cases, but more importantly called atten- 
tion to the fact that the effect of the contest procedure was to compel the entryman to pay 
far more than the market value for a tract which the law intended him to have in return 
for cultivation and improvement. Crumpton stated explicitly what most later historians 
have not understood, namely that land was not free for the taking; administrative pro- 
cedures among other factors nullified the law and defeated the avowed intent of those 


quently the process was repeated by a whole series of contestants 
until either the settler had to pay out more money in fighting con- 
tests than the land was worth or give up his entry. 59 The quest 
for personal revenge was a fruitful source of contests. 60 A com- 
munity quarrel, a jilting by a boy friend, 61 a real or imagined loss in 
a business deal, a political controversy, all of these and many more 
excuses of similar character were involved in the initiation of con- 
test cases. 62 The persistent habits of some pioneers of telling tales, 
informing on neighbors, writing letters, venting prejudices and going 

who drafted it. J. A. Nelson of Buffalo Park, on May 20, 1886, wrote Perry a detailed 
description of his experiences with the professional claim jumper. In his case the original 
price for being left alone was $250; this was reduced to $200 and later to $87. He 
refused all offers to compromise and made a successful defense. Wm. Don Carlos, of 
Kirwin, in writing to Perry on May 28, 1887, concerning a perjury case that had developed 
out of a contest affidavit, asserted that it was founded upon spite and was brought for the 
purpose of scaring some money out of the defendants. He continued, "This class of cases, 
is becoming frequent, and in my mind are generally brought, or instigated, for the purpose 
of making money out of a compromise, by certain Attys, and witness fees, and mileage 
by other impecunious parties." James P. Bums of Oberlin, wrote to Perry on February 3, 
1888, "Now there is lots of this contesting going on for the mere purpose of extracting 
money out of parties holding claims, or for the mere purpose of annoyance." Frequent 
reference is made to the professional claim jumpers in the contemporary discussion of 
homesteaders' protective associations. In this connection The Eye, Oberlin, on December 
29, 1887, reprinted the following from the Atchison Champion: "Next to prairie dogs, 
jack rabbits and coyotes, one of the worst pests of a new country ... is the 'claim 
jumper,' the party who prowls around like a wolf to hunt up opportunities to dispossess 
some honest and well meaning settler. . . ." 

59. In a letter to J. R. Hallowell on October 6, 1884, M. B. Jones of Corwin, esti- 
mated the cost of prosecuting a contest against an entry at $200. In a letter on December 
26, 1885, to W. C. Perry, Y. R. Archer estimated the cost of defending against a contest 
at $100 to $1,000. The Rooks County Record, May 20, 1887, placed the cost of defend- 
ing at $50 to $200. M. F. Dean, Sappaton, told Perry on January 16, 1888, that one of 
his neighbors had been forced to defend his claim against four contests. 

60. L. D. Seward, St. Louis, to J. R. Hallowell, September 5, 1881; J. P. Campbell, 
Harper, to Hallowell, March 20, 1882. The Zickefoose-Shuler contest case in the Wa- 
keeney land office seems to have originated in a desire by Zickefoose for revenge. W. H. 
Pilkenton, receiver of the Wakeeney office to W. C. Perry, April 7, 1885. Wm. Lescher, 
Lawrence, wrote Perry on February 12, 1886, alleging "malicious meanness" as the cause 
of the sequence of contests against his entry in the Oberlin land district. W. T. S. May, 
Kirwin, to Perry, June 5, 1886. Ira T. Hodson, Burr Oak, to Perry, June 9, 1886. W. C. 
Perry, to John McDonald, Dun Station, November 11, 1886. George Cotton, La Crosse, 
to Perry, July 29, 1887. W. C. Perry to Clark S. Rowe, special agent of the General Land 
Office at Larned, December 14, 1887. J. P. Burns, Oberlin, to Perry, February 3, 1888. 
Frank Thanhouser, Garden City, to Perry, August 10, 1888. R. M. Wright, Dodge City, 
to Perry, September 22, 1888. W. C. Perry to E. E. Thomas, special agent of the General 
Land Office, Salina, November 28, 1888. 

61. Such an instance is described in a letter by W. C. Perry to J. G. Allard, special agent 
of the General Land Office at Oberlin, September 20, 1888. Perry's remarks, based on an 
affidavit made by Dolly Hayes, contained the following: "In the first place Dolly having 
kept with the young man for three years and that beautiful and heavenly relation now 
having ceased, is undoubtedly angry with Alvin, and if he is keeping company with some 
other young lady, is also undoubtedly suffering from a severe attack of the green-eyed 

62. W. M. Skinner, Gaylord, in letters to J. R. Hallowell, July 14 and 15, 1882, 
recited a particularly long tale of woe concerning contests growing out of personal quarrels 
and political differences. Hallowell had received letters from H. C. Sunderland, Gaylord, 
on February 13, 1880, and from G. W. Hodson, Gaylord, of March 22, 1880, relative 
to the Skinner case and had written to the commissioner of the General Land Office on 
February 24, 1880, describing the case as a neighborhood quarrel. Tully Scott, receiver, 
Oberlin land office, to W. C. Perry, October 27, 1885, describing the Wheelock-Cass con- 
test as a "neighborhood fight." C. H. Barlow, Kansas Banking Company, Goodland, in a 
letter to Perry on April 12, 1888, said that the man who had contested his claim "is owing 
this Bank of which I am a member and he came around and hinted as though he would 
release the contest if I would cancel his note and informed me that we did not treat him 
right last fall in some of our deal is why he contested it." J. G. Lowe, Washington to 
Perry, October 10, 1886. 


to law probably confused the federal land officials as completely as 
they do the historians of today. 63 

Probably there was as much informality with respect to the resi- 
dence requirements as toward any other feature of the operation of 
the federal land laws. Again, as far as the evolving community 
was concerned, the immediate effect of such informality was to con- 
tribute to instability and impermanence. It was regular practice 
for the business and professional men in the towns to enter a tract 
of land, go through the motions of compliance by eating a meal 
sometimes cooked in a hotel and carried to the claim or by sleeping 
on the land at infrequent intervals, and then make final proof before 
the local land office. 64 Sen. Preston B. Plumb stated in the senate 
that these practices were considered normal and legal in the parts 
of Kansas with which he was familiar. While defending the settlers 
in Kansas against charges of fraud he described the contemporary 
attitudes and practices in the following words: 

A man goes out from the East; he is a tinner, a shoemaker, a blacksmith, 
a wagon-maker, or a tradesman of some kind. He goes West for the purpose 
of getting a home, and in the mean time he must live. He goes into the near- 
est town, follows his calling, and takes a quarter-section of land outside, lives 
upon it between times, so to speak, having his domicile part of the time perhaps 
in the town and part of the time on his claim, and at the end of six months he 
proves up on it. Perhaps the intent and the act do not fully combine, and yet 
the intent is as good as that of any man ever was to make that place his home, 
and to all intents and purposes it is his home. ... It may be called in 
law a fraudulent entry, and yet so far as the essential elements of fraud are 
concerned they are entirely lacking." 65 

At almost exactly the time that Senator Plumb was placing a 

63. The letters of J. B. Tillinghast, Myrtle, to W. C. Perry, illustrate this point. See 
the one written on April 16, 1888; A. C. Mende, another resident of the same community, 
wrote an extraordinarily gossipy letter to Perry on July 15, 1888. Letters written by 
Mrs. M. E. Warner, Oxford, to J. R. Hallowell on January 19, February 13, and March 26, 
1885, are in the same category. In many respects the brochure-length letter written by 
I. V. Knotts of Schoharie on July 5, 1886, to W. C. Perry, is the most fantastic of them all. 

64. Decisions of the Department of the Interior Relating to the Public Lands, v. 1, pp. 
77, 78. The document referred to is a letter of Secretary of the Interior Henry Teller to 
the commissioner of the General Land Office, N. C. McFarland, dated October 2, 1882, and 
concerned with the contest case of W. P. Peters vs. George Spaulding. Report of William 
Y. Drew, special agent of the land office at Wichita, dated November 26, 1884, and con- 
tained in the "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1885, loc. cit., pp. 
206, 207. Report of Walter W. Cleary, special agent of the land office at Garden City 
included in "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1887, loc. cit,, pp. 
149, 150. Lamed Chronoscope, March 11, 1887. 

65. Congressional Record, 49 Cong., 1 Sess. (1885-1886), pt. 6, p. 6,073. In the 
course of the debate Plumb implied that the zeal with which Commissioner W. A. J. Sparks 
was enforcing the land laws in the West and Northwest was rooted in partisan considera- 
tions. "Is it not a little singular that the individual whose duty it is to scan the horizon 
should be afflicted with such a political, geographical, isothermal strabismus that he has 
never allowed his eagle eye to cover anything south of Mason and Dixon's line, but has 
kept it as steady as the needle to the pole on the West and Northwest?" Ibid., p. 6,075. 
A week earlier Plumb had described his own experience at pre-empting a quarter section 
of land, remarking in one place, "I have no doubt that I committed a fraud upon the law; 
. . . the claim was my home though I was printing a newspaper in a hamlet a mile 
away." Ibid., Appendix, p. 426. 


"loose" construction upon the residence requirement in pre-emption 
entries, Commissioner Sparks was defining his views in response to 
a series of questions directed to him by a resident of Kansas. In 
answer to the question, "Can a married man pre-empt or homestead 
a claim and prove up without his family?", Sparks replied, "The 
home contemplated is the home of the family. It is inconceivable 
that a homestead entry is made in good faith when the permanent 
home of the family is elsewhere. The pre-emptor is also expected to 
make his home on the land." In reply to the question, 'What con- 
stitutes six months residence?", the commissioner replied briefly 
but specifically, "The actual living on the land for the period of six 
months." GG The local newspapers took the practices described by 
Senator Plumb for granted and reported individual instances as 
news: railroad employees were visiting their claims; school teach- 
ers, merchants, and artisans were spending short visits on their 
homestead or pre-emption entries; entrymen were returning to their 
claims after a prolonged absence during the winter months. 67 One 
entryman who was a member of a banking firm that operated bank- 
ing houses in Goodland, and Burlington, Colo., complained bitterly 
to the federal district attorney when his claim was contested. 68 An- 
other banker in Sherman county in discussing compliance with 
residence requirements and in response to a question concerning 
what he raised on his claim remarked, "Last year I raised riell and 
watermelons/ This year it is too dry to raise anything; I shall try to 
raise the mortgage next year and skip." 69 Another entryman wrote 
to Sen. John J. Ingalls protesting against the cancellation of his entry 
simply because he left his claim to work in a near-by town from 
Monday morning to Saturday night of each week in order to provide 
food for his family. 70 Still another tried to retain his claim in the 
face of a contest, even though he spent the winter months near Boul- 

66. W. A. J. Sparks to C. T. Connelly, Terry, June 10, 1886, "General Land Office 
Correspondence," A, Miscellaneous, pp. 363, 364. 

67. Kansas Herald, Hiawatha, March 12, 1880; Larned Chronoscope, January 28, 1881; 
Lane County Herald, June 3, July 24, September 11, and September 25, 1885; June 3, 
September 9, September 16, November 11, and December 16, 1886; February 24, and 
December 8, 1887; and June 7, 1888. The Eye, Oberlin, December 11, 1884; September 
10, and November 26, 1885; March 25, and April 1, 1886. Scott County News, Scott 
City, March 19, April 12, May 12, and May 14, 1886. The Oberlin Eye, January 27, 
1887, in commenting on the shooting of a claim jumper said, "a number of persons whose 
claims were contested are working on the railroad for a livelihood and were vexed with 
having contests put on their claims." 

68. Charles H. Barlow, Goodland, to W. C. Perry, March 19, April 12, and August 
7, 1888. 

69. E. E. Blackman, "Sherman county and the H. U. A.," Kansas Historical Collec- 
tions, v. 8 (1903-1904), p. 53. 

70. Bishop W. Perkins, representative in congress from Kansas, quoted from the speech 
by Senator Ingalls during the course of a debate in the house of representatives. 
Congressional Record, 49 Cong., 1 Sess. (1885-1886), pt. 6, p. 6,289. 


der, Colo., working in a mine. 71 Even a United States court com- 
missioner on one occasion closed his office while he undertook to 
fulfill the residence requirement by living on his claim. 72 A dili- 
gent shoemaker left his family on his claim while he maintained his 
shop and residence in Dighton during the entire period that he was 
supposed to be in residence on his claim. 73 After the Fort Dodge 
military reservation was opened to settlement 75 filings were made 
on land within its limits. Of these, 18 were made by gamblers, 
saloon-keepers, bartenders and sporting women engaged in business 
or plying their trade in Dodge City; four were made by widows 
living in town; six were made by railroad employees and five were 
unknown. Only eight or ten were made by actual settlers. 74 One 
entryman on trial for perjury in connection with his attempt to prove 
up replied to the question concerning continuous residence in the 
language of a college freshmen, "Yes, except when temporarily 
absent." 75 Another one of Teutonic ancestry, extremely anxious 
to secure some choice land adjacent to his own claims and unable 
to comply with the residence requirement, left the following note 
on the back of a township plat: 

Dere Misses : Know your name as you hat Bad Lugg in your man and 

lost him I tell you I am for sale I am a widderwor and after Land and 
woman and home I have som land Now how would this sude you, you gitt 
a devores and a home state & timber clame and I have some land now and 
I gitt a home state and timber clame and we can have lots of land Com and 
see me in Rume No 1 or rite. 76 

Beyond the physical facts of unimproved land and undeveloped 
claims the effects upon community spirit of such activities as have 
been described, together with the accompanying absentee owner- 
ship and control, must have been important. Certainly it was dis- 
couraging to newcomers to discover that the land near town, al- 
though apparently unoccupied was in the hands of nonresident 

71. James Baird writing from Longford, Colo., to W. C. Perry, January 15, 1888. 

72. W. T. S. May, Kirwin, to W. C. Perry, November 25, 1886. 

73. Lane County Herald, December 8, 1887. Actually the news item revealed the 
fact that the entryman was proving up on his second claim. The Herald for June 3, 1886, 
reported that a carpenter who was working in Dighton was surprised while paying a visit 
to his claim to discover that he had become the father of twins, the first set to be born 
in Lane county. 

74. "Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office," 1886, loc. cit., p. 96. 

75. Letter from the commissioner of the General Land Office to J. R. Hallowell, March 
3, 1880. 

76. Oberlin Eye, August 12, 1886. It should be suggested that the plan would have 
been perfectly legal. On August 11, 1879, the commissioner of the General Land Office 
wrote to Hughes and Corse of Larned that if a man and woman having adjacent home- 
stead entries should marry they could fulfill the residence requirement by living in a house 
on the dividing line between the two claims. "Report of the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office," 1880, in Report of the Secretary of the Interior, House Ex. Doc. No. 1 
(serial no. 1,959), 46 Cong., 3 Sess. (1880-1881), p. 484. 



entrymen. 77 One homesteader who had to walk a good many 
miles to a small town remarked in a letter that the only thing wrong 
with the town was that everyone in it had land for sale. 78 

The problems arising out of contests and the evasion of residence 
requirements led to the formation of various types of protective 
associations. In many respects they were the direct descendants 
of the claim associations of an earlier period. There were all kinds 
of protective associations. Some were organized by entrymen who 
were residing on their claims for the purpose of protecting them- 
selves against chronic contestants and professional claim jumpers. 79 
Others, although masquerading under such names as "Old Settlers' 
Association" or "Homesteaders' Union," were composed of residents 
of towns and villages who had never settled on their claims and did 
not propose to do so. 80 Their objective was to maintain their entries 
by intimidation if need be until final proof could be made or a 
relinquishment sold. 81 Whatever might have been their purpose 
or form of organization, these protective associations introduced a 
disruptive influence into the early development of some communi- 
ties. 82 The incoming correspondence of the federal district attor- 
ney's office was burdened with letters describing incidents of intimi- 
dation and violence to which entrymen had been subjected. 83 It 

77. The complaint of T. B. Hatcher, Grenola, addressed to W. C. Perry on September 
25, 1886, with reference to the activities of J. G. Hiatt is reasonably typical: "The masses 
here want to see the land grabbers punished for we know to what extent it is practiced 
and detrimental to the settling of the country. West and north of us the people have no 
direct roads to town but have to go 5 & 10 miles around and have no schools on account 
of the large tracts that are fenced." 

78. John Ise, editor, Sod-House Days: Letters From a Kansas Homesteader, 1877-1878 
(New York, 1937), p. 153. These letters written by Howard Ruede of Osborne county 
contain a great deal of information on matters pertaining to entering claims, proving up, 
residence requirements and the like. 

79. The Larned Chronoscope alleged that this was the motive behind the formation 
of an Old Settlers' League near Larned. See the issues for March 12, March 19, May 14, 
and May 21, 1886. W. J. Calvin in a letter to the Chronoscope which appeared in the 
issue for February 19, 1886, suggested a protective league as the answer to the epidemic 
of contests that had broken out. He attributed the frequency of contesting to the Sparks' 
policies. The Chronoscope echoed this point of view in the issue for May 14, 1886. 

80. The character of the Rooks County Homesteader's Union was argued in the columns 
of the Rooks County Record and the Rooks County Democrat during the spring and summer 
of 1887. The issues of the Record for April 29, May 6, 20, and 27, September 2, 9, 16, 
and 23, and of the Democrat for May 17 and August 23, contain particularly relevant 
information. The varied activities of one organization are described in Blackman, loc. cit., 
pp. 50-62. 

81. E. R. Cutler, Meade Center, in a letter written to the United States district attorney 
for the Garden City land office on December 20, 1886, and forwarded to W. C. Perry, de- 
scribed a typical instance. In a letter to Walter W. Cleary, special agent for the General 
Land Office at Garden City, on February 23, 1887, Perry described the type of evidence 
that would be necessary for the successful prosecution of the individuals accused by Cutler. 

82. The Stockton Democrat on May 21, 1886, used the phrase "guerilla warfare" to 
describe the friction between rival settlers in northwest Kansas. It was stated that five 
persons had been killed, that the sheriff had refused to act, and that an appeal for 
assistance had been sent to the governor. 

83. Charles L. Chittenden, Nickerson, to W. C. Perry, January 28, 1886- John W 
McDonald, Dun Station, to Perry, November 7, 1886; J. W. Carson, Wakeeney, to Perry ^ 
November 22, 1887; Charles P. Dunaway, Stockton, to Perry, January 2 1888- Blanche 

FS 61 "^ 6 ^ 116 ' t0 Perry ' November 21- 1887; C. B. Dakin Colb, to Perry' May 2 
INKS >IAWMAV>J *^ e Edsall case and *-'-- - * - - " 


should be noted in this connection that the federal laws did not af- 
ford any protection against the threats or acts of an individual. It 
was only when two or more persons conspired to deprive an entry- 
man of his rights under the federal land law that a prosecution by 
federal officials could be undertaken. 84 It should be clear that it 
was in precisely such instances that the entryman was outnumbered 
by the parties whom he was accusing. As a result the federal dis- 
trict attorneys were never optimistic concerning the likelihood of 
securing convictions. Vigilante activities, with all of the disturbing 
features that usually accompany them, seem to have been a char- 
acteristic feature of the instances of overt or threatened violence 
that plagued entrymen in some new communities. 85 

It has been pointed out by many writers that the federal land laws 
were not well adapted to the Great Plains environment. It has also 
been pointed out in connection with the homestead act that it "would 
have worked badly on any frontier" because of the incompatibility 
of the five-year residence requirement with the frontier tendency 
toward mobility. 86 It may be suggested that it was not only the 
land laws that were unadapted to the Great Plains, but the rules 
and regulations with which they were surrounded the administra- 
tive procedures as well as the laws. It may be remarked further 
that the tendency toward rapid turnover among early settlers was 
stimulated rather than checked or restrained by the operation of the 
federal land laws. The technical and involved rules of procedure, 
the invitation to contest, and the absence of any effective method 
of dealing with violations of the laws contributed to the atmosphere 
of uncertainty and insecurity that surrounded western Kansas com- 
munities during their early and formative years. 

84. W. C. Perry to G. E. Rees, Scott City, January 14, 1888; Perry to C. B. Dakin, 
Colby, May 7, 1888; Perry to Thomas J. Richardson, Wichita, May 26, 1888. In the last 
letter Perry quoted section 5508 of the federal statutes, "if two or more persons conspire 
to injure, oppress, threaten or intimidate any citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of 
any right or privilege secured to him by the constitution or laws of the United States, 
or because of his having exercised the same, he shall be punished. . . ." 

85. G. E. Rees, Scott City, to W. C. Perry, January 6, 1888, alleging that a vigilante 
committee was trying to intimidate legal entrymen in Scott county is a case in point. 

v ??'-* J i m : eS C ' . M in ,' " Mobilitv ^d History: Reflections on the Agricultural Policies of 
October 181* " On tO a Mechanized World," Agricultural History, v. 17 (1943), 

The Rev. Louis Dumortier, S. J., Itinerant 
Missionary to Central Kansas, 1859-1867 


THE Rev. Louis Dumortier, a colorful frontier personality was 
to be the first to work among the Catholic white settlers to 
the north, south and west of St. Mary's Indian Mission between 
1859 and 1867. His French name proved to be a stumbling block to 
his German and Irish parishioners, to the extent that in the prepara- 
tion of this piece of research it has been found in 16 incorrect ver- 
sions. 1 Therefore, he was usually referred to as "Father Louis." 2 

He was a Frenchman by birth, born near Lille in 1810 at the 
height of the Napoleonic era. In 1839 he entered the Jesuit Order 
in Belgium and began his theological studies there. Soon, however, 
he was sent to the United States where he continued his studies at 
St. Stanislaus Seminary, Florissant, Mo. According to contemporary 
records, he completed his studies with distinction, specializing in 
mathematics, chemistry and theology. 3 

After his ordination to the priesthood, Father Dumortier engaged 
in teaching in various Jesuit colleges at Cincinnati, Bardstown, Ky., 
and St. Louis. His work was successful and he was portrayed as 
"a man of cheerful temper, alert, and witty in conversation and one 
whose companionship was sought by all." 4 However, his health 
was not robust, and for a year he was permitted to return to his 
native France. Upon returning to America he was assigned to St. 
Mary's Indian Mission in Kansas. In the words of his friend and 
contemporary, Father DeSmet, "Providence formed him for the life, 
a wandering but pious one, of the prairies." 5 

SISTER M. EVANGELINE THOMAS, C. S. J., Ph. D., is a member of the department of 
history at Marymount College, Salina. This paper is a revision of the one which was read 
before the Kansas Association of Teachers of History and Related Fields meeting in 
Topeka, April 28, 1951. 

1. The correct spelling is Dumortier as found in his own signature. Incorrect spellings 
are Damortier, Demonte, Dumortur, DeMorte, Demortier, Dumortie, DeMonett, Demontee, 
DeMauritier, Lemarte, Dumortierez, Demotrius, Dumotrius, Lemort and Martyn. To add to 
the confusion the given name was listed as "August" instead of "Louis" in the Catholic direc- 
tories, 1859-1867. 

2. Pierre J. DeSmet, "Biography of the Venerable F. Louis Dumortier, S. J.," MS. in 
the handwriting of DeSmet found in the "Linton Album" at the Jesuit Provincial Archives, 
St. Louis. Photostat in the files of the author. 

3. Gilbert J. Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States (New York, 1938), 
v. 3, p. 39. In connection with his arrival at Florissant, the novitiate diary commented: 
" "There arrived from Belgium eight novices [four Belgians Florian Sautois, Peter Kindekens, 
John Roes and John DeBlieck] ; two Hollanders, Adrian Hoecken and Adrian Van 
Hulst; a Frenchman, Louis Dumortier; and a German, Francis Horstman. They met with 
a hearty welcome, bringing as they did, a new lease of life to our most deserted novitiate. 
So it was with full hearts that we sang the Te Deum.' The travelling expenses of the 
party . . . were borne by the seminaries of Bois-le-Duc and Breda, the former con- 
tributing twenty-four hundred and the latter six thousand francs." Ibid., v. 1, p. 360. 

4. DeSmet, op. cit., p. 111. 

5. Ibid. pp. Ill, 112. 



The Jesuits began their work in Kansas in the early 1840's, 
primarily for the conversion of the Indians. To that purpose 
stations had been established among the Osages and the Potta- 
watomies. When calls were sent to them to minister to the influx 
of white settlers, they lacked personnel to meet the challenge. As 
late as 1864, the Jesuit Mission Board stated in reply to such re- 
quests: "We have no mission on behalf of the whites in Kansas/' 6 
The missionary efforts to the Indians of Kansas, however, had been 
so successful that in 1851 a Vicariate Apostolic was established 
there under John Baptist Miege, S. J. 

Along the California and Pike's Peak trail, St. Mary's was station 
five, and the hospitality of the Jesuits became well-known among the 
immigrants. 7 An excerpt from a contemporary source stated: 

Many a heart in the far West beats warm today for the Fathers at St. Mary's 
. They know what it is to meet a kind and liberal friend in a wild and 
desert place, far from friends and home, without shelter and protection against 
the elements. The settlers in the neighboring counties were liberally assisted 
by St. Mary's. Seeds were furnished, cattle of a superior stock given on 
credit. ... All this exercised a powerful influence on the Northwest and 
prepared a heartfelt welcome for later missionaries. Both Catholics and 
Protestants . . . would watch the coming of the priest on his gray mus- 
tang to invite him to their cheerful hearth and to repay him the kindness 
received in former days at St. Mary's. 8 

A year before the death of Dumortier, Father DeSmet encour- 
aged him to commit to writing experiences and other data which 
would be interesting for posterity. DeSmet had a sense of the his- 
torical value of keeping records seldom found among pioneers. 
Father Dumortier, humble in his accomplishments, was loathe to 
record them on paper. However, he consented and sent the follow- 
ing account to DeSmet: 

You ask me to send you some details of our apostolic labors. I think I can- 
not better satisfy your request than by sending you a little geographical 
sketch which will put you au courant with our Kansas missions. You will see 
from it our successes and our difficulties. The banks of the Kansas and its 
tributaries offer scarcely anything else but forests and virgin soil. A number 
of small missions have now been established. The faithful gather around 
them; here they come with their families to make their permanent residence 
so that even now these missions form so many Catholic centers. The great 
difficulty that even now presents itself is the lack of missionaries. Our labors 
here are beyond the strength of a single individual. The great distance sepa- 

6. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 3, p. 37. 

7. George A. Root and Russell K. Hickman, "Pike's Peak Express Companies," The 
Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 13 (1944), November, pp. 221-226; William E. Smith, 
"The Oregon Trail Through Pottawatomie County," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 17 
(1926-1928), pp. 435-464; Floyd B. Streeter, Prairie Trails and Cow Towns (Boston, 
1936), pp. 15-20. 

8. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 3, p. 38. 


rating the different stations, the heavy snows of winter, the thaws of sprjng- 
time, the river floods, bad roads and the absence of bridges are so many 
handicaps of my journeys. I cannot visit my good Catholics except once every 
five or six weeks. In the course of my ordinary rounds I have succeeded in 
building four little churches of stone . . . each of them costing pretty 
near two thousand dollars. The liberality of our good Catholics who have 
contributed is our only resource, so that, my Reverend Father, I think I may 
recommend myself to the generosity of your acquaintances and benefactors, 
hoping that they who have so often by their liberality shown you the interest 
they take in the Indians of the North will once more stretch out a charitable 
hand to the poor Kansas missions. 9 

The sketch map to which Father Dumortier referred, as well as 
the letter cited above, were sent by DeSmet to Father Terwecoren, 
S. J., in Belgium for publication with the following request: 

Please communicate the contents of this letter to the Superior of the poor 
churches in Brussels. I hope that these ladies who are so zealous in the service 
of the Lord will faithfully fulfill what Rev. Father Dumortier has asked me to 
do. He is a worthy priest who continues to give great service in the mission 
of St. Mary's. I am waiting for a list of the things he needs the most and I 
shall send it to you. Father Dumortier was your co-novice at Trouchiennes. 

P. J. DeSmet, S. J. 

The map is drawn to scale showing the mission stations which 
radiated to the north, south and west of St. Mary's. Just as the field 
notes of Joseph C. Brown of the United States surveying expedition 
of 1825-1827 charted the Santa Fe trail n as so many miles from 
Fort Osage to Taos, so the Dumortier map indicated his circuit as so 
many miles from St. Mary's. And, as the Brown map measured 
distances from one creek to another, so also did that of Dumortier. 
That was the only possible method of calculation and direction in 
those days on the prairie. In addition to the information mentioned, 
the number of Catholics at each mission station was written into the 

The region covered by Father Dumortier in his missionary jour- 
neys included at least 17 present-day counties: Jackson, Pottawa- 
tomie, Marshall, Washington, Nemaha, Riley, Clay, Ottawa, Saline, 
Lincoln, Ellsworth, Dickinson, Davis (now Geary), Lyon, Morris, 
Chase and Wabaunsee. This section lay roughly between St. 
Mary's and Fort Harker, the Verdigris and the Otoe mission. Some 

9. Letter from Dumortier to DeSmet, July 1, 1866. 

10. DeSmet to Terwecoren, an addendum to the above-mentioned letter. The originals 
of letters and maps are still in the Belgian Archives. Photographs are in the Jesuit Provincial 
Archives, St. Louis; photostat of same in files of the writer. 

11. Although the trail had been used for pack animals before 1821, and for wagons 
after 1822, it was only after the survey made by the corps of engineers of the United States 
government under Joseph C. Brown that it became the best recommended trail to Santa Fe. 
William R. Bernard, "Westport and the Santa Fe Trade," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 
(1905-1906), pp. 552-578; William E. Connelley, "The Santa Fe Trail," Kansas and 
Kansans (Chicago, 1918), v. 1, pp. 93-110. 


25 or more small congregations were organized in these counties. 
During the last two years of his ministry he built five stone churches 
and projected plans for a sixth. 12 

The year 1859 was a memorable one in the development of 
Kansas. Gold had been discovered in Colorado the year previously 
and the demand for safe transportation there by the gold-rushing 
throng led to the organization of the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak 
Express, which though short-lived became a forerunner of the But- 
terfield Overland Dispatch through the valleys of the Kaw and 
Smoky Hill during the 1860's. 13 

Several outstanding personages made the overland trip to Denver 
and commented on the stations along the line. Albert Richardson 
had this to say of St. Mary's: 

Passed St. Mary's Catholic Mission a pleasant, homelike group of log-houses, 
and a little frame church, bearing aloft the cross among shade and fruit trees, 
in a picturesque valley. The mission has been in operation twelve years. In 
the school-room we saw sixty Indian boys at their lessons. 14 

This same writer stated that Manhattan was a flourishing Yankee 
city of some two or three hundred people. 15 

Henry Villard in an article printed in the Cincinnati (Ohio) 
Commercial considered Fort Riley the best military post he had 
seen in his travels through the West. 16 

Junction City, station seven on the trail, was regarded as the 
"jumping-off place" on the frontier where travelers for the West 
bade good-bye to most of the remaining amenities of civilization. 17 
As the caravan approached Chapman's Creek, sparcity of settlement 
was noticed. Horace Greeley stated that it was without houses and 
with "two small tents and a brush arbor [to] furnish accommoda- 
tions for six to fifteen persons." He remarked that the station 
keeper's wife had given them an excellent dinner of "bacon and 

12. These stone churches were built at Elbow, Chapman's Creek, Ogden City, Rock 
Creek (present Flush) and Junction City. The latter was finished and ready for occupancy 
at the time of Father Dumortier's death in July, 1867. The church at Solomon City was 
projected and built after that time. 

13. Root and Hickman, loc. cit., pp. 221-226; Bernard, loc. cit. 

14. Albert Richardson, Beyond the Mississippi (Hartford, 1867), p. 160. 

15. Ibid., p. 161. 

16. Richardson also praised this location in Beyond the Mississippi, p. 161. Horace 
Greeley, however, lamented the fact that "two millions of Uncle Sam's money" had been 
used in its improvement. 

17. Junction City was also the frontier post office of Kansas. Richardson, op. cit., 
p. 161. The Junction City Sentinel was the most westernly newspaper establishment in 
Kansas at the time. The first stage coach left there for the West, August 4, 1862. This 
was quite an event in the history of the county as it was the formal opening of the Smoky 
Hill route to Santa Fe. A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansa* 
(Chicago, 1883), p. 1002. The first through mail service to Santa Fe over the Smoky Hill 
route left Junction City, July 2, 1866. It was triweekly. 


greens, good bread, applesauce and pie." 18 Thus, as they pro- 
ceeded toward the West, conditions became more challenging even 
to the organized stage coaches. These challenges must have been 
accentuated when a lone man on horseback pushed on in search of 
scattered families. 

Many of the settlers who had entered Kansas during the territorial 
days of upheaval wanted to move on west. Among them were many 
Catholics who were therefore deprived of religious ministrations. 
Father Louis began to search them out, and, wherever he found 
two or more families, gathering them together, he would improvise 
an altar to celebrate Holy Mass. Then from them he would hear 
of others who had gone on farther and immediately he would under- 
take to locate them and do the same in their regard. This meant that 
the circuit widened with each succeeding trip. 

Father Dumortier's sense of duty made him a typical frontiersman. 
Close to the appointed day he was at his post, having traveled an 
average of 20 or 30 miles daily. Upon reaching a station, instead 
of sending someone else to announce his arrival to the outlying dis- 
trict, he would remount his pony and make the trip himself. 19 

To the north of St. Mary's, Jesuits before the time of Dumortier 
had worked among the Indians and French half-breeds. Along Sol- 
dier creek and on the north bank of the Kaw, the Pottawatomies and 
French-speaking Kansa half-breeds benefited by the erection of a 
chapel at Soldier Creek in 1850. 20 It was a modest structure, 18 by 
20 feet, costing only $106, where Mass was said every Sunday with 
preaching in English, French and Pottawatomie. 21 

Among the prominent Catholics of that region were the Papin 
brothers, Louis and Auguste, enterprising Frenchmen who operated 
a ferry across the Kansas river near present-day Topeka. It was a 
favorite stopping place for the emigrants. While working as ferry- 
man for Papin, a certain Curtis married Helen Papin, the daughter 
of his employer. To that union was born the future vice-president 
of the United States, Charles Curtis. 22 His mother, Helen Papin 
Curtis, member of the Kansa tribe, had received a rudimentary edu- 

18. Horace Greeley, An Overland Journey From New York to San Francisco in the 
Summer of 1859 (New York, 1860), p. 75; Martha B. Caldwell, "When Horace Greeley 
Visited Kansas in 1859," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 9 (1940), May, pp. 132- 
133; "Life on the Plains, 1860-1868," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 16 (1923-1925), 
passim; Streeter, op. cit., pp. 32-34. 

19. DeSmet, op. cit., p. 112. 

20. This chapel was erected by Moise Belmaire. 

21. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 617, 618. 

22. Don C. Seitz, From Kaw Teepee to Capitol: The Life Story of Charles Curtis 
. . . (New York, 1928), pp. 32-34; Connelley, op. cit., p. 160. 


cation at St. Mary's where the Ladies of the Sacred Heart conducted 
a school for girls. 23 
The account of the baptism of Charles Curtis is as follows: 

This fifteenth day of April, 1860, I have solemnly baptized Charles Curtis, 
the legitimate son of William [sic] and Ellen Papin Curtis, born on the twenty- 
fifth [sic] of January, 1860. Sponsors Henry Papin and Suzanne Papin. 
SIGNED: L. Dumortier, S. J. 24 

Another record of 1860 stated that Father Dumortier married Louis 
Papin and Laury McFurson on January I. 25 According to the 
Dumortier map of 1866 there were only 30 communicants at Soldier 
Creek at that time. 26 

Also to the north of St. Mary's in south central Nemaha county, 
was an Irish settlement at Coal Creek. Although there were a few 
white settlers during the territorial days, the greater influx was after 
the admission of Kansas to the Union. In 1863 the first Mass was 
offered in that area, supposedly by Father Dumortier. It was cele- 
brated in the log cabin of Francis Flaherty located on the county 
line east of Coal Creek. Later, Mass was celebrated at the Huey 
O'Donnell home until a more organized congregation was estab- 
lished. 27 There were also two stations on the Black Vermillion, one, 
30 miles from St. Mary's with about 120 in attendance, and the 
other 40 miles away with 39 parishioners. 28 

To the southeast of St. Mary's, Father Dumortier ministered to 
groups in present-day Lyons, Morris, Chase and Wabaunsee coun- 
ties. Patrick Doyle was a pioneer settler of Chase county and his 
name is perpetuated on the map in Doyle creek and Doyle town- 
ship. 29 At Cedar Point there was a French settlement where un- 
doubtedly the French priest felt doubly at home. This was the only 
group of his compatriots among whom he worked, although the 
half-breeds at Soldier Creek had a semblance of French culture also. 

The first Frenchmen who settled along the Cottonwood river 
arrived in 1857 and gradually confined themselves to Cottonwood, 
Grant and Doyle townships and the town of Florence. At Cotton- 

23. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 202-208. 

24. "Account Book of St. Mary's Mission," April 15, 1860. There was no place listed 
so it is supposed to be somewhere in St. Mary's parish. The name "William" is an error 
as William was the grandfather not the father of Charles Curtis. 

25. Ibid., January 1, 1860. The place was listed as Indianola. 

26. Dumortier's map, 1866. Photostat in files of the writer. 

27. Henry Drostigier, "Coal Creek, St. Patrick's Parish," "Diocese of Leavenworth 
Records," Book A, pp. 85-87, October 24, 1935, Kansas State Historical Library, Topeka. 
Dumortier's map, 1866, indicates that this mission was 30 miles from St. Mary's with a 
congregation of 30. 

28. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 3, p. 41. These were congregations without churches. 
There are records of baptism on the Black Vermillion in 1859 and 1860. 

29. DeSmet, op. cit., p. 112. 


wood Falls there were other French settlers. Belgians were in- 
cluded as an integral part of this so-called French Colony. The 
name of Francis Bernard, first permanent French settler, as well 
as those of Portry, Godard, Ravenet, Bichet and Louis became well 
known to the Jesuit itinerant priest. 30 

The homes of John Lawless in Diamond Creek and of William 
Norton in Bazaar, Irish settlements, became centers for Catholi- 
cism. 31 These stations were taken over after the death of Father 
Dumortier by the other famous Jesuit missionary to the Osages of 
southeastern Kansas, the Rev. Paul Ponziglione. He stated that the 
congregation at Cottonwood Falls was the most fervent he had seen 
in the West. 32 

However, the most important missions in the 1850's and 1860's 
were those to the west of St. Mary's. The building of Fort Riley in 
1853 had been an attraction to numerous Irish and German immi- 
grants who accepted employment in its construction. They worked 
in the capacity of stone masons and carpenters, and upon the com- 
pletion of the fort many of them pre-empted land along the Kaw 
and its tributaries. They formed a nucleus of the settlers in Rock 
Creek, Elbow, McDowell's Creek, Clark's Creek, Ogden, Junction 
City and Chapman's Creek all congregations of Father Dumortier. 
These pre-emptors often supplemented their earnings in farming 
by working as teamsters on the government trails. 

Soon after the territory was open for settlement, four Dixon 
brothers took land at Pawnee. They were summarily evicted by 
the authorities at Fort Riley but were allowed land on the edge 
of the reservation. 33 The Dixons assisted greatly in the early days 
in establishing the Catholic church in Ogden and Junction City. 

At the invitation of Maj. E. A. Ogden, commandant at Fort Riley, 
a priest from St. Mary's began to hold monthly services there. 34 
Bishop John B. Miege purchased several lots for a church which 
became, according to some records, the first stone church erected in 

30. Alberta Pantle, "History of the French-Speaking Settlement in the Cottonwood 
Valley," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 19 (1951), pp. 12-49, 174-206. 

31. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 572; George P. Morehouse, "Diamond Springs, "The 
Diamond of the Plains'," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 14 (1915-1918), pp. 794-804; 
Sister Mary Paul Fitzgerald, Beacon on the Plains ( Leavenworth, 1939), p. 256; Peter 
Beckman, The Catholic Church on the Kansas Frontier (Washington, D. C., 1943), pp. 
87, 88; John M. Moeder, Early Catholicity in Kansas and History of the Diocese of Wichita 
(Wichita, 1937), pp. 23, 56. 

32. Ponziglione to Coosemans, December 17, 1867; Beckman, op. cit., pp. 87, 88: 
DeSmet, op. cit., p. 112; William Connelley, op. cit., v. 3, pp. 1218, 1219, contains a good 
evaluation of Ponziglione; Fitzgerald, op. cit., passim. 

33. Duerinck to Maj. George W. Clarke, October 20, 1856; Garraghan, op. cit , v. 3 
pp. 4, 5; interview with Msgr. James Bradley, Junction City, April 7, 1951; interview with 
Hubert Bader, Junction City, April 7, 1951; W. F. Pride, The History of Fort Riley (Junction 
City, 1926), p. 104. 

34. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 3, p. 14. 


Kansas. 35 When the cholera broke out there in 1855, a priest was 
sent to nurse and console the dying. When the danger had passed 
the men in gratitude presented a purse to the priest. 36 

Two entries in the journal of St. Mary's Mission in the handwrit- 
ing of the Rev. John Duerinck, superior, refer to Father Louis Du- 
mortier. One mentioned that he was hurt by his pony while on a 
sick call to Fort Riley and the other that he returned and had de- 
posited $105 in treasury notes given him by the soldiers. 37 In 1866 
there were 160 Catholic soldiers at the fort. 38 

Twenty-four miles to the northwest of St. Mary's, a German set- 
tlement was made in the middle 1850's at Rock Creek, today known 
as Flush. Jesuits on horseback made the trip there where Mass 
was said in the homes of Vincent Repp, Anton and Theodore Dekat 
and Michael Floersch. 39 These pioneers, driving government 
wagons between Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley, observed the 
fertile valley of Rock creek and decided to settle there. The prox- 
imity to Fort Riley served as a ready market for produce. 40 There 
are records extant of Father Dumortier's visits to Rock Creek where 
he baptized and married people of the congregation 41 as well as 
several references to the stone church which he erected. 42 In 1866 
the congregation numbered about 130. 43 

To the west of Rock Creek, north of the Kansas river, was an Irish 
settlement at Elbow, which was derisively referred to as "The 
Devil's Elbow" by the Germans of Rock Creek. 44 This fertile valley 
became the home of people who later were wealthy farmers. Be- 
fore the building of the church, Mass was said in the homes of the 
Glenns, Cunninghams, Peaks, Conroys, Dempseys and Dowlings. 
Toby and Elizabeth Neckelman donated the land upon which the 

35. Miege to Boudreaux a Beckx, July 4, 1885. 

36. Garraghan, op. cit., v. 3, pp. 14, 15. 

37. "January 25, 1862: Revd. F. Dumortier returned from his trip; got hurted [sic] 
by his pony above Fort Riley whilst on a sick call. . . . May 28, 1862: Revd. F. 
Dumortier deposited $105." "Diary of St. Mary's Mission, 1854-63." 

38. Dumortier's map, 1866. 

39. Michael Floersch, for whom the town was named, gave four acres of land upon 
which the church was erected. 

40. J. E. Biehler, "Flush, St. Joseph's Church," "Diocese of Leavenworth Records," 
Book A, pp. 142-144, October 29, 1936, in Kansas State Historical Library, Topeka. 

41. Maurice Gailland. "History of St. Mary's Mission," MS. at St. Mary's College, St. 
Mary's; "A Prairie Parish," Topeka State Journal, March 17, 1914. 

42. March 25, 1865: deed for land; April 16, 1865: 22 loads of stone quarried; 
February 6, 1866: $30 in safe and 104 loads of stone; May 14, 1866: $1,455 subscribed; 
$194 expended; $1,351 remain; December 2, 1866: paid out $422; in treasury $69; no 
debts. "Dumortier Account Book." This is an interesting book containing information 
sealed at the time of his death and opened recently. It itemizes contributions to the 
churches in the various parishes. 

43. Dumortier's map, 1866. 

44. Interview with Sebastian Dekat, Flush, April 6, 1951; interview with Hubert 
Bader, Junction City, April 7, 1951. 


first church was built. 45 The old cemetery is a landmark of early 
Catholicism in central Kansas. The tombstones date much earlier 
than those in the Manhattan cemetery. The first baptism was in 
1861 and there were 70 who attended services at Elbow in 1866. 46 

It is interesting to note that several years ago when the Elbow 
church was demolished the stone was sold to the Flush parish to be 
used in the building of a parish hall. The stone from the original 
Flush church was used in the parish school building standing next 
to the hall. Thus, stone quarried and erected into two churches in 
different places by Father Dumortier survive today in two adjacent 
buildings in Flush. 47 

New Englanders settled Manhattan in 1855. Although there were 
large numbers of Catholics in Elbow and McDowell's Creek, Man- 
hattan had so few that the first Mass was not said there until 1865. 
At that time Father Dumortier celebrated it at the home of Mr. and 
Mrs. Mathew Peak and he baptized their daughter, Rose, on the 
same day. Glass candlesticks used at this original service are still 
in the possession of the Peak family. 48 The fact that the map of 
1866 does not state numbers for Manhattan is an indication that the 
few families there joined the Catholics of near-by congregations for 
services or conducted them in the Peak home. 49 

McDowell's Creek is in the country a few miles southeast of Man- 
hattan. There were never many communicants there and those few 
were Irish. Among them were the Brannick, Ryan and Tully fami- 
lies and later converts from the Lutheran Schippert family. These 
people were mostly stone masons as is evidenced from the number 
of stone walls, stone houses and stone barns still extant in that 
vicinity. 50 Besides farming, this vicinity became known for sheep 
raising. Today the little stone church and cemetery at the foot of 
the hill brings a person back to the days when Father Dumortier 
would arrive to serve his flock. Although some baptisms are re- 
corded for McDowell's Creek as early as 1859, they must have been 
those of adult converts. The first two white children born in the 
valley were John Brannick and Mary Ann Tully. The former lost 

45. Interview with Msgr. A. J. Luckey, Manhattan, April 6, 1951. 

46. Dumortier's map, 1866. 

47. Interview with Msgr. A. J. Luckey, Manhattan, April 6, 1951; interview with 
Sebastian Dekat, Flush, April 6, 1951. 

48. Arthur J. Luckey, Seven Dolors Parish, Manhattan, Kansas (Manhattan, 1920), 
PP. [7, 8]; interview with John Peak, Manhattan, April 6, 1951. 

49. Dumortier's map, 1866. 

50. The Kansas City Catholic Register in 1937 carried several articles on the history 
of the Catholic church in the Diocese of Concordia (now Salina). Among these was one on 
McDowell's creek, July 15, 1937; interview with Mrs. Mary Brannick and Marie Brannick, 
McDowell's Creek, April 6, 1951. 


his mother a few days after his birth and was reared by the James 
Ryan family whose daughter he later married. The Ryan family 
donated land for the church and cemetery. Mary Ann Tully died 
in April, 1951, in Junction City. 51 

To the west of McDowell's Creek is Clark's Creek. There were 
three distinct settlements all Irish in this region. The familiar 
names still found in the locality are Maloney, Gogin, Murphy, O'Day 
and McGrath. Patrick Maloney and James Gogin, both bound for 
Clark's Creek, met in Leavenworth, bought a span of oxen, put a 
top on a wagon and struck out together for their destination. Ma- 
loney settled at Skiddy and Gogin three miles down the creek. Two 
living members of the latter family, who were baptized by Father 
Dumortier, furnished this information. 52 Members of families from 
Chapman's Creek and Glare's Creek intermarried in several in- 
stances. 53 This mission, some 55 miles from St. Mary's, had a con- 
gregation of 94 in 1866. 54 

Lyon's Creek, also to the south of the Kaw, had a few Catholics, 
about 30 in number. In an account entitled, "Kansas Sixty Years 
Ago," there is a reference to neighborly visits back and forth among 
the settlements. Thomas F. Doran of Lyon's Creek wrote: 

There were two Irishmen who came regularly to visit us. They were Pat 
Maloney and Tom O'Day. They always came in the winter, and usually in a 
snow storm. Every time a blizzard came from the north we looked for them, 
though they had to travel from Clark's creek, a distance of twenty miles. We 
were seldom disappointed. O'Day came on foot, leading a saddled horse. I 
never saw him ride. Maloney was a strong character and afterwards became 
quite wealthy. 55 

It appears that Father Dumortier would cross the Kaw and visit 
the missions in the Cottonwood valley, first working west along the 
creeks mentioned south of the river, and would recross the river at 
Junction City. Then he would go west, visiting the other missions 
east of Junction City on his way back to St. Mary's. At Ogden there 
was a sizable group of Dykes, Mallons, Hanaghans, Woods, Dixons 
and a Jewish family, Weichselbaums, who were friendly to the 

51. Interview with Msgr. James Bradley, Junction City, April 7, 1951. He stated 
that the Tully family later helped in the erection of the Junction City church. The fact 
that Father Dumortier knew of the capabilities of the people in the various settlements made 
this co-operation possible. Pride, op. cit., p. 90, states that some of the original buildings 
at Fort Riley had been erected from stone quarried by Tully, contractor for buildings there. 

52. Interview with Richard and Martin Gogin, Junction City, April 7, 1951. Both 
men have died since that time. 

53. Three Gogin daughters married three Scanlon sons of Chapman's Creek. The first 
marriage performed of a native of Chapman's Creek and one of Clark's Creek was that of 
John Erwin of the former and Ellen McGrath of the latter place, November 7, 1862. 

54. Dumortier's map, 1866. 

55. Thomas F. Doran, "Kansas Sixty Years Ago," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 15 
(1919-1920), pp. 482-501; Clara M. Shields, "The Lyon Creek Settlement," ibid., v. 14 
(1915-1918), pp. 143-170. 


priest. 56 Here he built one of his stone churches. In the modern 
church in Ogden today the main altar is erected to the memory of 
this courageous missionary. 57 

As mentioned previously, Junction City became the entrepot for 
trade and travel to the West and a large group of Catholics settled 
there at an early date. This became one of the largest and most 
important missions of the area. The first mention in the Junction 
City Weekly Union read: "Father DeMortier organized the Catholic 
Church on June 4, 1861." 58 Important early settlers were the 
Dixons Patrick, Thomas and James, A. B. White, John Caspar, 
R. E. Lawrenson, R. O. Rizer, Anton Bader, V. Phester, A. Single- 
man, James Maloney of Dry Creek, Mrs. J. Petter and Pat Breen. 
Perhaps one of the most interesting women in the entire missionary 
circuit was Mrs. Mary Clarke, whose husband, a captain in the 
army, died in 1862. The following year she purchased a home in 
Junction City. 59 While at Fort Riley she had been of great assist- 
ance to Father Dumortier in helping him locate the Catholic soldiers 
stationed there. Upon her removal to Junction City, she became 
the religious leader of the community, forwarding every charitable 
and religious cause. The government granted Mrs. Clarke the 
privilege of operating the ferry across the Republican river at 
Junction City and of collecting die tolls. She hired Tom O'Day to 
operate the ferry for her until its discontinuance after the bridge 
was built in 1867. 60 

The local newspaper made many references to the church which 
was to be built in Junction City, but, as with construction in general, 
its actual building was postponed until after the Civil War. 61 

56. Theodore Weichselbaum settled in Ogden in 1857 at the time the county seat and 
the land office were located there. He became financially interested in sutlers' stores at 
Forts Larned, Dodge, Harker, Wallace and Camp Supply. Early in the 1870's he built a 
brewery at Ogden and ran it until the Kansas prohibition law was passed in 1881. The beer 
was hauled around the country and sold to sutlers' stores and saloons. Pride, op. cit., pp. 
109, 110. It was this same Weichselbaum who carried the news of the breaking out of the 
Civil War from Fort Riley to Fort Wise (Bent's old fort) with an ox team. Ibid., p. 144. 

57. Interview with Msgr. C. J. Roache, Abilene, April 8, 1951. The "Dumortier Ac- 
count Book" listed expenditures for the church he erected as $1,300, with debts amounting 
to $267 and with $56 in the treasury as of December 2, 1866. 

58. Another item in the Junction City Weekly Union of May 29, 1862; Andreas-Cutler, 
op. cit., pp. 1006, 1008. 

59. Smoky Hill and Republican Union, August 22, 1863, stated: "The stone dwelling 
house . . . was sold one day last week ... to Mrs. Capt. Clarke, of Fort Riley, 
for $1450"; interview with Margie Clarke, Junction City, April 7, 1951; "St. Xavier's 
Catholic Church Founded in 1861 by Father DeMortier, A Martyr to the Plague," Junction 
City Union, March 3, 1934. This was the anniversary issue of the paper. 

60. Interview with Mr. Hubert Bader, Junction City, April 7, 1951; interview with 
Margie Clarke, Junction City, April 7, 1951. The ferry was swept away by high water and 
repaired at once in 1865. Pride, op. cit., p. 150. 

61. "Dumortier Account Book," December 2, 1866: "Deposit $205 minus $20 equals 
$185. Mrs. Clarke had subscribed $50; gave $20; returned $10 at her request and the 
$10 remaining to the Elbow Church. Therefore, deposit $185 for Junction City; Mr. John 
Aipe gave $20 for the church of which $15 were returned to him at his request and $5 
given to the Elbow Church. The money deposited for Junction City Church is not $185 
but $165. The Church has in its treasury $470 cash. Common church property $500 
cash." Smoky Hill and Republican Union, October 24, 1861; May 29, 1862; Junction City 
Union, May 19, 1866. 


Finally the Smoky Hill and Republican Union stated: 

The citizens of Junction City and vicinity have gone to work in earnest 
to have a Catholic Church erected . . .of brick or stone . . . 
40 x 80 feet. . . . About three hours work on Thanksgiving Day pro- 
duced a subscription of over $1100 for the purpose. In addition . . . a 
large amount has been subscribed by persons living in the surrounding vicinity. 
Success to it we say. 62 

This was the most expensive structure of those erected by Father 
Dumortier, costing over $4,000. It was finished with the aid of 
stone masons from McDowell's Creek and ready for dedication at 
the time of the death of the priest in July, 1867. 63 The congrega- 
tion was about one hundred. 64 

Construction of the Kansas Pacific railroad accelerated the influx 
of immigrants to central Kansas. As the track was laid, settlements 
sprung up in its wake. With the march of civilization went the 
missionary as far west as present-day Ellsworth, and reaching out 
into the untracked area to the north and south as well. 65 

As early as 1851, the Rev. Ignatius Maes, S. J., had found his way 
to Chapman's creek to labor among the Indians. Several tribes 
habitually roamed over this part of the territory along the Smoky 
Hill river and Chapman's creek, which was favorable for hunting. 
An added reason for the choice of this region for Indian maneuvers 
was the presence of numerous springs. Indian hill, on the high 
knoll overlooking the valley, became a communal burial ground for 
a number of Indian tribes. There is a tradition among white settlers 
that the squaws would gather there periodically to chant their 
death songs on three consecutive nights to the consternation of the 
frightened pioneers. 66 

While ministering to the Indians, Father Maes encountered 
whites scattered throughout a wide area and ministered to them 
until the coming of Dumortier. By that time other Irish families 
had settled there. John Erwin and Michael Hogan arrived in 1858 
and shortly afterwards John Powers and William Delaney arrived. 
The latter had scouted there earlier and now came to settle per- 
manently. The first corn crop was credited to Thomas Howe and 

62. Ibid., December 8, 1866; February 23, 1867. 

63. Ibid., August 10, 1867, stated: "Mass will be celebrated in the new Catholic 
church on next Sunday [the llth] morning at 10 o'clock." 

64. Dumortier's map, 1866; DeSmet, op. cit., p. 112. In the present church in Junc- 
tion City is a plaque in honor of Father Dumortier. The name is spelled DeMorte. 

65. These settlements included Chapman's Creek, Mud Creek (Abilene), Solomon, 
balina, Lincoln, Ellsworth and Fort Harker (present-day Kanopolis). Up the Republican 
river and Parson's creek there was a mission for 59. Dumortier's map, 1866. 

66. J. B. Carpenter, "Early Days of Chapman," Abilene Chronicle, August 29, 1930. 
This was a reprint of an article written and published in 1884. 


the first wheat to Michael Hogan. 67 Since the nearest mills were at 
Leavenworth and Council Grove, these men were obliged to haul 
their grain by ox wagon to those distant places. Oftentimes they 
took their families with them the entire journey or left them with 
their friends in the more eastern settlements. 68 Other Catholic 
families were those of L. L. Warnock, John Nash, John Lundrigan, 
Mrs. M. Kelley, Mrs. Catherine Ryan and Mrs. M. Devan, all of 
whom became prosperous farmers. 69 

Father Dumortier began to plan at once the building of a church 
in Chapman and the settlers donated time and the sum of $700, a 
veritable fortune in those days. Rock was quarried near by, but 
lumber had to be brought from Leavenworth. In the account book 
he listed the outlay of money to the amount of $1,750, with $50 in 
the treasury. 70 The Junction City Union commented that stone 
work on the little church was finished and the carpenters were 
enclosing it. 71 

The old church, although not used since 1883, is still a pioneer 
landmark, standing in the old Chapman cemetery. Each year on 
Memorial Day it is used again by the descendants of the pioneers 
for services. 72 The first couple married in that church was Patrick 
Riordan of Solomon and Maggie Devan of Chapman. Prior to 
that time, John Erwin of Chapman had married Ellen McGrath of 
Clark's Creek at the home of her parents in the latter place as there 
was no church in either place. 73 There was a large congregation of 
140 in Chapman in 1866. 74 

Mud Creek had changed its name to the more dignified Biblical 
one of Abilene about the time that Father. Dumortier met a group 
of Catholic settlers there. In 1859 the James Mason, Margaret 
Callahan and Pat Hall families settled in Abilene and invited the 
priest to their homes. With the coming of the Kansas Pacific, a 
considerable colony of Catholics moved there from Kankakee, 111. 
This included the Ryans, Rings, Hogans and Sherrins. Most of the 

67. Ibid. John Erwin also operated a stage station for some time in the early days. 
Pride, op. cit., p. 127. 

68. Notes by and interview with Mrs. Ann Erwin Thisler, Chapman, April 1 and 8, 

69. These names predominate in the cemetery at Chapman, where not only the first 
settlers of that place but also those of Abilene and Clark's creek were buried. 

70. This account was itemized as follows: "(eve of my retreat) Chapman's Creek has 

E$930 to masons; $54 to Devan for lumber; $15 to Hardeher Hall; $30 to John Essen 
rin?] for lumber; $750 to Loder Corporation. Total $1750." "Dumortier Account 
c," December 2, 1886. 

71. Junction City Union, May 19, 1866. 

72. This is considered the oldest church in the Diocese of Salina. Interview with 
the Rev. Romanus Mattingly, Chapman, March 14, 1951; interview with Mrs. Ann Erwin 
Thisler, Chapman, April 8, 1951. 

73. November 7, 1862, with Father Louis Dumortier as officiating priest. 

74. Dumortier's map, 1866. 


men freighted over the two routes hauling foodstuffs from Fort 
Leavenworth to Salina and from Fort Riley to Fort Larned. These 
trips with ox team were made infrequently, only when necessary. 75 

According to the memoirs of Mrs. Margaret Callahan Flynn, 
daughter of the pioneer mother who with her large family staked 
a claim west of the present St. Joseph's orphanage, the first Mass 
was said in the log cabin of her grandmother in 1860. She received 
Communion at the hands of Father Dumortier. She stated that he 
was revered by Protestants and Catholics alike. The first baptism 
in Abilene proper was that of Jimmy Hall in I860. 76 There were 82 
Catholics there in 1866, although a church was not built until 1874. 
Many joined the Chapman Creek congregation or heard Mass in, 
private residences. 77 

Mrs. Flynn related that the people of Abilene felt sorry to see 
Father Louis riding bareback on his pony; therefore, they sponsored 
a dance, the proceeds of which would buy him a buggy. The sum 
of $180 was realized. However, en route back to St. Mary's, he 
found one of his churches in debt and with a generous gesture 
turned the money over to it. This was a disappointment to his 
Abilene benefactors but they admired the charity of the missionary. 

Beyond Abilene was another Irish settlement, Solomon City, 
which became the largest mission in point of numbers, 200 in 1866. 78 
This large number was due no doubt to the railroad camps built 
there. Previous mention has been made of the work of two fron- 
tierswomen, Mrs. Mary Clarke of Junction City and Mrs. Margaret 
Callahan of Abilene, in assisting Father Dumortier to bring about 
parish life in those places. 

The third woman in this account was Mrs. Margaret Riordan, a 
widow, who with her seven children and her nephew, traveled in 
1860 from LaSalle county, Illinois, by boat to Leavenworth and 
thence to the Solomon valley. On the long trek across the country 
they stopped at St. Mary's where they enjoyed the hospitality of 
the Jesuit Fathers. While there, Father Dumortier described to 

75. Margaret Callahan Flynn, "Memoirs." This account was written December 20, 
1936, in an interview with the Rev. Edmund Arpin to be used by the Rev. Joseph Conway 
in an article similar to the one under consideration. The interviewer commented that 
Mrs. Flynn, although old at the time, had a clear mind and in checking the information 
she supplied the writer also feels that it may be considered reliable. 

76. Ibid. Mrs. Flynn was nine years old at the time. Hence the events she chronicled 
happened within her lifetime. Her marriage record is found in the old baptismal, death 
and marriage record book in the Solomon parish house. It reads: "Abilene on this 
nineteenth day of November, 1870, I the undersigned joined in the bonds of holy matrimony 
John Flynn, age 23 and Margaret Callahan, age 19 years. Witnesses were Richard Callahan 
and Kate Dawe. Felix Swembergh." 

77. Dumortier's map, 1866; interview with Agnes Callahan, Abilene, April 8, 1951. 

78. Dumortier's map, 1866. 



them the country through which they would travel, some of his 
parishioners whom they would meet en route, and the beauties 
and possibilities of the valley where they hoped to settle. 79 

Continuing westward for a few days, they reached Chapman's 
Creek where they made the acquaintance of the Erwin, Devan and 
other Catholic families who encouraged them to stay in this more 
settled location. However, "Mother Riordan," as she came to be 
known, continued to the spot where they had been advised to settle. 
To their surprise, they found the log cabin of John Begley, an Irish- 
man, who had taken a claim on Buckeye creek, four miles northwest 
of present Solomon. He advised the Riordans to take land immedi- 
.ately to the south, which they did. There they built a sturdy cabin 
which became the center of Catholicism for a large area. "Mother 
Riordan/' a powerful personality, is spoken of with reverence even 
to the present time. 

It was some time before the familiar white pony wandered rider- 
less into the Riordan property. It was the custom of Father Louis, 
when he saw the cabin to which he was directed, to dismount and 
allow the pony to go ahead and announce his coming. Mrs. Riordan, 
accustomed as she was to caution in dealing with frontier peddlers 
or refugees from organized society, always advised her children to 
ask from whence the stranger came. When one day the answer 
was "St. Mary's" it was evident that the long-expected guest had 

Hurriedly she summoned the Berrigans, the Sullivans, the Stan- 
tons and other pioneers. In the possession of the Riordan family 
today is found the rosewood chest from Ireland upon which Mass 
was said and in which were kept linens used solely for that pur- 
pose. 80 In 1865 Father Dumortier proposed that a church be 
started. An item in the Junction City Weekly Union the following 
year stated: "A Catholic Church and school house are to be built 
at Solomon City during this Summer." 81 After the death of Father 
Louis, Solomon became a resident pastorate from whence the priest 
cared for Catholics west to the Colorado line. 82 

79. Interview with Mrs. Mary O'Keefe, Solomon, April 3, 1951. The children of 
Mrs. Riordan were John, Bridget, Timothy, Patrick, Dennis, Mary and Thomas. All mar- 
ried and took put claims in the Solomon valley. Patrick as mentioned in another connection 
married Maggie Devan of Chapman's Creek. "Into Old History," Salina Journal, July 18, 
1933. This was a reprint of an article on the beginnings of Solomon which had appeared in 
a paper, The Rustler, 1895, edited and published by W. R. Geis of Salina. 

80. Interview with Mrs. Mary O'Keefe, Solomon, April 3, 1951. 

81. Junction City Weekly Union, July 6, 1867. 

82. The "Solomon Parish Book" contains an account of the general history of the 
beginnings of the church there in the handwriting of the Rev. Felix Swembergh, pastor in 
1869. In this same book are accounts of baptisms, confirmations, deaths and marriages for 
the early years. Since the priest from Solomon tended to the spiritual needs of Catholics 
as far as the Colorado line records for those dates are to be found there. Sixteen were 
confirmed by Bishop John B. Miege on June 20, 1869, at Solomon; Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., 
pp. 691, 692. 


There were so few Catholics in Salina during Dumortier's time 
that services were conducted either with the Solomon congregation 
or in log cabins of the settlers. The priest stayed at the A. M. 
Campbell home when in Salina. This was one of the pioneer non- 
Catholic families of Salina and they treated him as a member of the 
family. Living members of the Campbell family relate that their 
mother always referred to him as a very pious man, a true saint 
if ever one walked the prairies of Kansas. 83 

The German Schippel brothers, Gotthard and John, who pio- 
neered in the Saline valley, erected a log cabin on the banks of that 
river. Gotthard Schipple married Clara Wary, daughter of a Bel- 
gian Catholic, and the descendants of that branch became one of 
the prosperous families of Saline county. Carpenters by trade, 
the Schippels realized the need for transportation over the Saline 
for on-coming immigrants. Therefore, they built a ferry, charging 
a dollar a wagon or team. It is recorded that some days they 
ferried as many as 300 across the river. 84 

The early settlers of Salina were of mixed nationality German, 
Belgian, French and Irish. Names still prominent in the parish are 
Giersch, Wary, McAuliffe, Commerford, Carlin, O'Reilly, Cunning- 
ham, Sherrin, Geis and Schwartz. In 1866 there were 75 Catholics 
in the Saline valley. 85 

Father Dumortier rode on past Salina up the Saline river in 
1867 to present-day Lincoln. There, according to printed sources, 
he was called Father LeMarte. A description of the early days is 

The structure was a log cabin; the priest had come from Ellsworth, and 
was not seen again for months . . . instructions was given to the little 
ones and confessions were heard on the banks of the Saline beneath a friendly 
cottonwood tree. . . , 86 

Lincoln was also an Irish settlement, where the Owen Healeys, 
the Whalens and the Flahertys settled in 1865. The Dumortier map 
indicates a congregation of 45. 87 

83. Interview with Mrs. A. M. Campbell, Salina, April 11, 1951. 

84. Interview with Mrs. Rose Wessling Schippel, Salina, April 18, 1951. The Fort 
Riley-Fort Lamed road crossed the Smoky Hill river at Salina. James R. Mead, "The 
Saline River Country in 1859," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 (1905-1906), pp. 8-19; 
Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 698: George A. Root, "Ferries in Kansas," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, v. 4 (1935), May, pp. 151-153. 

85. Dumortier's map, 1866; Anna M. Geis, "The Coming of the Catholic Church to 
Salina," Salina Journal, October 6, 1931. This was a reprint of a talk given to the Saline 
County Native Daughters, September, 1931. 

86. Connelley, op. cit., v. 3, p. 1607, contains an article on early beginnings in Lin- 
coln county; and on p. 1605, an article on Michael Joseph Healey, son of Owen Healey, in 
which considerable mention is made of Catholicity there; Adolph Roenigk, Pioneer History 
of Kansas (Lincoln, Kan., 1933), pp. 63-68; interview with Miss Nellie Healey, Salina, 
April 3, 1951; interview with Mr. and Miss Dillon, Lincoln, April 3, 1951. 

87. Dumortier's map, 1866; George Jelinek, Ellsworth, 1867-1947 (Salina, 1947), 


Even before the town of Ellsworth was platted, the United 
States government in 1864 had established a fort near by to afford 
protection to the whites engaged in railroad building and to those 
crossing the prairies against depredations by the Indians. This 
fort, at first called Fort Ellsworth and later Fort Harker, became a 
distributing point for supplies to forts of New Mexico, Texas, 
Arizona and California. 88 

There is no record of the first visit of Father Louis to Fort Harker 
but it is quite certain that as soon as he knew of its location he felt 
obligated to go there and offer his services to the soldiers. It was 
there that he met his death while ministering to the victims of the 
Asiatic cholera which attacked the fort with great loss of life. 

According to the report of Dr. George Miller Steinberg 89 to the 
surgeon general's office, Company H of the 38th infantry en route 
from Jefferson Barracks, Mo., to New Mexico in late June, 1867, 
stopped at Fort Harker and camped about a mile from the post. 
Cholera broke out first in this regiment and rapidly spread to the 
fort and to the entire central Kansas area. Lumber was scarce and 
the dead were buried in army blankets almost as soon as it was evi- 
dent that life had ceased. Panic struck the entire region. There 
were about 300 soldiers and about 1,700 civilians at Fort Harker at 
that time. 90 

In the numerous accounts of the tragedy the heroism of Father 
Dumortier is mentioned. On hearing of the epidemic he could not 
be persuaded to stay in Salina, saying that his duty was with his 

88. The Ellsworth Reporter carried a series of articles on Ellsworth and Fort Harker 
which gave important information, January 27, February 3, 10, 17 and 24, 1938. There 
was a special edition of this paper to commemorate the 80th anniversary, July 10, 1947. 
The Ellsworth Messenger also carried a series December 29, 1938, and January 5 and 12, 
1939. History of Fort Harker, Kanopolis, Kansas (pamphlet); "Kansas Historical Markers," 
The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 10 (1941), November, p. 359; Marvin H. Garfield, 
"Defense of the Kansas Frontier, 1866-1867," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 1 (1932), 
August, pp. 326-344. 

89. Sternberg is considered one of the outstanding figures in control of cholera, yellow 
fever and malaria. The experience which he had in combating it under frontier conditions 
enhanced his prestige in medical circles. His wife, Louisa Russell Sternberg, died of the 
cholera at Fort Harker. His name is identified with the establishment of the Army Medical 
School in 1893, the creation of an army nurses corps and a dental corps and of the tubercu- 
losis hospital at Fort Bayard, N. M. In 1900 he established the Yellow Fever Commission 
headed by Walter Reed. His tombstone in Arlington cemetery bears the inscription: 
"Pioneer American Bacteriologist, distinguished by his studies of the causation and pre- 
vention of infectious diseases, by his discovery of the micro-organism causing pneumonia, 
and scientific investigation of yellow fever, which paved the way for the experimental 
demonstration of the mode of transmission of the disease." Dictionary of American Biog- 
raphy, v. 17, pp. 590-592. 

90. Jerome M. Schneck, "Sternberg and the Fort Harker Cholera Epidemic of 1867," 
The Journal of the Kansas Medical Society, v. 45 (1944), May, pp. 161-163; Report on 
Epidemic Cholera and Yellow Fever in the Army of the United States During the Year 
1867 (Circular No. 1, War Department, Surgeon General's Office, Washington, 1868). The 
epidemic was severe at Fort Riley at this same time. General Custer who was at Fort 
Wallace, fearing for the safety of his wife, left his command in the hands of a subordinate 
to return to the former place. For this neglect he was court-martialed and sentenced "to 
loss of rank and pay for one year." Part of the sentence was remitted upon the recom- 
mendation of General Sheridan. Pride, op. cit., p. 156; Ellsworth Messenger files, New 
York Tablet, August 10, 1867; Junction City Union, July 27, 1867. 


boys. He gave them the consolations which they craved in that 
dread hour. These tributes were found not only in official reports 
but also in memoirs of such persons as Elizabeth Custer, wife of the 
famous frontier general, and of Maj. Gen. Frank D. Baldwin. 91 

By a strange coincidence, the first battalion of the newly-organ- 
ized 18th Kansas volunteer regiment was mustered into the service 
of the United States at Fort Marker on July 15, 1867, the day the 
cholera broke out. The command became practically demoralized, 
since each company lost heavily by death and desertion. 92 

A pathetic reminder of the scourge was found among the cor- 
respondence relative to the death of Alphonse Eugene Colbrant, 
whose mother lived in Fontainebleau, France. He had served in 
the Civil War as a major of the Second United States colored cavalry 
and had joined the Kansas group on July 18th, dying on the 24th. 93 
To this soldier, and to many others, Father Dumortier proved a 
friend. His calm influence persuaded would-be deserters to remain 
at their posts of duty regardless of the dangers involved. 

Father Louis contracted the disease and died alone after he had 
helped so many face death. There are conflicting accounts as to the 
place of his death. One was that he died in a construction car 
along the Kansas Pacific tracks. 94 Another maintains that he died in 
a tent 95 while a third states that he was stricken and died along the 
roadside as he was returning from the town to the camp. 96 At any 
rate, his courageous death followed the pattern of his courageous 
life. His memory is still cherished by the descendants of those to 
whom he ministered. Among these is Mrs. R. L. Pafford, wife of 
the retired postmaster of Salina, whose uncle, Capt. John Mullen, 

91. Elizabeth B. Custer, Tenting on the Plains (New York, 1889), pp. 667-669; Alice 
Blackwell Baldwin, Memoirs of the Late Frank D. Baldwin, Major General 17. S. A. (Los 
Angeles, 1929), pp. 133, 134; DeSmet, op. cit., pp. 112, 113; Junction City Weekly Union, 
August 3 and 24, 1867; Lillian Johnson, "A Worse Enemy Than Rattlesnakes, Asiatic 
Cholera Plagued the Plains," Salina Journal, September 24, 1950; Baltimore Catholic Mir- 
ror, August 3, 1867; St. Louis Guardian, August 1, 1867; New York Freeman's Journal, 
August 24, 1867; New York Tablet, August 24, 1867; Menology Missouri Province, Supple- 
ment (St. Louis, 1893), p. 13. 

92. George B. Jenness, "The Battle of Beaver Creek," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 
(1905-1906), pp. 443-452; Henderson L. Burgess, "The Eighteenth Kansas Volunteer 
Cavalry and Some Incidents Connected With Its Service on the Plains," ibid., v. 18 
(1913-1914), pp. 534, 535, 537. 

93. This packet of letters was turned over to the War Department archives by 
Adjutant General Hughes. A search for them for this paper has been fruitless. 

94. This is the opinion of Msgr. A. J. Luckey, Manhattan, who bases his theory on in- 
formation given him by the late Bishop John Cunningham of Concordia who was a con- 
temporary of Dumortier and who ministered to the Catholics of Ellsworth shortly after his 
death. Baltimore Catholic Mirror, August 31, 1867; Junction City Weekly Union, August 
3, 1867. 

95. This theory is possible for in the reports of Sternberg to the surgeon general he 
mentioned that cases were isolated in tents a distance from the camp. 

96. Baldwin, op. cit., p. 134. 


received the last sacraments from Father Dumortier and who, in 
spite of predictions to the contrary, recovered. 97 

Father DeSmet penned in his own hand the biographical sketch of 
Father Dumortier which was sent to France and Belgium for publi- 
cation. 98 One of the accounts of his death appeared in the Kansas 
Magazine in 1872 and is worthy of quotation in full: 

Rev. Louis Dumortier, S. J., St. Mary's Mission, Pottawatomie County, 
Kansas, who fell a victim to his heroic zeal and charity on the 26th of July, 
1867, at Fort Marker, had been for many years on the mission in Kansas, and 
had endeared himself to the Catholics of that part of the State allotted to his 
zeal by the untiring energy with which he labored for their spiritual welfare. 
When the cholera appeared at Ellsworth, the shepherd was promptly there, 
ready to lay down his life for his sheep. He made the offering of his life to 
his Lord, and then threw himself into the breach. Day and night he labored 
on, encouraging the healthy, attending to their spiritual wants, but above all, 
waiting upon the sick, proving himself the Good Samaritan, the physician both 
of soul and body. There was no rest, no respite; he was alone, the only priest 
within eighty miles, almost the only nurse for the sick. At length his strength 
was exhausted; he fell, overcome by fatigue rather than by disease, and after a 
few hours of suffering he breathed his last in a common construction car, at 
one o'clock A. M. July 25, 1867, a martyr to charity." 

The people of Ellsworth purchased a coffin and sent the remains 
of Father Dumortier back to St. Mary's. The faithful white pony 
was taken there as his last request. Even today, while in the prepa- 
ration of this article, when the writer visited the mission stations 
enumerated above, the name of Father Louis Dumortier was spoken 
of with love and veneration by the descendants of the families whom 
he served almost a century ago. 

97. Interview with Mrs. R. L. Pafford, Salina, April 11, 1951. Mrs. Pafford, descendant 
of the Mullens of Mullen Siding (known also as Terra Cotta), an Irish settlement between 
Brookville and Carneiro, stated that one of the first and one of the largest construction 
camps was located at that place. Apparently this large group supplemented the Ellsworth 
Catholic congregation. 

98. DeSmet, op. cti. 

99. J. H. Defouri, "Western Indian Missions," Kansas Magazine, Topeka, v. 2 (1872). 
p. 171. 

The Annals of Kansas: 1887 

JANUARY 1. Charles Robinson, former Governor, became superintendent of 
Haskell Indian Institute at Lawrence. 

The Manhattan and Blue Valley and the Marysville and Blue Valley con- 
solidated under the name, Blue Valley Railroad Co. Both roads were built 
and operated by the Union Pacific. 

Some prices were: prairie chicken, $4.50 a dozen; quail, $1.75 a dozen; 
venison saddles, 13 cents a pound; rabbits, 60 cents a dozen; turkeys, 4 and 5 
cents a pound; dried apples, 2% cents a pound; sugar-cured ham, 10 cents a 
pound; bacon, 9 cents a pound; potatoes, 40 cents a bushel; butter, 20 cents a 
pound; eggs, 22 cents a dozen; full cream cheese, 22 cents a pound. 

During 1886 Stafford county paid $666 in bounties for wolf scalps; $9 for 
wildcat scalps. 

The sorghum syrup works at Sterling had averaged 45,000 gallons a 
year since 1881. In 1886, 8,000 bushels of seed were saved. Seed was sold 
to France, Germany, Russia and Australia. 

During the last six months of 1886, 85 railroads were chartered, more 
than any other state. 

Wolves in Norton county barked at travelers. In the Wakarusa valley 
near Blue Docket they killed pigs in the daytime. 

JAN. 4. The Dodge City Cowboy Band was invited to attend the inaugural 
ceremonies of the Colorado governor. 

Buffalo meat cost 15 cents a pound at Dodge City; ten years earlier it cost 
three cents. 

JAN. 5. John L. Sullivan appeared at Topeka, Leavenworth, Atchison, 
Wichita and Kansas City "in an interesting exhibition of manly art." 

The McPherson Daily Freeman, published by Sen. H. B. Kelly, charged 
that Topeka was dominated by railroad interests, notably the Santa Fe, which 
attempted to control the state through the majority party. 

The U. S. Senate confirmed the appointment of Thomas Moonlight, Leav- 
enworth, as governor of Wyoming territory. 

Twenty wolves were captured in a hunt at Baldwin. 

The Catholic Knights of America met at Hiawatha. 

JAN. 6. Early Reminiscences of Pioneer Life, by the Rev. James Shaw, was 
published at Atchison. 

Negro voters of Shawnee county petitioned the Legislature to strike out 
the word "white" from an amendment to be submitted to the voters. 

Oleomargarine was becoming an important industry. N. F. Acers, 
internal revenue collector, collected $10,000 in November, 1886, on the 
manufacture of "bogus butter." 

JAN. 10. John Alexander Martin, Atchison, took the oath of office as Gov- 
ernor for his second term. All former Governors but three were present. 
Speeches were made by Robinson, Carney, Osborn, Anthony, St. John and Click. 

JAN. 11. The Legislature convened. Governor Martin recommended re- 
strictions on counties voting railroad bonds; modification of legislation covering 



state institutions; abolishment of the mileage system; more equable division 
of judicial districts, and a stiffer prohibitory law. 

The Kansas Equal Suffrage Assn. met at Topeka. 

The Kansas State Bar Assn. met at Topeka. 

JAN. 12. Boston Corbett, who shot John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin, 
was elected third assistant doorkeeper of the House of Representatives. Corbett 
had lived on a homestead in Cloud county since 1878. 

The Kansas State Bar Assn. admitted its first woman member, Mrs. Maria 
E. DeGeer, Sharon Springs. 

The Kansas Real Estate Assn. met at Topeka. 

The Kansas State Board of Agriculture met at Topeka. 

JAN. 13. Bill Nye, humorist, commented on the Kansas drugstore liquor 
traffic: "If you would like to go to a flourishing country and put out a big 
basswood mortar in front of your shop in order to sell the tincture of damnation 
throughout bleeding Kansas, now is the accepted time. If it is the great burning 
desire of your heart to go into a town of 2,000 people and open the 13th drug 
store in order that you may stand behind a tall black walnut prescription case 
day in and day out, with a graduate in one hand and a Babcock fire extinguisher 
in the other, filling orders for whisky made of stump water and the juice of 
future punishment, you will do well in Kansas. It is a temperate state, and 
no saloons are allowed there. All is quiet and orderly and the drugstore busi- 
ness is a big success." 

JAN. 14. Allen Ditson, builder of the street cars used in Garden City, sued 
for $3,800, owed him by the city. The cars had remained idle after running 
only a few days. 

JAN. 15. The Missouri Pacific completed its branch to Sterling. 

JAN. 18. The Kansas State Historical Society met at Topeka. 

The Kansas and Missouri Associated Press met at Topeka. 

The Kansas Assn. of Architects met at Topeka. 

JAN. 19. The County Clerks Assn. met at Topeka. 

The Kansas State Temperance Union met at Topeka. 

JAN. 21. The Spearville Blade reported 93 miles of the Eureka irrigation 
canal completed, with 50 miles of lateral canals. It was designed to irrigate 
400,000 acres. The company had contracts totaling over $150,000 for water 
rent at $2 per acre for 1888. 

Vol. I, No. 1, St. John County Capital, Lewis and Rader, publishers. 

JAN. 22. A committee appointed to investigate the status of Wallace county 
reported that it had functioned from its organization in 1868 until 1874, the 
grasshopper year, when its population "depleted." In 1875, the Supreme Court 
had declared the organization void. Until that decision was changed the county 
could claim no legal organization. 

JAN. 24. Lamed voted $125,000 in bonds to the Denver, Memphis and 
Atlantic railroad. 

The Parsons and Pacific railroad was completed from Parsons to Coffey- 

JAN. 25. The Kansas Sheriffs' Cooperative Assn. met at Topeka. 

JAN. 26. The Trans-Mississippi Associated Press met at Topeka. 

JAN. 27. Kansas millers reorganized the Kansas Mill Assn. at Newton. 

JAN. 28. The Wichita German Immigration Society was organized. 

JAN. 29. Susan B. Anthony, Kansas suffragist, was quoted l>y the Kansas 


City Times as saying "Ingalls has to go." Senator Ingalls had made some anti- 
suffrage and anti-British remarks. 

JAN. 30. Masked farmers lynched Richard Wood, Negro, for raping a white 
girl at Leavenworth. Wood was taken from the county jail and dragged to 
death behind a horse. 

The Topeka Daily Capital praised Sen. Preston B. Plumb for voting for 
woman suffrage. "Senator Ingalls, in voting against the bill, placed himself in 
the unfortunate position . . . that he did when he voted to keep the 
whisky saloon in the basement of the Capitol." 

JAN. 31. The Kansas City (Mo.) Times quoted London newspaper com- 
ments on Senator Ingalls* agitation over the fisheries question. The Pall Mall 
Gazette said: "Kansas is about the last place in creation to which one should 
look for wise or well-informed diplomacy or statesmanship." The London 
Chronicle remarked that "Ingalls is not a person whose utterances are awaited 
with anxiety by a deferential world, or is it likely that his clap-trap eloquence 
will be approved in his own country." 

FEBRUARY 1. Governor Martin appointed W. J. Lea, Topeka, State Insur- 
ance Commissioner. 

A "weigh social" was held at Sabetha. A man paid a third of a cent per 
pound of a woman's weight for the privilege of eating supper with her. 

I. Horner, Emporia, addressed a joint session of the Legislature on the silk 
culture industry. He exhibited Kansas silk and urged encouragement. 

The Kansas State Eclectic Medical Assn. met at Topeka. 

FEB. 2. Real estate was booming throughout the state. Daily transfers in 
Wichita averaged $400,000. The Sedgwick Pantagraph said Wichita was six 
miles wide and nine miles long and contained 24,000 real estate agents. 

The House committee on county seats and county lines listened to argu- 
ments for and against moving the Osage county seat from Lyndon to Osage City. 

The state assembly of the Knights of Labor met at Topeka. 

FEB. 3. Morton county voted for Richfield as permanent county seat. 

The Kansas Commandery of the Military Order of the American Legion met at Topeka. 

FEB. 4. The Leavenworth Times reported 200 saloons in the city, one for 
every 30 families. 

FEB. 5. Vol. I, No. 1, McPherson Daily Republican, S. G. Mead, publisher. 

FEB. 7. Senator Plumb presented to the U. S. Senate a memorial from the 
Kansas Legislature requesting the organization of Oklahoma territory. 

FEB. 8. Fred and Eddie Stone gave a program at Lukens' Opera House, 
North Topeka, consisting of songs, dances, Irish and Negro sketches, acrobatic 
and contortion acts. Total receipts were $12. (Fred Stone, a Kansan, became 
famous in the theatrical world.) 

On advice of the Attorney General, Wichita county held its election. 
Leoti won when voters of rival towns relied on a Legislative postponement and 
did not vote. Another election was called for March 10. 

Burlington voted $40,000 in bonds to the Chicago, Kansas City and Texas 

The Kansas Mill Assn. met at Newton. 

FEB. 9. At Lawrence 29 churches held services every Sunday with sermons 
in five languages. 

Track laying was completed to Great Bend on the Hoisington extension 
of the Missouri Pacific. 


FEB. 10. The House of Representatives voted for the woman suffrage bill, 
91 to 22. Kansas thus became the first state to grant municipal suffrage to 
women. They now could vote in elections for city and school officers and on 
school bonds, and might hold municipal offices. 

FEB. 11. The largest saloon in Leavenworth, the Saratoga, was closed upon 
complaint of Carl Mueller and F. M. Anthony. Later the two were attacked 
by a gang but were rescued by police and put in jail for protection. 

Directors of the Western National Fair Assn. met at Lawrence. 

The Kansas State Oratorical Assn. held its annual contest at Ottawa. Baker 
was first, Washburn second. 

FEB. 13. An unofficial mining report for 1886 showed $656,419 in sales of 
ores and gravels, all shipped from Galena. 

FEB. 14. Eureka voted $100,000 in bonds to the St. Louis, Fredonia and 
Denver railroad and $46,000 to the St. Louis, Newton and Denver. 

FEB. 15. Boston Corbett, doorkeeper of the House of Representatives, was 
discharged after he threatened to shoot several persons. Later he was declared 
insane and taken to the state hospital. 

The Royal Arch Masons and the Royal and Select Masters of Kansas met at Atchison. 

FEB. 16. The Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of Kansas met at Atchison. 

FEB. 17. Thomas W. Stevens, Kansan, was a guest of the New York 
Citizens' Bicycling Club. He had recently made a world bicycling tour, leaving 
San Francisco in April, 1884, returning there in January, 1887. 

In the Wichita county-seat election, Leoti partisans organized the regis- 
tration boards before Coronado voters arrived and refused to register them. 
Coronado citizens then organized their own boards in a covered wagon out- 
side the precinct house. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Florence Weekly Bulletin, J. B. Crouch, editor. 

FEB. 22. The Kansas Bankers Assn. was organized at Topeka. John R. Mulvane, To- 
peka, was elected president; C. N. Beal, Topeka, secretary. 

FEB. 23. The U. S. marshal arrested Moses Harman and his son, George, 
publishers of Lucifer, the Light Bearer, the "free love" paper at Valley Falls, on 
charges of circulating obscene literature through the mails. 

Leavenworth saloonkeepers and bartenders resolved to boycott the Leav- 
enworth Times and all advertisers because it favored closing saloons. 

FEB. 24. The Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad was sold to the Mis- 
souri Pacific. 

The House passed a bill changing the name of St. John county to Logan, 
in honor of the late Gen. John A. Logan. John P. St. John, former Governor, 
was in disfavor with the Republicans because he had bolted the party to be- 
come leader of the Prohibitionists. 

FEB. 25. Garden City levied a $250 annual tax on druggists. 

FEB. 26. Senator Ingalls took the oath of office as president pro tern of the 
U. S. Senate. 

FEB. 27. Two persons were killed and seven wounded in a flare-up of 
the Wichita county-seat dispute at Coronado. 

MARCH 1. One thousand persons took part in a wolf hunt on the Indian 
reservation near Holton. 

A contract was let for the construction of shops at Horton by the Chicago, 
Kansas and Nebraska ( Rock Island ) railroad. Cost was estimated at $250,000. 


Vol. I, No. 1, Daily Walnut Valley Times, El Dorado; Alva Sheldon, editor; John 
McGuin, publisher. 

MAR. 2. The Senate rejected the nomination of Dr. A. A. Holcombe for 
another term as State Veterinarian and reduced the appropriation for the office 
from $10,000 a year to $3,000. 

MAR. 3. The city clerk of Weir City refused to register women as voters. 
He believed the new law was unconstitutional. 

Coronado and Leoti, rivals for the Wichita county seat, were surrounded 
by armed guards and strangers were not allowed to enter. Merchants carried 
guns while waiting on customers. Streets were patrolled day and night. 

The South Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at Chanute. 

MAR. 4. The Supreme Court held that the "wagon-box" vote in the 
Seward county election of August 5, 1886, was legal and that Springfield was 
the rightful county seat. 

MAR. 5. The Adjutant General left for Wichita county to investigate the 
county-seat fight and expected to alert National Guard units at Sterling and 

The Supreme Court held that although Leavenworth city officials had not 
issued licenses authorizing the sale of liquor, they had achieved the same end 
"by shifts and subterfuge, even more culpable and indefensible." 

The state executive council appointed a board of police commissioners 
at Leavenworth to enforce the prohibitory law. They were to discharge the 
city marshal, police judge and the entire police force, and make new appoint- 

The law fixing terms of court in Wallace and other counties became 
effective. Although no law specifically legalized the county's organization, the 
Supreme Court in a similar case had ruled that establishment of terms of court 
was recognition. 

The Legislature adjourned. Acts passed included: The creation of 
Garfield, Gray, Haskell, Grant, Stanton and Kearney counties and definition 
of the boundaries of Hamilton, Finney, Hodgeman and Ford; provision for 
appointment of police commissioners by the executive council upon petition 
from a city of the first class; clarification of laws relating to organization of new 
counties and regulations regarding county-seat elections; consent to the pur- 
chase of land by the federal government for the location of Haskell Institute; 
requirement that laborers be paid at regular intervals in lawful money and not 
in any form of scrip or token money; creation of a State Board of Pharmacy; 
prohibition of pools or price-fixing agreements in grain and livestock; granting 
of woman suffrage in municipal elections; an appropriation of $13,000 to 
establish and conduct a silk station; a liquor law to suppress the "drugstore 

MAR. 7. The Atchison Land and Improvement Co. was organized. The 
company "had $1,000,000 in capital stock and owned $1,500,000 worth of real 
estate" in and near Atchison. 

MAR. 8. Henry Ward Beecher died. As a leader of antislavery forces he 
had urged immigration to Kansas to make it a free state. In 1856 he published 
an eight-page pamphlet, Defence of Kansas, asking for money and arms to fight 
slavery. He sent Bibles and rifles to a group of emigrating pioneers which 
became known as the Beecher Bible and Rifle Co. Sharps rifles soon were 
known as "Beecher's Bibles." 


The Supreme Court held that Wallace county was legally recognized by 
the Legislature's act fixing time for holding court. 

A Santa Fe special train ran from Topeka to Kansas City, 65 miles, in 
one hour and 45 minutes. 

The G. A. R., the W. R. C., and the Sons of Veterans met at Abilene. 

The I. O. O. F. grand encampment met at Wichita. 

The Order of the Eastern Star met at Topeka. 

MAR. 9. Work began on the $165,000 Rock Island station and general 
offices at Topeka. 

The Adjutant General arrested 14 men in connection with the Wichita 
county shooting affair of February 27. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Larned Daily Chronoscope, E. E. Stevens, editor. 

MAR. 10. Wichita county held an election for permanent county seat. 
Leoti received 420 votes and Coronado 353. However, Coronado's votes were 
not cast at the places designated by the commissioners. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church accepted Salina's proposal to donate 
$50,000 and 15 acres of land for its military academy. (St. John's Military 
Academy. ) 

The Southwest Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at Winfield. 

MAR. 11. The State Architect's plans for the main building of the Capitol 
were adopted. 

MAR. 13. Nine denominational colleges were operating in Kansas. 

Lack of funds caused cancellation of the April term of the U. S. District 
Court at Topeka. 

Leavenworth had five flour mills, four elevators, a brass foundry, a flax- 
seed oil mill, a glucose works, a bridge and iron works, and factories making 
stoves, brooms, boots and shoes, clothing, cigars and tobacco, paper boxes, 
candy, barrels, crackers, cement, fruit evaporators, fire brick, furniture and 
patent medicine. 

MAR. 14. The machine shops of the St. Louis, Fort Scott and Wichita 
railroad were located at Fort Scott. 

MAR. 15. Clarence H. Venner, Boston broker, lost his suit in the U. S. 
Circuit Court to restrain the Santa Fe from building a line from Kansas City 
to Chicago and another known as the Indian Territory and Texas extension. 

Thirty carloads of freight and emigrants arrived in Garden City from the 

The Topeka City Railway and the Rapid Transit Co. began laying track 
on Jefferson street, both claiming the right of way. 

MAR. 16. A $25,000 contract for building Cooper Memorial College 
at Sterling was let. Ground was broken for a new $34,000 waterworks. 

MAR. 17. The Kansas Evangelical Assn. met at Jewell City. 

The Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at Junction City. 

MAR. 18. The Anthony Republican reported that real estate sales from 
March 2 to 16 totaled $1,140,162. 

Wichita donated $25,000 and 223 acres southwest of the city for the loca- 
tion of a Quaker college to be called John Bright University. An additional 
630 acres was purchased by the Friends Society. More than $100,000 was to 
be spent in erecting buildings. 

MAR. 19. The Western Baseball League met at Leavenworth and admitted 
Kansas City. A schedule was arranged for the coming season. 


Governor Martin made the following appointments for the five new judi- 
cial districts: Frank Doster, Marion, 25th district; A. L. Redden, El Dorado, 
26th district; A. J. Abbott, Garden City, 27th district; S. W. Leslie, Kingman, 
28th district; O. L. Miller, Kansas City, 29th district. 

MAR. 20. Fort Scott had a sugar factory, planing mill, tobacco factory, four 
cigar factories, two flour mills, a railroad chair car factory, two furniture fac- 
tories, two hominy mills, three carriage and wagon factories, a woolen mill, 
three marble factories, a castor oil plant, three bedspring and mattress factories, 
three railroad machine shops, two potteries and a baking powder factory. 

MAR. 22. Crawford county druggists decided not to take out applications 
for liquor permits, which required them to present petitions signed by 25 quali- 
fied voters and 25 reputable women, to advertise the time and the place of 
hearing for at least 30 days, and upon receiving the license to post a bond of 
$1,000 as surety for abiding by the prohibitory law. 

MAR. 24. The Hamilton county-seat fight was believed ended when the 
new county-boundaries act went into effect. Kendall went into Kearney 
county and left Syracuse with no rival. 

The Northwest Kansas Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at 

MAR. 26. An artesian well and a vein of coal were discovered near Fort 

The first engine on the Fort Scott and Wichita railroad arrived at Kiowa. 

Anthony was building an opera house and several business blocks. 

MAR. 27. The Attorney General ruled that women could not vote for 
justices of the peace and constables who were township officers. 

MAR. 28. The State Board of Silk Commissioners met at Topeka. Lamed, Peabody, 
Hutchinson, Newton and McPherson all wanted the silk station. 

MAR. 29. The Knights of Pythias held a state jubilee at Ottawa. 

MAR. 31. The Kansas League of Professional Baseball Players was organized at Emporia. 

APRIL 3. The Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska (Rock Island) railroad 
opened the first passenger and Pullman service that eliminated changing cars 
en route from Topeka to Chicago. 

Travel on the Santa Fe was nearly 50 percent heavier than a year ago. 
Trains ran in sections, sometimes three, west-bound. 

APR. 4. Leavenworth Negroes honored C. H. J. Taylor, assistant city at- 
torney of Kansas City and recently appointed minister and consul general to 
Liberia. He had practiced law in Leavenworth and Kansas City and had 
been admitted to practice before the U. S. Supreme Court. 

Lillian Harman and E. C. Walker, the "free lovers" who had been in the 
Oskaloosa jail since September, 1886, were released when Moses Harman paid 
the costs. 

The State Silk Commission decided to locate the silk station at Lamed 
and voted to pay a bounty of 50 cents for the best cocoons raised by an indi- 
vidual or family. 

APR. 5. Municipal elections were held. A considerable number of women 
voted in most cities. Mrs. Dora Salter was elected mayor of Argonia, Sumner 
county. Two women were elected to the school board at Parsons. At Abilene, 
the women's vote defeated all councilmen opposed to woman suffrage. Five 
women were elected to the city council in Syracuse. 


APR. 6. St. John's real estate transfers totaled over $100,000 in a week. 
Business houses and a $20,000 courthouse were under construction. 

Alfalfa was reported to be a profitable crop in western Kansas. It was 
excellent for cattle, horses and sheep. Three to four crops could be cut each 
season, and each crop yielded three to four tons per acre. 

APR. 7. The Ladies of the G. A. R. met at Topeka. 

APR. 10. Topeka's baseball club, Goldsby's Golden Giants, defeated the 
St. Louis Browns, 12 to 9, before 3,000 persons. 

A prairie fire near Nicodemus, Graham county, caused nine deaths and 
large property damage. The fire was driven through Rooks and Phillips 
counties by a 40-mile wind. 

APR. 11. The Rock Island general offices were moved from Atchison to 

APR. 12. Dickinson county voted a $100,000 bond issue to the Chicago, 
Kansas and Western and the Chicago, Omaha and Southwestern railroads. 

A large flow of natural gas was struck at Fort Scott at a depth of 221 
feet. Pressure was 125 pounds to the inch. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Hutchinson Daily Herald, Fletcher Meridith, proprietor. 

APR. 13. A streetcar line and a $50,000 hotel were under construction at 
Great Bend. 

The Kansas State Music Teachers Assn. met at Topeka. 
The Kansas Knights of Honor met at Ottawa. 

APR. 14. The location of the state silk station was changed from Larned 
to Peabody. 

APR. 15. Hays City voted bonds for a Santa Fe extension to Little River. 

APR. 18. Ground was broken for the Santa Fe depot southwest of Kansas 
City on 2,500 acres of ground purchased by the Santa Fe and Pullman com- 
panies. They planned to found a summer resort town there called Quivira. 

APR. 19. The Kansas State Sportsman's Assn. began a three-day tournament at 

APR. 23. The Supreme Court held that Wallace county was not legally 

APR. 26. Remains of a wind wagon, "a combination flying machine and 
go-cart," were reported by the Kansas City [Mo.] Times in an old house on 
State Line Road. Wind wagons were designed to replace "bull" trains on the 
prairies and had wheels, a deck and sails. John B. Wornall, Westport, steers- 
man on the trial run, described it as lively traveling. The project collapsed 
when a group of passengers, en route to a camp meeting, was "becalmed in a 
hollow." Several wind wagons were reported to have crossed Kansas. 

The Kansas State Dental Assn. met at Topeka. 

APR. 28. Natural gas was struck at Ottawa. 

APR. 29. Beloit offered 20 acres adjoining the city and $40,000 in cash 
to any church organization that would locate and build a college there. 

APR. 30. The Allen County Democrat, lola, claimed that of the 38,000,000 
pounds of broomcorn raised in Kansas in 1886, nearly 6,000,000 were grown 
in Allen county. 

MAY 1. John Walruff, Lawrence brewer, was sentenced to 30 days in jail 
and fined $100 in costs for violating the liquor law. 

MAY 2. Vol. I, No. 1, Abilene Evening Reflector, Henry Litts, editor. 

The Kansas Fair Assn. met at Topeka. 


MAY 3. Boston and Topeka capitalists bought 1,500 acres west of Topeka 
for $500,000. Plans were to build a summer resort with a hotel, a botanical 
garden, an observatory, and an artificial lake, connected with the city by a 
boulevard. The syndicate also purchased the franchise of the Circle Street 
Railway Co. 

The Kansas State Medical Society met at Winfield. 

MAY 4. The Kansas State Sunday School Assn. met at Wichita. 

MAY 5. Chapman claimed the only county high school in the state, as only 
Dickinson county took advantage of the law passed by the 1886 legislature. 

The Kansas State Homeopathic Medical Assn. met at Kansas City. 

MAY 6. The editor of the Great Bend Tribune, looking over his exchanges, 
discovered that every town in Kansas would have "two or three railroads 
this year"; there were 150 "Queen Cities"; 600 towns would double in popu- 
lation; in 450 towns it was impossible to keep up with construction; 285 would 
become great distributing centers; 585 papers announced that their towns 
would soon be in the midst of the' greatest boom ever known, and all towns 
reported heavy investments by Eastern capitalists. 

A second state forestry station was located near Dodge City on 160 
acres donated by citizens. 

MAY 10. Sen. J. W. White, Lyons, was awarded $20,000 in a libel suit 
against W. E. Carr, editor of the Ellinwood Express. Carr sold his paper and 
left the state before the trial. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Sterling Evening Bulletin, W. M. Lamb, Tom L. Powers and Clarence 
Prescott, publishers. 

The Knights Templar grand commandery met at Salina. 

MAY 11. The Agricultural Fair and Trotting Assn. was organized at 

The Kansas and Missouri Press Assn. met at Wichita. 

MAY 12. The Social Science Club of Kansas and Western Missouri met at Kansas City. 

MAY 13. Coal was discovered at Marysville at a depth of 231 feet. 

A. T. Soule, Rochester, N. Y., millionaire, bought an interest in the First 
National Bank of Dodge City. He offered $50,000 and a site to the Presby- 
terian church to locate a college near Dodge City. Soule also purchased the 
Dodge City waterworks. 

MAY 15. Chief Wasiki, former leader of the Ponca Indians in Cowley 
county, was buried at Arkansas City with great ceremony. 

MAY 17. The Knights of Pythias grand lodge met at Atchison. 

MAY 18. The Boston-Topeka syndicate bought the Topeka City Railway 
for $250,000. Its investments in Topeka totaled nearly $1,000,000. 

The Seventh Day Adventists' encampment began at Topeka. 

MAY 19. The president of the Walnut City Business Men's Assn. claimed 
that an election call to vote for the Rush county seat was based on petitions 
containing names obtained by whisky and misrepresentation. He claimed that 
all papers in the case were stolen from the county clerk's office. 

MAY 20. In a speech at Abilene, Senator Ingalls, explaining his vote against 
the woman suffrage amendment, said that "women are women and their place 
is in the home." 

MAY 21. The Travelers' Protective Assn. met at Topeka. 

MAY 23. The St. Louis, Fort Scott and Wichita railroad, sold by order of 
the U. S. Circuit Court, was purchased by the Missouri Pacific. 


MAY 24. Natural gas, struck at Girard at a depth of 60 feet, was strong 
enough to furnish the city with light and fuel. 

MAY 27. The River Brethren Church conference met at Ottawa. 
MAY 28. The Swedish Baptist Church conference met at Lawrence. 

MAY 30. A catfish weighing 79 pounds was caught in the Arkansas river 
near Sterling. 

JUNE 1. Real estate transfers in Topeka during the first five months of 
1887 totaled $7,641,867. For the same period in 1886 the total was $1,560,109. 

The Attorney General was in Wichita to enforce the closing of saloons. 

A contract for the completion of the Statehouse went to George H. Evans 
and Co., Topeka, for $422,055. 

A Wichita employment agency was reported to have hired 500 men for 
30 days at $1.65 a day to vote for the county seat of an unspecified county. 

JUNE 3. Railway Age reported that Kansas laid the third largest amount of 
track in the country during the first five months of 1887: 262 miles. 

JUNE 6. The Kearney county census, required before the first election, was 
being taken. Lakin was reported to have employed 200 men at $1.65 a day 
to vote. Citizens of Chantilly threatened homesteaders with signs, "Vote for 
Chantilly for county seat or leave the county." 

JUNE 8. The Kansas State Pharmaceutical Assn. met at Wichita. 

JUNE 9. Judge Brewer in the U. S. Circuit Court held that the U. S. Dis- 
trict Court for Kansas had jurisdiction over the Cherokee Strip, reversing 
the decision of the Arkansas court. 

JUNE 10. St. John remained county seat of Stafford county. Stafford lacked 
56 names on its petition and withdrew. 

The State Board of Charities announced that the Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
at Atchison was completed. 

Contracts were let for the $25,000 addition to the State Normal School, 
Emporia, and the erection of the $40,000 Sisters of St. Joseph College at 

JUNE 11. The Missouri Valley Turner Society met at Topeka. 

JUNE 14. Salina complained that it had given $40,000 to the Missouri Pacific 
for a depot and that the company was spending only $7,000. 

Oliver Edwards, Doniphan county, had 50,000 carp in his ponds. He 
started two years before with four male and eight female fish. 

The first through train on the Santa Fe to Galveston passed through 

JUNE 15. Fifteen thousand attended the laying of the cornerstone of the 
new courthouse at Columbus. 

Chautauqua opened at Ottawa. Sam Jones and Gen. William H. Gibson 
were speakers. A chorus of 300 voices sang. Five hundred tents were provided 
for guests. 

JUNE 16. The Winfield Chautauqua attendance was estimated at 20,000. 

The State Board of Health met at Topeka. 

JUNE 17. The Governor ordered Statehouse flags displayed, apropos of an 
announcement that captured Confederate flags were to remain in Washington. 

Stanton county was organized with Johnson City as temporary county 
seat. Frank Woodruff, Charles A. Soper and A. H. Fisher were appointed 
commissioners; Will H. Quick, clerk. 


JUNE 18. The Rock Island finished laying track to Peabody. 

The Kiowa extension of the Santa Fe was 105 miles southwest of Kiowa. 
The Santa Fe was also pushing a line west from Great Bend to Denver. It 
had reached Dighton. 

JUNE 21. Leavenworth county claimed the country's largest apple orchard: 
437 acres with 50,000 trees. 

A pleasure steamer, Belle of the Walnut, was launched at Arkansas City. 

Business buildings at Leavenworth burned; loss was estimated at $200,- 
000. The seven-man fire department proved inadequate, and the Times criti- 
cized the mayor for devoting "too much time to protecting whisky sellers and 
organizing bogus booms, and too little to building a fire department." 

A warrant was issued for the arrest of two judges and the clerk of the 
election in Kendall township, Hamilton county, charged with forging poll books 
in November, 1886. An armed mob released the prisoners. 

Vol. I, No. 1, Kinsley Daily Mercury, W. S. Hebron, editor. 

JUNE 22. Missouri Pacific track *was laid into Fort Scott. 

Ford county voted $181,000 in bonds to the Arkansas, Kansas and Colo- 
rado and the Dodge City, Montezuma and Trinidad railroads. 

A creamery at Hiattville, Bourbon county, was sending a carload of butter 
and cheese to New York every week. 

JUNE 24. On Sunday in Olathe "it was impossible to buy a cigar or news- 
paper or hire a buggy/' 

The Loyal Legion met at Fort Leavenworth. 

JUNE 26. Mathias Splitlog, "the wealthiest Indian in the United States," was 
swindled out of $140,000 in land and money, according to the Wichita Eagle. 
"Mr. Splitlog isn't worried, he still had $864,000." 

JUNE 27. Fifteen thousand attended a natural gas celebration at Paola. 

JUNE 28. Two horse thieves and 21 stolen horses were captured by the 
Barber county sheriff. 

JUNE 29. Cimarron was elected temporary county seat of Gray county. 

JULY 1. The State Auditor issued certificates payable in 1890 for Quantrill 
raid claims approved by the commission of 1875. 

Daniel Webster Wilder, Hiawatha, replaced R. B. Morris, Atchison, as 
Superintendent of Insurance. 

Haskell county was organized with Santa Fe as temporary county seat. 
James E. Marlow, Joseph Comes and C. H. Huntington were appointed com- 
missioners; Lowry G. Gilmore, clerk. 

Lakin was chosen temporary county seat of Kearney county, winning from 
Chantilly by 140 votes. 

JULY 5. Vol. I, No. 1, Pittsburg Daily Headlight, M. F. Sears, editor. 

JULY 6. The State Veterinarian reported Texas fever among cattle in Wash- 
ington county. He charged that the owner had paid the Missouri Pacific a 
$5,000 bonus to transport them after rejection by an inspector. 

William Dill, Leavenworth, was appointed Assistant Attorney General to 
help prosecute over a hundred liquor cases there. 

JULY 7. Mitchell county voted $180,000 in bonds for the Strong City ex- 
tension of the Santa Fe. 

The Oberlin and Garden City land offices reported great emigration into 
western Kansas, many coming from Nebraska. 


JULY 8. The Pittsburg gasworks was completed; the city was "brilliantly 

JULY 9. John N. Reynolds, an ex-minister, editor of the Atchison Times, was 
indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of using the mails to defraud. 

JULY 11. Teachers' institutes began in 27 counties. 

JULY 12. The Rock Island reached Hutchinson. 

J. N. Allen, Phillips county, had 16 acres of timber claims averaging 7,000 
trees to the acre, including walnut, ash, boxelder, mulberry, hackberry, syca- 
more and catalpa. 

The Newton Daily Republican, commenting on the streetcars, said: "New- 
ton has the best-trained streetcar mules in the country. When they are near a 
siding where the cars are to pass they let out a long strain of melodious sound, 
and when they reach the end of the line they add a cadenza that ends in a 
dimenuendo. Thus it is that our people know when the streetcars are coming." 

The Kansas Millers Assn. met at Newton. 

JULY 13. Men employed by the Barber Asphalt Co. at Topeka struck for 
wages of $1.75 a day, an increase of 25 cents. 

JULY 16. Garfield county was organized with Ravanna as temporary 
county seat. George Goff, John Bull and J. E. Dixon were appointed commis- 
sioners; Clarence Van Patten, clerk. 

JULY 18. The Kansas League of American Wheelmen met at Paola. 

JULY 19. The Silk Culture Committee, meeting at Topeka, was told that 
the silk station at Peabody was receiving cocoons from every section of the 
state. Companies from Dallas, New York, Kansas City, Boston and St. Louis 
had requested displays. 

The Kansas Chautauqua began at Topeka. 

JULY 20. Gray county was organized with Cimarron as temporary county 
seat. J. Q. Shoup, E. S. McClellan and Frank V. Hull were appointed com- 
missioners; G. C. Pratt, clerk. 

The Topeka Rapid Transit Street Railway Co. used its first steam motor. 
The company had 12 miles of track in use. The Topeka City Railway Co. 
had ten miles of track. The West Side Circle Railway Co. was building in the 
western suburbs. 

JULY 21. The Missouri and Kansas Telephone Co. enlarged its Topeka 
facilities to care for 600 subscribers. 

JULY 23. An election was held in Rush county to vote on removal of the 
county seat from Walnut City to La Crosse. A temporary injunction was issued 
preventing a canvass on grounds of fraudulent petition. 

JULY 27. The Livestock Sanitary Commission brought suit against the 
Missouri Pacific for illegally shipping cattle with Texas fever to Washington 
county. Circulars were sent to all railroads calling attention to state laws. 

JULY 28. Kansas Negroes held an industrial convention at Hutchinson. It 
was stated that Negroes in southwest Kansas owned 767,000 acres of land 
valued at $1,225,000 and town property valued at $965,000. 

JULY 31. Around the World on a Bicycle, by Thomas J. Stevens, Kansan, 
was published by Scribner's. 

AUGUST 1. Nicodemus celebrated Emancipation day. Several fights, re- 
sulting in two deaths, took place. 


AUG. 2. An "album" was sent to President Cleveland asking him to stop in 
Topeka on his Western tour. 

Two-thirds of the voters in Harper county petitioned for an election 
to move the county seat from Anthony to Harper. The courthouse at Anthony 
was under guard. 

The Rock Island laid track at Wellington. It had contracted to deliver 
30,000 head of cattle to Chicago from Caldwell by September 1. 

AUG. 3. Shalor W. Eldridge, owner of the Eldridge House at Lawrence, 
which was destroyed by Quantrill, presented a claim of $60,000 to the State 

AUG. 4. Millbrook, Hill City and Plainville were damaged by a "straight 

Vol. I, No. 1, Hugoton Hermes, Charles M. Davis, publisher. 

AUG. 5. Pittsburg druggists were sued by the Law and Order Society for 
selling soda water on Sunday. 

AUG. 7. Leavenworth citizens, by a "nickel subscription," paid the $100 
fine of Bill Bond, who horsewhipped D. R. Anthony, editor of the Leavenworth 

AUG. 8. Normal institutes opened four-week terms in 37 counties. 

AUG. 9. An anti-saloon Republican campaign opened at Topeka with many 
prominent sponsors. 

The Union Labor party state convention met at Topeka. 

AUG. 11. The Church of the Brethren College was located at McPherson. 
AUG. 16. The Syracuse town council was composed of women. 
Texas fever was reported under control. One man, who had illegally 
shipped in infected cattle, was fined $200. 

The Knights of Labor state assembly met at Topeka. 

AUG. 17. The Santa Fe issued new freight rates of five cents per hundred 
pounds, a reduction of four cents, on wheat and other grains. 

AUG. 18. Wamego and Topeka were connected by telephone. 

Citizens of Kendall who went to Syracuse for a Republican meeting were 
beaten and run out of town. 

Highest wages paid to laborers in Topeka was $1.75 a day. 

AUG. 20. Hailstones ten inches around caused $5,000 damage at Atchison. 

Osborne raised $250 for Millbrook storm sufferers. 

AUG. 23. The quarantine of September, 1886, against cattle from Illinois, 
was lifted. 

The Great Western Stove Foundry and Machine Works at Leavenworth 
employed 400 men. 

AUG. 29. The Central Protective Assn. of Kansas and Missouri was organ- 
ized at Kansas City, Mo., for protection against horse thieves. 

Russell Springs received 542 votes for temporary county seat of Logan 
county, Logansport 273. 

Dr. A. G. Abdelal, a state pension examiner, was suspended, charged with 
extorting money from applicants. 

AUG. 31. John Ritchie, member of the Leavenworth and Wyandotte con- 
stitutional conventions, died at Topeka. He helped found Washburn College 
and donated the land for the school. 

The West German Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met at Enterprise. 


SEPTEMBER 1, "In politics the virtues of women would do more harm than 
their vices/' wrote Senator Ingalls in an anti-suffrage article, "The Sixteenth 
Amendment," which appeared in Forum. 

SEPT. 2. The Free Methodist Church conference met at Topeka. 

SEPT. 3. The Western National Fair Assn. met at Lawrence. 

SEPT. 6. Clarence H. Venner, Boston, filed suit to restrain the Santa Fe 
from issuing $10,000,000 in new stock. He claimed the issue was illegal. 
Judge Brewer failed to grant an injunction. 

First classes were held at Garfield University, Wichita. 

SEPT. 7. A salt vein struck at Ellsworth at a depth of 730 feet was 155 
feet thick. 

SEPT. 8. An injunction against the organization of Grant county charged 
the census taker with fraud, drunkenness, conspiracy and favoritism. 

SEPT. 9. Labette was the leading castor bean county with 8,946 acres. 

The Universalist Church conference met at Hutchinson. 

SEPT. 10. Fifty-six cars of cattle were shipped from Caldwell to Chicago 
over the Rock Island, the first shipment on the line. Cars were elaborately 
decorated. The train ran in three sections; the last carried a Pullman car 
for cattlemen and a brass band. 

SEPT. 13. The Methodist Episcopal Church camp meeting opened at Topeka. 

SEPT. 16. At Fort Scott and Leavenworth Negro children were refused 
admittance to schools reserved for whites. 

SEPT. 17. Logan county was organized with Russell Springs as temporary 
county seat. J. W. Kerns, N. C. Phinney and R. P. McKnight were appointed 
commissioners; Joseph W. Jones, clerk. 

Buildings under construction at Salina included the four-story brick Na- 
tional Hotel; the $50,000 Episcopal military school; a $25,000 lodge building; 
three ward schools, $10,000 each; a Knights of Pythias building, $30,000; the 
Tribune building, $25,000; the Huntington Opera House, $30,000. 

SEPT. 18. The Carey Hotel, Wichita, was completed at a cost of $120,000. 

SEPT. 20. A day's run at the Parkinson Sugar Works, Fort Scott, yielded 
23,000 pounds of sugar from 200 tons of cane. 

A window-glass factory at Fort Scott, said to be the first west of the Mis- 
sissippi river, was ready to begin operation. 

SEPT. 22. Leavenworth celebrated the 17th anniversary of the Riverside 
coal discovery with a trades parade; 350 decorated floats took part. 

J. A. Stewart, Wichita drugstore clerk, pleaded guilty to 208 counts of 
violating the liquor law and was sentenced to 17 years in jail and fined $20,000 
plus costs. 

SEPT. 26. Grading began on the Garden City Nickel Plate railroad, which 
would connect Finney county with the Denver, Memphis and Atlantic railroad 
in Lane and Ness county. 

SEPT. 27. A 300-foot vein of salt was discovered in South Hutchinson by 
Ben Blanchard, who was disappointed in his efforts to find gas, oil or coal. 

Johnson City was voted permanent county seat of Stanton county. 

The Women's Christian Temperance Union met at Salina. 
The Christian Church convention met at Hutchinson. 


SEPT. 30. A sunflower badge worn by Kansas delegates at the G. A. R. 
convention at St. Louis attracted attention. The Newton Daily Republican be- 
lieved they would attach the name of "Sunflower State" to Kansas. 

OCTOBER 4. A suit began in the Supreme Court to test the constitutionality 
of the metropolitan police law. It was claimed the law was unconstitutional 
because it suspended general laws. 

The Independent Order of Good Templars met at Topeka. 

The Improved Order of Red Men met at Girard. 

OCT. 5. The glassworks at Paola turned out "the first bottles made west 
of the Mississippi river." 

The Adjutant General disbanded National Guard companies at Columbus, 
Fort Scott, Robinson, Seneca, Jewell City and Smith Center. 

The Western Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South met at 
Council Grove. 

The Union Veterans Union met at Topeka. 

OCT. 6. The Arkansas Valley Editorial Assn. met at Hutchinson. 

-^-The Presbyterian Synod of Kansas met at Wichita. 

OCT. 10. Boom times at Wichita were indicated by a list of factories, capital 
and employees: 

Factory Capital Employees 

Burton Car Works $1,000,000 2,000 

Watch factory 250,000 400 

Packing house 50,000 400 

Ten brickyards 750,000 350 

Two iron works 75,000 100 

Two sash and door factories 70,000 80 

Spice mills 10,000 20 

Soap factory 25,000 15 

Vinegar works 10,000 15 

Two carriage factories 20,000 50 

Terra cotta works 20,000 50 

Ice factory 60,000 35 

Illinois Washer Co 15,000 25 

Two artificial stone works 25,000 50 

Archer Electrical Manufacturing Co 60,000 15 

Stair factory 3,000 10 

Boot and shoe factory 100,000 150 

Goldback Leather Co 135,000 200 

Picket factory 20,000 100 

Miscellaneous 29,000 57 

Totals $2,727,000 4,122 

The Kansas Society of Friends met at Lawrence. 

OCT. 11. A contract was let for construction of 30 miles of irrigation ditches 
in Finney and Kearney counties. 

The I. O. O. F. grand lodge met at Wichita. 
The Kansas Ministers Union met at Salina. 
The Kansas Baptist convention met at Salina. 

OCT. 12. The Washington county courthouse was completed and paid for. 

The case of H. H. Cook, editor of the Ottawa Journal, who had sued A. T. 
Sharpe of the Ottawa Republican for $10,000, was dismissed. Sharpe had called 
Cook a watermelon thief. 

Santa Fe was chosen permanent county seat of Haskell county. 

The African Methodist Episcopal Church conference met at Omaha, Neb. 


OCT. 14. John N. Reynolds, editor of the Atchison Times, was sentenced to 

18 months in the penitentiary and fined $200 for using the mails to defraud. 

The Kansas Equal Suffrage Assn. met at Newton. 

OCT. 16. It was estimated that more than 25,000 women voted in the 
municipal elections in April under the new law. 

OCT. 17. The American Coursing Club races began at Great Bend. 

OCT. 18. Wichita University was opened under the direction of the Synod 
of the Interior of the Reformed Church. (This is not the Wichita University 
which was established in 1926 when the people of Wichita voted to take over 

Fairmount College.) 

The Kansas Turner Society met at Topeka. Member towns had withdrawn from 

the Missouri Valley Turners. 

OCT. 19. Governor Martin commuted the sentence of J. A. Stewart, Wichita 
drugstore clerk, from 17 years to six months and cut the fine from $20,000 to 

OCT. 20. The General Assn. of Congregational Ministers and Churches of Kansas met 
at Wichita. 

OCT. 23. The Santa Fe reached Salina. 

Dodge City made plans for a $100,000 sugar factory. 

OCT. 24. More than 30 carloads of cotton had been raised near lola. 

The Y. M. C. A. building at Marion, the first in Kansas, was completed at 
a cost of $15,000. 

OCT. 25. The Missouri Pacific purchased 100 acres near Winfield for a 
shops location. 

The Kansas Evangelical Lutheran Synod met at Abilene. 

OCT. 26. Five Englishmen were arrested in Paris for forging securities of 
the Southwestern Kansas Railroad Co. 

The Kansas Anti-Horse Thief Assn. met at Anthony. 

The Kansas Academy of Science met at Topeka. 

OCT. 27. The Young Men's Christian Assn. of Kansas met at Wichita. 

OCT. 29. Vol. I, No. 1, Horton Daily Headlight, Brundidge and Bear, publishers. 

OCT. 31. The Atchison Library Assn. received a $10,000 donation from 
J. P. Pomeroy. 

An artesian well near Meade Center spouted water nearly 40 feet high. 

"Buffalo Bill" Cody offered $1,000 a head for buffalo owned by C. J. 
Jones, Garden City. He wanted the animals for his wild west show. 

In the Gray county-seat election Cimarron defeated Ingalls, 754 to 711. 

NOVEMBER 1. Cooper Memorial College, Sterling, was opened under the 
direction of the United Presbyterian Synod. 

The first train passed over the "dummy" railroad line between Kansas 
City and Leavenworth. Fare was 74 cents one way, $1 a round trip. 

Nov. 2. A trial of a new electric switch signal by the Santa Fe proved 
successful. It was invented by McClure and Wright of Junction City and 
was expected to lessen the danger of open switches. 

The Topeka Sorghum Sugar Manufacturing Co. was organized with a 
capital stock of $150,000. 

Nov. 3. Edward C. Weilup, Galena, was appointed U. S. consul at Sonne- 
berg, Germany, succeeding Oscar Bischoff, Topeka, who resigned. 


Nov. 4. The Wichita Eagle issued the first number on its web-perfecting 
press, the first in Kansas. It had a capacity of 1,600 pages per minute. 
Governor Martin lifted the quarantine on cattle from Cook county, 111. 

The Young Women's Christian Assn. of Kansas met at Lawrence. 

Nov. 5. A grand jury at Marion investigated charges of corruption made 
against members of the silk commission by the dismissed superintendent, I. 

The Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the district court which 
perpetually enjoined the canvass of the 1885 Pratt county-seat election, won by 
luka. Saratoga, the rival town, wanted another election. 

Nov. 7. The Supreme Court ordered Gray county commissioners to canvass 
returns of the election of October 31. 

Nov. 8. Dr. A. G. Abdelal, recently suspended from the State Board of 
Pension Examiners, was reinstated when charges against him were dismissed by 
a federal grand jury at Leavenworth. 

County elections resulted generally in victory for the Republican tickets. 
J. W. Robison was elected to fill the vacancy in the 23rd senatorial district. In 
Seward county the Fargo Springs ticket won over Springfield in a test of 
county-seat sentiment. In Harper county a similar contest resulted in victory 
for Harper over Anthony. Both Eminence and Ravanna claimed a majority 
in Garfield county. 

Nov. 12. Cimarron received a majority of votes in the Gray county-seat 
vote on October 31. 

Nov. 13. Haysville, 12 miles south of Wichita, was destroyed by fire. 

N. S. Goss, state ornithologist, left for Lower California and Mexico in 
search of additional specimens for the state collection. 

Nov. 15. Lee Mosier, convicted of the murder of Hugh B. Lawler, was 
executed at Wichita. It was the first legal hanging in Kansas since 1870. 

The Supreme Court issued a writ of mandamus in behalf of Robert Craw- 
ford, Negro resident of Fort Scott, to compel admittance of his son in school. 

The Attorney General ordered the clerk of the district court in Garfield 
county to move his office from Ravanna to Eminence. 

Nov. 16. Members of the election board of Union township, Rush county, 
were arrested for falsifying returns. 

J. E. Rule, Sherman county, claimed he had been elected county treasurer 
but was refused recognition by the commissioners. He filed a petition in the 
Supreme Court asking that the rival treasurer, J. H. Tait, be compelled to turn 
over the office. He also asked $5,000 damages. 

Nov. 18. Wano and Bird City both claimed victory in the Cheyenne 
county-seat election. Bird City took possession of the courthouse; Wano men 
gathered arms and threatened to drive them out. 

Nov. 19. The Rock Island reached Clay Center. 

The unusual number of jurymen used in the Wyandotte county district 
court in the train-wrecking case, during the railroad strike, had exhausted the 
list of 900 jurors, with two terms remaining before another list could be 

Nov. 21. A reception was held at Topeka for Arthur O'Connor and Sir 
Henry Gratten Esmonde, Irish members of Parliament. 


Nov. 22. The Kansas State Historical Society received from John Brown, 
Jr., a medal presented to his mother by France in 1874 in commemoration of 
the services of John Brown, the Abolitionist. The medal is solid gold, 2 
inches in diameter, with a portrait of Brown in relief on one side and a suitable 
inscription on the other. Victor Hugo was among those who signed the presen- 
tation letter. 

Kansas had 23 colleges in operation. 

Mary E. Merrill became the first woman to practice law in Sedgwick 

The Sherman county-seat election was won by Goodland. "Money carried 
the day," declared the Sherman County Democrat, of Eustis. 

Nov. 24. Thomas Nast, "king of caricaturists," lectured at Crawford's 
Opera House, Topeka. 

The Kansas State Volunteer Firemen's Assn. was organized at Abilene. 

Nov. 25. Quo warranto proceedings were brought in the Supreme Court 
in Garfield county offices disputes. 

Nov. 28. The number of post offices established in Kansas since December 
1, 1886, was 217. Name changes included: Altory, Decatur county, to Kanona; 
Arnold, Labette, to Angola; Baldwin City, Douglas, to Baldwin; Bates, Pratt, 
to Isabel, Barber; Big Timber, Riley, to Cleburne; Bittertown, Lyon, to Olpe; 
Bonasa, Wichita, to Leoti; Boone, Sumner, to Hukle, Sedgwick; Bluestem, 
Russell, to Lucas; Bluff Creek, Harper, to Bluff; Bluffville, Ellsworth, to 
Geneseo; Braman Hill, Wyandotte, to Summunduwot; Brown's Grove, Pawnee, 
to Burdette; Buena Vista, Barton, to Hoisington; Bureau, Logan, to McAllister; 
Candish, Ness, to Nonchalanta; Christian, McPherson, to Moundridge; Corbitt, 
Ford, to Bucklin; Cuyler, Garfield, to Eminence; Damorris, Morris, to Dwight; 
Dowell, Kiowa, to Wellsford; Dresden, Kingman, to Olcutt, Reno; Durham Park, 
Marion, to Durham; Easdale, Ellis, to Pfiefer; Eli, Cowley, to Hooser; Elgin, 
Chautauqua, to New Elgin; Everett, Woodson, to Vernon; Far West, Morris, to 
Latimer; Front, Allen, to Bayard; Gopher, Logan, to Winona; Greystone, 
Wilson, to Sidell; Hart's Mill, Chautauqua, to Hewins; Irene, Pratt, to Cairo; 
Jurett, Wilson, to Buxton; Kalamazoo, Sedgwick, to Anness; Kansas Center, 
Rice, to Frederic; Keimfield, Rush, to McCracken; King City, McPherson, to 
Elyria; LaMont's Hill, Osage, to Vassar; Larimore, Franklin, to Imes; Leland, 
Kingman, to Spivey; Leslie, Reno, to Medora; Matanzas, Chautauqua, to New- 
port; Mule Creek, Ellsworth, to Crawford, Rice; Nasby, Saline, to Trenton; 
New Kiowa, Barber, to Kiowa; Nilesville, Ottawa, to Niles; Nyack, Crawford, 
to Midway; Pike, Wabaunsee, to Willard, Shawnee; Purcell, Sumner, to Anson; 
Radical City, Montgomery, to Ritchie; Rattlesnake, Stafford, to Hudson; 
Sherwin City, Cherokee, to Sherwin Junction, Pratt; Silverton, Pratt, to Preston; 
Sorghum, Rice, to Bushton; Surprise, Grant, to Tilden; Veteran, Stanton, to 
Johnson; Weaver, Osage, to Rosemont; Worth, Butler, to Elbing; Zenith, Reno, 
to Sylvia. 

Nov. 30. The Livestock Sanitary Commission met to adjust claims arising 
under the Texas fever quarantines. Nearly 1,200 cattle were under restriction 
in Washington, Sumner and Crawford counties. In Washington, 964 had been 
in possession of the sheriff since April 4. Shippers had violated the new cattle- 
inspection law. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church, Diocese of Kansas, met at Topeka. The diocese 
was divided into four convocations: northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest. 


DECEMBER 1. Quarantined cattle in Washington county were ordered sold 
unless owners paid costs. 

Poems of the Plains, by Thomas Brewer Peacock, Topeka, was published 
by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. The Philadelphia Times said Peacock was 
regarded by the Saturday Review, London, as the great American poet. 

DEC. 2. One divorce for every 15 marriages was the average in Kansas, 
according to a survey made by the Department of Interior. 

Western Kansas was suffering from a fuel famine. It was claimed that 
the Santa Fe had refused to move coal from the mines. Six cars of coal, en 
route to Garden City, were switched off at Syracuse by citizens. Crowds 
threatened to burn railroad property and rob the engines of coal. 

Comanche county young folks resorted to peanut picking as a recreation 
in place of cornhusking bees. 

DEC. 5. The U. S. Supreme Court, in the liquor cases involving Ziebold 
and Hagelin, Atchison brewers, upheld the state's right to take over private 
property without due process of law. 

DEC. 7. The State Sanitary Board met at Topeka. Discussed were com- 
municable diseases, water and ice supply, food adulteration, and sanitary con- 
ditions of schoolhouses and grounds. 

DEC. 8. I. Homer, former superintendent of the State Silk Station at 
Peabody, died in poverty at Kansas City, Mo. Horner had advocated silk as 
a suitable industry for Kansas and devoted his time and money to the project. 

In the Grant county dispute, Cincinnati alleged fraud in the census and 
brought suit in the Supreme Court to prevent organization of the county with 
Ulysses as county seat. 

DEC. 10. Judge Brewer in the U. S. Circuit Court held that the Walruff 
brewery at Lawrence was a common nuisance and directed the U. S. marshal 
to close it. John and August Walruff were enjoined from using the brewery 
to manufacture intoxicating liquor. 

After nine years of fighting, the Rush county seat, by Supreme Court 
decision, was moved from La Crosse, where it had been for eight years, to 
Walnut City. 

DEC. 13. The Kansas State Horticultural Society met at Marion. 

DEC. 14. Gold badges were presented to members of the Topeka baseball 
club, champions of the Western League. 

DEC. 15. The Kansas State Veterinary Medical Assn. met at Topeka. 

The Kansas Shorthorn Breeders Assn. met at Topeka. 

DEC. 17. The Walruff brewery at Lawrence was razed and the machinery 
shipped to Kansas City. Walruff's fight against prohibition had cost him an 
estimated $25,000. 

DEC. 21. The Paola branch of the Missouri Pacific was completed, con- 
necting Kansas City and Pueblo, Colo. 

DEC. 22. Russell Springs won the Logan county-seat election. 

George E. Harris, president of the Wichita city council, was arrested for 
selling liquor and indicted on 40 counts. 

The Leoti Transcript said there were 852 newspaper editors in Kansas, 
and commented: "This is an appalling statement coming as it does upon the 
verge of what promises to be a severe winter." 



DEC. 23. Much of the Holton business district was destroyed by fire. 
Loss was estimated at more than $90,000. 

Kansas City used the installment plan in paying for public works. Im- 
provements were encouraged by issuing tax bills through a term of years. 

DEC. 24. The State Silk Station at Peabody suspended operation until 
spring. The supply of cocoons was exhausted. 

DEC. 25. Clark county asked for aid for new settlers made destitute by the 
drouth. A committee was appointed to handle contributions. 

DEC. 26. -The Kansas Academy of Language and Literature met at Topeka. 

DEC. 27. The Topeka Daily Capital employed a resident correspondent 
in Washington, claimed to be the first from a Kansas daily. 

The Kansas State Teachers Assn. met at Topeka. 

DEC. 28. The Kansas Prohibition party held a convention at Topeka. 

DEC. 29. The Kansas Midland railroad was completed to Wichita from 

The first passenger train on the Rock Island passed through Dodge City. 

DEC. 31. Jonathan G. Long, the "mayor of Sumner," Atchison county, died. 
He was the only remaining resident of the town, which was destroyed by a 
tornado and never rebuilt. Senator Ingalls' essay, "Catfish Aristocracy," pub- 
lished in the Kansas Magazine in 1872, was about Long, who stood six feet, 
seven inches and weighed 115 pounds. Long served in the Mexican and Civil 

The W. C. T. U. established a girls' industrial school at Beloit. The town 
gave 40 acres and $10,000. 

Seven Lane county farmers, indicted by a federal grand jury, were brought 
to Topeka. They were accused of intimidating and injuring another farmer 
while trying to scare him off his homestead so they could jump his claim. 


AGRICULTURE: Crops as a whole suffered severely from the drouth and farmers in- 
curred serious losses. The value of sorghum was greatly increased, however. 
Crop statistics for 1887: 

Winter wheat 
Spring wheat 
Irish potatoes . . . 




Sweet potatoes 
Sorghum: syrup 
Sorghum: forage 




Castor beans 

1 639 

409 750 f 

32 780 00 


142 577 

1 400 741 

1 190 629 85 



228 900f 

1 1 445 00 



440 000 f 

44 400 00 


70 111 

42 066 600 f 

1 472 331 00 

Millet and Hungarian 

508 441 

1 016 882J 

4 764 901 00 

Tame grasses . . 

747 061 

410 894 f 

2 460 774 00 

t pounds 
t tons 

Livestock statistics: 

648 037 

Mules and Asses 

89 957 

Milk cows 

692 858 

Other cattle 

1 568 628 


538 767 


1 847 394 

Other farm products: 

27 610 010 Ibs 


496 604 Ibs 


Poultry and eggs sold 






CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: The biennial report of the board of trustees of State 
Charitable Institutions gave the following statistics for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887: 

Institution Enrollment 

State Insane Asylum, Topeka . * 569 

State Insane Asylum, Osawatomie 478 

State Reform School for Boys, Topeka 145 

Deaf and Dumb Institution, Olathe 209 

Institution for the Blind, Wyandotte 84 

Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth, Winfield 66 

Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Atchison 91* 

* December 30 

CHARTERS: Banks, building and loan, trust companies, 309; boards of trade, fairs, mer- 
chant and civic associations, 76; cemetery and funeral associations, 78; churches and 
affiliated organizations, 259; coal, oil and mining companies, 130; creameries and dairy 
organizations, 19; gas, light, water and power companies, 82; grain, milling and elevator 
companies, 22; hotels, 20; insurance companies, 13; livestock and poultry, produce com- 
panies, 34; lodges, clubs, guilds and benevolent societies, 123; printing and publishing com- 
panies, 34; railroads, 123; real estate, town and immigration companies, 557; schools and 
colleges, 34; stage lines and freighting companies, 3; street railways, 60; telegraph and 
telephone companies, 11; miscellaneous, 203. Total number of charters for the year, 2,190. 

EDUCATION: The number of organized school districts had increased to 8,330 with 
7,841 school buildings and 10,450 teachers. Of 526,734 persons between the ages of 5 and 
21, 391,554 were enrolled as students. The total amount expended during the year for 
school purposes was $4,064,945.49. The average salary of men teachers was $39.28 per 
month; women teachers, $32.50 per month. Average length of the school term was 22.8 

Fifty-one students were graduated from the University of Kansas in June, 1887. The 
enrollment for the fall term was 483, including 53 out-of-state students. Kansas State 
Agricultural College had a fall enrollment of 472, with 35 students from other states. The 
State Normal School, Emporia, reported an enrollment of 875 for the fall semester. Private 
schools and enrollments included Highland University, 91; Ottawa University, 215; Baker 
University, 386, and Bethany College, 340. 

FINANCES: At the end of the fiscal year, June 30, 1887, the state treasurer reported 
a balance of $431,377.90. The state auditor's report showed receipts of $3,210,238.20 from 
all sources, and disbursements of $2,778,860.30. The aggregate value of all taxable lands 
was $152,200,666, and the aggregate value of city lots, $56,646.873. The valuation of per- 
sonal property as returned by the county clerks was $60,796,746. 



GOVERNMENT: A list of state and federal officers, judges and members of the legisla- 
ture as taken from the biennial report of the Secretary of State: 





John A. Martin 


Lieutenant Governor . . . . 

A. P. Riddle 


Secretary of State 

E. B. Allen. .. 


Auditor of State 

T. McCarthy 


Treasurer of State 

J. W. Hamilton ... 


Superintendent of Public Instruction 

J. H. Lawhead 

Fort Scott 

Attorney General .... .... 

S. B. Bradford. . 


State Printer 

C. C. Baker. . . 


Secretary State Board of Agriculture 
Secretary State Historical Society . 

William Sims 
F. G. Adams 


D. W. Wilder 


State Librarian. . . 

H. J. Dennis .... 


Railroad Commissioners 

f Almerin Gillett 
< James Humphrey 

Junction City 

IA. R. Greene 


Secretary Board of Railroad Commissioners. . . 
Adjutant General . . 

H. C. Rizer 
A. B. Campbell 


Governor's Private Secretary 

James Smith . . 

Marys ville 

Assistant Secretary of State 

W. T. Cavanaugh. . . . 


Commissioner of Labor Statistics . . 

F. H. Betton 


Assistant Auditor of State 

S. S. McFadden 


Assistant Treasurer of State . . 

R. R. Moore.. . 






Judge of Circuit Court. 

David J Brewer 

Judge of District Court 

C. G. Foster 


District Attorney 
Assistant District Attorney. 
United States Marshal 
Clerk of District Court 

W. C. Perry 
Eugene Hagan 
W. C.Jones. 

Fort Scott 

Clerk of Circuit Court. . . . 

A. S. Thomas 






Chief Justice 

Albert H. Horton 

Associate Justice. . 

D M Valentine 


Associate Justice 

W.'A. Johnston 
(B F Simpson 


Commissioners of the Supreme Court 

JJ. B. Clogston 


[Joel Holt 


Clerk. .. 

C J Brown 



A. M. F. Randolph 









Robert Crozier 

Second . . 

H. M. Jackson . . 



John Guthrie . 


Fourth.. . 

A. W. Benson. . . . 



Charles B. Graves 


C. O. French 

Fort Scott 


L. Stilwell 

Eighth. . 

M. B. Nicholson... 

Council Grove 

Ninth .. 

L. Houk.... 

Tenth ; 

J. P. Hindman 
George Chandler. . 



Edward Hutchinson. . . . 

Marys ville 


E. S. Torrance. . . 



S. O Hinds 

Fifteenth . . 

Clark A. Smith 

Cawker City 


J. C Strang 

Seventeenth . . . . . 

Louis K. Pratt. 



T. B Wall 


Nineteenth. ... 

J. T. Herrick 


Twentieth * 

Ansel R. Clark 


B. B. Spillman. . . 



R. A. Bassett 

Twenty-third . . . 

S. J. Osborn. . 



C. W. Ellis 

Twenty-fifth . . . . . . ... 

Frank Doster. . 



A. L. Redden 

El Dorado 

Twenty-seventh ... 

A. J. Abbott. . . 

Garden City 


S. W. Leslie 

Twenty-ninth ... 

O. L. Miller 




Post Office 


Post Office 

John J. Ingalls . . 


Preston B. Plumb 




Post Office 


E. N. Morrill. . 



E H Funston 



R. W. Perkins . 



Thomas Ryan 



John A. Anderson . . 



E J Turner 



S. R. Peters 







Post Office 



Sol Miller 



A J. Harwi 




Matt Edmonds 



P. G. Lowe. . . 

Leaven worth 

Leaven worth 


W. J. Buchan 
R. W. Blue. . 




W. M. Shean 
W J Bawden 

Fort Scott. 



M. C. Kelley 

Mulberry Grove .... 



John N. Ritter 

Columbus . . . 



C H Kimball 




L. U. Humphrey 
R N Allen 

Chanute .... 



L. K. Kirk 
L C Wasson 

Ottawa .... 



T. L. Marshall 

Osage City 



G. J. Barker 
Silas E Sheldon 





J. S. Codding 
W W. Smith... 




George S. Green . . . 




L. B. Kellogg. . . 

Flnipnrij^. . , . 



E. M. Hewins 

Cedarvale. . 



Frank S. Jennings 
A L. Redden 

El Dorado . 



R. M. Crane 
Conrad Kohler . 

Enterprise . 



F P Harkness 

Clay Center 



George H. Case. ... . . 




R M Pickler 

Smith Center 



I. D. Young 
Ira E. Lloyd 

Ellsworth . 



H. B. Kelly 
W. M. Congdon. 

Sedgwick . 



John Kelly 



W. J. Lingenf elter . . 

Wellington. . 



J. W. Rush 



J. W. White 




E. J. Donnell 




H. S. Granger 






Post Office 


A. P. Riddle . 



L. U. Humphrey 

President pro tern . . 

I ndependence 

C. C. Baker.. 

Secretary . 


Joel Moody 

C. O. McDowell 
F. M. Higgason 

Asst. Sergeant-at-Arms 








Post Office 



B A Seaver 



C W Benning 




Farmington . . . 


S S Cooper 

Oskaloosa . . . 



G W McCammon 

Valley Falls.... 



Ed. Carroll 

Lea venworth 

Lea venworth 


T A Kurd 

Lea ven worth 

Lea venworth 


M. H. Berry 
Frank Gable . . . 

Lansing . . 

Lea venworth 


Porter Sherman 




James F. Timmons .... 




Nick Reitz 



J J Cox 




J D Bowersock 

Lawrence. . 


J V Pollinger... . 




L W Hostetter 




W. H. Wilhoite 
C. Lewis 




Alfred Blaker 
J F Sawhill 




E. D. Lacey 




A E Currier 

Hammond . 


Wiley Bollinger . . . 

Mill Creek 



A N Chadsey 




E. H. Brown 
R. P. McGregor 

Baxter Springs 



H. B. Hubbard. 

Boston Mills .... 



F R Morton 




J. H. Morrison ... 




R S Lybarger 





J. B. Ziegler 
D McTaggart 




J. W. Martin... 




Win Miller 



C. J. Butin 




W H Slavens 

Yates Center 



Frank Fockele. . . 

LeRoy. . 



G W Doty . 



J. V. Admire.. 

Osage City 



C P Bolmar 

North Topeka 


George W. Veale.... 




J B McAfee 




S. E. Ream 




T J Elliot 




Capioma . . 



A L Coleman 



W. S. Glass 

Marysville . . . 



T F Rhodes 





Louisville .... 



Thomas Beattie 


Pottawatomi e 


Wm. Fryhofer.. 

Randolph .... 



P. V. Trovinger 

Junction City 



Charles Taylor . . 

Eskridge . . . 



George Johnston 


D. A. Hunter .... .... 

Emporia . 



J B Clo'ston 



Asa Thompson 
C. M. Turner 




John A. Eaton .... 




Louis P. King 

Arkansas City. . . . 



John D. Maurer 




D. W. Poe 




E. D. Stratford.. 

El Dorado.. 



M. A. Campbell 

Cottonwood Falls 



J. N. Rogers 

Marion. . . . 



J. Hudson Morse 



J. S. Early wine 

Wilsey. . 



Harrison Flora 

Poplar Hill 


M. L. Potter 

Plympton .... 



A. J. Banner. 




Chas. Williamson 

Washington .... 



Albert Hazen 




Corner T. Davies 

Republic City. . . . 



John A. Jacobs. . . 

Seapo.. . 







Post Office 









E B Crew 





Spring Valley 



A W Smith 




T J Matlock 



"Rnrlnlnh Hatfipld 







A H Carpenter 

Valley Center 



C N Bottorff 




John A. Murray 
Levi Thrailkill 
B C Cook 




F E Gillett 




T A McNeal 

Medicine Lodge 






Thomas T Taylor 




E J Arnold 




Frank Cox 

Stafford City 



H J Roetzel 




R F Bond 




S W Bard 




J B Corbett 

Bunker Hill 



J D Miller . . . 




S. H. Calderhead 
Z T Walrond 

Osborne . 



D C Wilson 

Superior, Neb 


B F Wallace 




W M Skinner 




H N Boyd 




L H Leach . . . 




L D Kirkman 




La Crosse 



Wm. C. Edwards 




L G Boies 




E S West 




Francis C. Price. . 




M J O'Meara 

Meade Center 



W H Young 




T S Haun 







W. S. Tilton 




D B Kuney 

Norton ... 



F L Henshaw 




M. A. Chambers 
H P Myton. 

Garden City 



G W Goodsoe 




E D York 




J T Kirtland 



C H Townsley 

Sloey P. O. . . 


S. J Gillis 

Fargo Springs 


Hugo ton 


Wm. McK. Milligan . . 



John F Murray 

Bird City 


S W Case 

Scott City. 


John W. Davis 



John Shetterly 



NOTE. Those in excess of 125 were admitted from counties organized subsequent to the 




Post Office 


A. W. Smith 
J B Clogston . . .... 

Speaker pro tern 



H L Millard 

Chief Clerk. 

Sterling ... 


WillT. Walker 
C. A. Norton 
John L. Waller 

Assistant Clerk 
Ass. Sergeant-at-Arms 

Leaven worth 



INDUSTRY: Kansas had 801 industrial establishments with an invested capital of 
$29,016,760. Wages totaling $7,818,295 were paid to 15,856 employees. The cost of 
raw materials was $34,019,357, and the value of finished products was $51,061,791. Kansas 
coal mines in 1887, employing 4,728 miners and 870 day laborers, produced 39,251,985 
bushels of coal. Osage and Cherokee counties were the largest producers with nearly 
10,000,000 bushels each. 

INSURANCE: The Superintendent of Insurance for the first time since the creation of 
the department tabulated life insurance business in the state. During the year policies 
totaling $12,801,843 were issued by 28 authorized companies, by far the greatest amount 
ever written in Kansas. The total for 17 years of business was $58,406,493. Fire insurance 
written in 1887 by 83 authorized companies amounted to $137,228,880. 

POPULATION: The total population of the state was 1,514,578, an increase of 107,840 
over 1886. Leavenworth reported the largest population, 35,227; Topeka had 34,199, a 
gain of over 9,000; Wichita, 33,999, an increase of 13,000, and Kansas City, 33,110. 

RAILROADS: The State Board of Railroad Assessors listed 87 companies, including 
main lines and branches, operating in the state. As of June 30, 1887, there were 6,549 
miles of main track, an increase of 1,845 miles during the year. The railroads hauled 
21,293,832.6 tons of freight. Total earnings from all sources was $75,717,049.44. 

WEATHER: The mean temperature for 1887 was 55.21 degrees. The highest tempera- 
ture recorded was 111 in August, and the lowest was -32 in January. Rainfall was slightly 
less than normal, but the western half of the state had very little during the summer. 
Average precipitation was 24.67 inches. A drouth in July caused one of the most disastrous 
crop years in history. 


Bypaths of Kansas History 


From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, August 6, 1857. 

How THEY Do IN KANSAS. The office of the Weekly Herald, published in 
Leavenworth, Kansas, was recently visited by a correspondent of an Eastern 
paper, and is thus described by him: 

"A visit to the printing office afforded a rich treat. On entering the first 
room on the right hand, three law 'shingles' were on the door; on one side was 
a rich bed French blankets, sheets, table cloths, shirts, cloaks and rugs, all 
together; on the wall hung hams, maps, venison and rich engravings, onions, 
portraits and boots; on the floor were a side of bacon, carved to the bone, corn 
and potatoes, stationery and books; on a nice dressing case stood a wooden tray 
half full of dough, while crockery occupied the professional desk. In the room 
on the left the sanctum the housewife, cook and editor lived in glorious unity 
one person. He was seated on a stool, with a paper before him on a plank, 
writing a vigorous knock down to an article in the Kickapoo Pioneer, a paper 
of a rival city. The cooking stove was at his left, and tin kettles all round; the 
corn cake was a doin', and instead of scratching his head for an idea, as editors 
often do, he turned the cake and went ahead." 


From the Fort Scott Democrat, September 22, 1859. 

Mrs. Nichols the celebrated Lecturer on "womans rights," delivered a lecture 
in the Hospital, last Friday evening. Of course the room was crowded, and 
although the weather was very warm, there was a large number of ladies in 

The Lecturer declared that woman had many responsibilities. We agree 
with her, for we once knew one who had a dozen. She said if the men didn't 
give them their rights, they would revolt wouldn't marry. What a row that 
would make. They wanted to vote but didn't care about holding office if the 
men only behaved themselves. 

Upon the whole, the lecture was not a remarkable one either for originality 
of thought or power of delivery. Haven't heard of any converts in this region. 


From the Council Grove Press, May 25, 1861. 

LOOK HERE! When tuition is but one dollar per month, and fifteen or twenty 
children are running about idly upon the streets, and only twenty at school, we 
are allowed to make this assertion, that, some people care not if their children 
grow up in ignorance. The tuition for schooling at Council Grove, was put as 
low as possible, so that all might send; those who are not willing to pay one 
dollar a month, would be willing to hire a man for nothing, and pay him 
according to agreement. TEACHER. 




From The Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, May 30, 1873. 

ON THE TRAIN, MAY 24, 1873. 

Sargent [near the state line in present western Hamilton county] puts on the 
appearance of a town in the dark. The train arrived at 11 P. M., and the 
numerous glass fronts, all brilliant with light, would remind us of some other 
towns who had once no better display than this, but are now large cities. 
Sargent has about thirty business houses, including saloons and hotels; about 
fifty buildings in all, with a population of about two or three hundred. It has a 
two-story depot, engine house, turn-table, and numerous side tracks. It has two 
hotels, the Winram house and Sargent City hotel. The latter is the largest 
and best finished. Both have accommodating and obliging proprietors. It is 
about two and a half miles from the state line, and about half a mile from the 
Arkansas river, which is here lined with a young growth of cottonwood, and 
the scenery is very beautiful. The soil, no doubt, is productive, but it is doubt- 
ful whether farming will be a success without irrigation, which can be easily 
done along the valley of the Arkansas. This is designed to be a grazing country, 
and large herds of Texas cattle are now grazing here. These cattle are said to 
have wintered here. 

The train moved eastward a few minutes before six. It was a beautiful morn- 
ing, with a fine, gentle breeze. 

Coming into the vicinity of the Syracuse colony, we see already the marks of 
an industrious farming community. Syracuse is the first station east of Sar- 
gent. We counted eighteen buildings in town and vicinity, all of a fair size 
and substantially built. The amount of sod already turned over and the fine 
rows of trees planted along the streets, display a degree of energy, taste and 
enterprise that will insure success. First Lieut. Robt. McDonald of the Fifth 
Infantry, of Fort Dodge and Capt. H. B. Bristol of the same company got on 
the train here. Capt. Bristol went along the line inspecting the soldiers sta- 
tioned at all the points on the road between Dodge and Sargent. There are 
generally 7 soldiers at each station. Two with each squad of section hands. 
These are on guard while the men are at work. Sometimes we see one of them 
on picket duty on an eminence commanding a view of the country. Three sol- 
diers are always left at the station to guard it. The railroad company has put 
up a building at each of these stations for the accommodation of these soldiers. 
There are, as yet, no depot buildings at any of the stations between Dodge and 
Sargent, but there is a telegraph office at each point, and these are in com- 
munication with Fort Dodge, where the government troops are six hundred 
strong, and ready for action at short notice. Scouts are constantly on duty on 
the south side of the river. The object of this is to keep the Indians on their 
own hunting grounds and the territory assigned them. Lieut. McDonald as- 
sures us that through these precautionary steps there is no danger of an at- 
tack from the Indians. 

There is no settlement between Dodge and Sargent except that at Syracuse; 
and the guards stationed along the line are not so much for military protection 
as for the protection of railroad property. We can easily perceive what an 
amount of damage a marauding band of Indians might do to railroad tracks and 
telegraph wires if allowed to leave their hunting grounds. 


There appears to be a feeling of security and safety among the section 
hands. If there were any danger from Indians we would certainly have heard 
ere this of attacks made upon the trains of teams moving toward Colorado. But 
if eastern people are afraid of Indians, let them settle further east. There are 
fine openings for settlement at Petersburg [now Kinsley], Criley, Larned, Great 
Bend, Ellinwood, Raymond, and Peace [now Sterling], where they can feel 
perfectly secure from any attack from Indians. 

Lakin, Sherlock and Cimmaron are pleasantly located, and will make good 
points for towns; would be fine centers for stock raising communities. 

At Sherlock [present Finney county], we peeped into several "Dug-outs," 
one of them fitted up for lodging and the other for dining; size about 15x20, 
and apparently more comfortable than city basements. Miss Mudge, late from 
the Vermont House of the same place, is cook. She is a noble young woman, 
a splendid cook, and of undaunted courage; for she is the only one of her sex 
in all that region of country. J. B. SCHLICHTER. 


From the Newton Kansan, February 3, 1876. 

What is the use of sitting around on nail kegs when you can go to Rhoades 
and buy a good set of chairs for $4. 


From The Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, October 10, 1882. 

A witness in a liquor trial down at El Dorado, said he had to tell where he 
bought his whisky, for two or three of the jury were with him when he got it, 
and he dare not lie about it. 


From the Thomas County Cat, Colby, January 7, 1886. 

EDEN RESTORED. It has been discovered that Western Kansas is the Eden 
from which Grandfather Adam and Grandmother Eve were driven for fooling 
with the commandments and the Good Man's winter wine saps. The stump 
of the identical tree under which Mrs. Adam was beguiled by the serpent, is 
just south of the river in Hamilton county. The flaming sword that guarded 
the Tree of Life has been stolen, perhaps by the Indians or cowboys, but the 
fig tree is here from which Mrs. Adam manufactured her fashionable but some- 
what scanty wearing apparel. It is dead now probably winter killed but, 
like our flag, it is still here, and furnishes evidence which the oldest inhabi- 
tants dare not dispute. 

The soil is just as fruitful as in ye olden time and produces prodigiously. 
Sunflowers can be seen that will make a dozen rails and a whole lot of hard 
work. Potatoes grow so big that they can only be roasted by building a fire on 


the windward side and when one section is done, waiting for the wind to 
change. Cabbage leaves are used for circus tents, and hoop poles are made 
out of timothy stalks. Jack rabbits grow as large as a horse, and the tail 
feathers of a wild goose make excellent fence posts. Wheat is larger than 
corn in most states, and it is dangerous to plant rye, as the roots have to be 
grubbed out before the ground can be plowed again. A man planted a turnip 
one mile from the railroad last summer and the railroad company sued him for 
obstructing their right of way before the middle of July. 

Pie plant makes excellent bridge timbers, and pumpkins are in good demand 
this winter for barns and houses. Pea pods are used as ferry boats on the 
Arkansas river, and onion seed are much sought after for walling wells and 
terrace work. Rye straw, properly connected, makes superior pipe for drainage, 
and the husk of the berry when provided with rockers, make unique baby cradles. 
North of Coolidge are several lakes of strained honey and we often have 
showers of rose water and cologne in the early part of the year. The settle- 
ment of western Kansas is restoring Eden to its primitive glory and man to 
his first estate. Border Ruffian. 


From the Caldwell Journal, July 8, 1886. 

THE WATER WORKS. A public test of the new city water works was had at 
three o'clock, from the hydrant in front of this office. The test was a suc- 
cess, and a pile of fun was had out of it by the fire companies. No. 2 was 
attached to the hydrant first, and proceeded to wet things down in good shape. 
One or two of No. 1 and some citizens got a few drops of water on them. 

No. 1 was then called and hose attached. No. 2 tried to make themselves 
scarce, but not before three or four of them were drenched to the skin. But 
few citizens were wet much at this bout, but when No. 2 was again called on 
the mud and water flew in all directions, and some of the too curious people 
got pretty badly saturated with soft mud and hard water. Part of it was acci- 
dental, especially to those who were on the side walks; but those of the crowd 
who persisted in swarming into the street and up to the very nozzle of the hose 
were entitled to what they got, and got what was intended for them. 

Chief Colson had a nice suit of clothes about ruined, and assistant chief Nyce 
looked like he had taken a mud bath before the hurrah was over. 

It all amused the crowd and counted for fun. 


From the Minneapolis Messenger, November 28, 1895. 

Rev. S. B. Lucas tells us a good story which reflects some on the appearance 
and rapid movement of the Union Pacific train running from here to Solomon. 
On Monday the train was mistaken by a colt for an emigrant train, to which 
it belonged. The colt left its own train of wagons, and followed the cars for 
about three miles, keeping up with the train with much ease. The owner of 
the colt finally captured it, and had hard work to get it from the train. . . . 

Kansas History as Published in the Press 

Lillian K. Farrar's articles in the Axtell Standard during recent 
months included: "Nemaha County Freighting in the Early Days/' 
April 3, 1952; "Axtell Presbyterian Church," April 10; "A History of 
the Axtell Methodist Church," April 17; "Names in Yesterday's 
Schools in the History of Nemaha County," May 15, and a biographi- 
cal sketch of Albert C. Eichenmann, July 3. 

A column by Elizabeth Barnes, entitled "Historic Johnson 
County," has appeared regularly in the Johnson County Herald, 
Overland Park, in recent months. Subjects discussed included: 
Early trappers and traders, May 15; Santa Fe trail, May 22; Oregon 
trail, May 29; first Indian mission, June 5; Shawnee Indian Manual 
Labor School, June 12; Shawnee Baptist Mission, June 19; Shawnee 
Quaker Mission, June 26; beginning of statehood, July 10; wagons 
and stage coaches used on the Plains, July 17, and distinguished 
visitors to Kansas in the early days, July 31. 

Recent articles in Heinie Schmidt's column, "It's Worth Repeat- 
ing," in The High Plains Journal, Dodge City, were: "[The Rev. 
Homer Gleckler] Tells of Murder of Sam Wood, Pioneer Stevens 
Co. Lawyer," June 12, 1952; "Question Authorship of Words to 
'Sod Shanty on the Claim/ " June 19, and "Pioneer Tells Story of 
Wagon Train Trip Through Southwest," June 26, July 3, 10, 17, 24, 
31, by Charles A. Blanchard. 

Brief historical notes on the "Maine Colony" of Arkansas City, 
appeared in Walter Hutchison's column, "Folks Hereabouts," in the 
Arkansas City Daily Traveler, June 28, 1952. The colony was a 
group of families from Maine who settled in Arkansas City over 80 
years ago. 

An article, explaining the dispute over who was the first mayor of 
Coffeyville, by Dr. T. C. Frazier, was published in the Coffeyville 
Daily Journal, June 29, 1952. In 1872 a portion of the town was in- 
corporated and elected A. B. Clark mayor. A short time later the 
charter was revoked, and in 1873 the entire village was incorporated 
and Dr. G. J. Tallman elected mayor. 

A four-page article on Yates Center by Neil L. Toedman, was 
published in the July, 1952, number of The Mid-West Truckman, 
Yates Center. The town is just now completing its 77th year. 



The Seventh Day Baptist settlement in the Nortonville area was 
the subject of a historical sketch by Myra Maris, printed in the 
Atchison Daily Globe, July 2, 1952. The Baptists arrived late in 
1857, and the first church was organized in 1862. 

A brief historical sketch of Irving was published in the Frankfort 
Index, July 3, 1952. Irving was founded late in 1859 by a group 
from Lyon City, Iowa, on a site selected by W. W. Jerome. 

A summary of K. D. Hamer's article, "Story of Ellsworth," ap- 
peared in the Ellsworth Messenger, July 3, 1952. The original town- 
site of Ellsworth, about two miles southeast of the present town, 
was surveyed in 1867, but that same year the town was moved to 
the present location because of a flood. J. H. Edwards was the first 

In the July 4, 1952, issue of the Hutchinson News-Herald, Ernest 
Dewey described some of the scenery and historic points of south- 
west Kansas. The gold strike of 1893 on the Smoky Hill river was 
the subject of his article on July 13. 

An article on the fight over building a railroad through McCune 
in 1904 was published in the McCune Herald, July 11, 1952. An 
election was held, resulting in a very close vote in favor of a bond 
issue for buying the right of way. Some work was done on the right 
of way but the railroad was never built. 

In connection with its 75th anniversary, a brief history of St. 
Ann's Catholic church, Effingham, was printed in the Atchison Daily 
Globe, July 17, 1952. The church was established as a mission 
parish in 1867 and became a full-fledged parish in 1877. 

The hobby of Charles B. Driscoll, native Kansan, of collecting 
pirate lore, was discussed in an article by John Edward Hicks, 
"Captain Kidd Was No Pirate According to Data in C. B. Driscoll 
Collection," in the Kansas City (Mo.) Star, August 4, 1952. The 
collection, believed to be the world's largest on that subject, has 
been purchased by the Wichita City Library. The story of the cap- 
ture of the wild horse, Black Kettle, by Frank M. Lockard, is told 
in "The Most Famous of Kansas Wild Horses Outmaneuvered by 
Man in a Buckboard," by E. B. Dykes Beachy, in the Kansas City 
(Mo.) Times, July 28. 

The Modern Light, Columbus, has continued in recent months to 
publish the column of historical notes entitled "Do You Remember 

Kansas Historical Notes 

Nyle H. Miller, secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, 
was the principal speaker at a luncheon meeting of the Lyon County 
Historical Society in Emporia, July 4, 1952. 

Thaddeus A. Culbertson's Journal of an Expedition to the Mau- 
vaises Terres and the Upper Missouri in 1850 has been edited by 
John Francis McDermott and recently published as Bulletin 47, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. The book- 
let, 164 pages in length, is Culbertson's day by day account of his 
scientific expedition to the Bad Lands in 1850. 

A 312-page history of the Missouri, Kansas, Texas Railroad, en- 
titled The Katy Railroad and the Last Frontier, by V. V. Masterson, 
was recently published by the University of Oklahoma Press. The 
Katy, originally incorporated as the Union Pacific Railway, Southern 
Branch, came into legal being in September, 1865. 

A collection of letters written home by emigrants to California 
in 1849 and 1850, has been edited by Dr. Walker D. Wyman and 
published by Bookman Associates in a 177-page book entitled Cali- 
fornia Emigrant Letters. 

The material on Kansas history collected by the late Cecil Howes 
during his nearly 50 years as Kansas statehouse reporter for the 
Kansas City Star, has been assembled and edited by his son, Charles 
C. Howes, and recently published by the University of Oklahoma 
Press under the title This Place Called Kansas. The 236-page book 
is a collection of entertaining and revealing anecdotes "representa- 
tive of the social and cultural pattern of the state." 




February 1953 

Published by 

Kansas State Historical Society 



Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor 




Minnie Dubbs Millbrook, 305 
LIGHT ON THE BRINKLEY ISSUE IN KANSAS: Letters of William A. White to 

Dan D, Casement James C. Carey and Verlin R. Easterling, 350 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, 
Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual Address of the Presi- 
dent, DANIEL WEBSTER WILDER, by William T. Beck; Election of Offi- 
cers; List of Directors of the Society Nyle H. Miller, Secretary, 354 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and 
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis- 
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be 
sent to the managing editor at the Historical Society. The Society assumes no 
responsibility for statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


A sod house near Coldwater in the early 1880's. The man is not identified, 
but it is said that he was a bachelor! Which is remindful of the jingle going 
the rounds of western Kansas newspapers in the 1880's, "The Little Old Sod 
Shanty on the Claim," two stanzas of which are as follows: 

I am looking rather seedy now, while holding down my claim, 
And my victuals are not always served the best; 
And the mice play shyly 'round me as I nestle down to sleep, 
In my little old sod shanty on the claim. . . . 

But when I left my Eastern home, a bachelor so gay, 
To try to win my way to wealth and fame, 
I little thought that I'd come down to burning twisted hay, 
In my little old sod shanty on the claim. . . . 

[The photograph, lent by Mrs. J. W. Bosley of Coldwater, was brought in 
by Mrs. Benj. O. Weaver of Mullinville.] 


Volume XX February, 1953 Number 5 

Dr. Samuel Grant Rodgers, Gentleman From Ness 


IN 1872 western Kansas was virtually empty. The Indians, how- 
ever restless and discontented^ were mostly on reservation in 
what is now Oklahoma. The remaining buffalo were being rapidly 
hunted down, skinned and the bones left for later pickers. The 
Kansas Pacific railroad (now Union Pacific) was like a thin bridge, 
stretched across an enormous empty sea, and although little settle- 
ment had followed its building, still another railroad, the Santa 
Fe, was pushing out across that same great vacant land. Here was 
an unprecedented opportunity free land and convenient transpor- 
tation to it open to that restless, always westward-pushing, always 
land-hungry American. And yet the settler was reluctant. The 
reputation of the land was not good; it was dry and the crops might 
not grow. 

But other men, who had learned that profit and power attend 
the settlement of new territory, were ready and anxious. They had 
dreams far beyond a home and a farm for themselves; they would 
build towns and counties. In the best sense, these men were plan- 
ners and creators, building unselfishly for a good community. In 
many cases they were exploiters of their fellows, hoping to control 
the settlement to their own personal gain. In their worst form 
they were outright thieves, faking the establishment of counties and 
towns, secure in the knowledge that no one would come west to 
investigate the phantom populations for which they projected phan- 
tom courthouses and bridges, only to sell the bonds to Eastern 
financiers for real hard cash. 

In the 1870's nearly every town and county organized in western 
Kansas had such a sponsor and it was not always easy to determine 

MRS. RAYMOND H. (MINNIE DUBBS) MILLBROOK, of Detroit, Mich., native of Kansas 
who was educated at Kansas State College, Manhattan, is a housewife and editor of The 
Detroit Society for Genealogical Research Magazine. 



in which category each might belong. Ness county had Dr. Samuel 
Grant Rodgers, who was unsuccessful with his organization and has 
ever since been regarded as a rascal and a cheat. As a consequence, 
for many years Ness countians have chosen to ignore historically, 
what seemed to them, the dishonorable beginnings of the county. 
But when at last the skeleton of these beginnings has been taken 
from the closet, 1 dressed in some long-neglected facts and set in a 
proper contemporary background, the whole affair proves to have 
been not only most interesting but of comparative respectability. 

What has not been generally understood, is that Ness county was 
not the first of Dr. Rodgers' promotions. He served an apprentice- 
ship in Pawnee county where his plans for a model community were 
defeated. Adopting the more successful, more unscrupulous tech- 
niques of his adversaries, he tried again in Ness county and again 
failed. For all his efforts he got neither an established colony nor 
any monetary reward. A failure rather than a thief would be the 
truer word for Dr. Rodgers. 

In order to understand Dr. Rodgers' first promotion, some of the 
early conditions in Pawnee county must be explained. Pawnee was 
not an organized county in 1872, although its boundaries had been 
drawn in 1867, when the Kansas legislature had laid out three tiers 
of western counties 2 all the unoccupied land in Kansas up to 
Range 26 West with the provision that when these counties had 
attained sufficient population (600 inhabitants) they could be or- 
ganized into political units. These 21 counties were uniformly laid 
out, 30 miles by 30 miles, five townships square. Pawnee consisted 
of townships 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 in ranges 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 

In the northeast corner of Pawnee county was Fort Larned, an 
important army post during the Indian wars and still occupied by 
troops in 1872. Among the innumerable tales of earlier events about 
the fort, was one involving Capt. Henry Booth, who in 1864 was 
inspecting officer of the military district in which the fort lay. 
Driving from Fort Zarah with another officer in an ambulance, he 
was attacked by Indians and barely escaped with his life. 3 Earlier 
that same year Captain Booth had commanded an expedition from 

1. Judge Lorin T. Peters of the 33d judicial district of Kansas, intensely interested in 
western Kansas history, has made a thorough search into the organization of Ness and other 
western counties. This article is based on his research, as communicated to the writer by 
Mrs. G. N. Raffington, Ness City. 

2. The Laws of the State of Kansas, 1867, pp. 51-57. 

nM 3 c Ef < *S%* B *5? Series *' v ' 41 > Pt ' X P- 934 Ako > Col. Henry Inman. The 
Old Santa Fe Trail (New York, 1897), pp. 435-451. 


Fort Riley to the relief of Ft. Larned reportedly infested by In- 
dians. 4 Before the war, Booth had been a resident of Riley county 
and after the close of his service in the army, he returned to his 
home there. In 1867 he served as legislator from Riley county in 
the Kansas house. In 1869 he received an appointment as post- 
master at Fort Larned and moved there with his family, establishing 
a sutler's store at the fort. 

When the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad ran its survey 
through Pawnee county in 1871, Booth and several associates began 
planning a new town over on the railroad, six miles east from the 
fort, to be named Larned. In January, 1872, the directors of the 
Larned Town Co., including ex-Governor Samuel Crawford, presi- 
dent, and E. Wilder, secretary,-met at the home of Booth and selected 
the exact site of the town. 5 There is no doubt that Booth, with 
his wide experience in the war and in Kansas affairs, was well-fitted 
to be the leader in the bright future that the railroad would bring 
to Pawnee county. Neither was there any doubt that he had excel- 
lent political connections and many friends in Topeka. 

The first house was "brought bodily from Fort Larned on wheels" 
to the new town by Booth in April. 6 Several other houses were built 
that summer and a number of settlers came in. The railroad was 
completed into Larned on July 20, 1872. With it came the railroad 
construction gang under John D. Criley, who had previously built 
part of the Kansas Pacific across western Kansas, and who now 
located his laborer's camp near Larned at a place called Camp 
Criley. F. C. Hawkins is said to have come with this crew only to 
remain in Larned indefinitely when he found a fine growing town 
that offered possibilities to a man of his talents. 7 Everything was 
going well when Dr. Samuel Grant Rodgers arrived in Pawnee 
county as one of a committee to locate a site for the Chicago work- 
ingman's colony. 

The railroad was completed to the, then, barren plain, where Kinsley now 
stands, in the summer of 1872. In August of that year C. N. Pratt and Dr. 
Samuel G. Rodgers (the gentleman from Ness), representing the "Chicago work- 
ingmen's colony," (the work was to be done by the men who were to follow, 
like all colonies you know,) visited the upper valley and selected the present 

4. War of the Rebellion, Series 1, v. 41, Ft. 1, p. 189. 

5. Capt. Henry Booth, "Centennial History of Pawnee County," read by Captain 
Booth at a centennial celebration, July 4, 1876, and printed beginning November 3, 1899, 
in the Larned Eagle Optic. The history was contributed to the newspaper by Mrs. Isabel 
Worral Ball, historian of the old settlers' association. Clippings are now in the State His- 
torical Library, Topeka. 

6. Ibid. 

7. A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), 
p. 1350. 


site of Kinsley as their objective point, and named it Petersburg, in honor of 
T. J. Peters of the Santa Fe railroad. 8 

In his history of early Pawnee county, Henry Booth gave August 
10 as the day of the location of Petersburg, 24 miles southwest from 
Lamed on the railroad. He named in addition to Rodgers and Pratt 
as the committee of the Chicago Workingmen's Co-operation colony, 
F. W. Neye, J. Trumbull, and Robert McCanse. He stated further 
that the place was selected on account of the fertility of the soil, 
the healthfulness of the climate, and the abundance of pure water. 
This colony, it would seem, would offer only the best of advantages 
to its colonists. 

This, then, was the entrance of Dr. Rodgers upon the Pawnee 
county scene one of a committee to locate and promote a co-oper- 
ative colony of workingmen from Chicago. To establish such a 
colony was his ambition and his dream and there is no evidence 
throughout his experience in western Kansas that he ever wavered 
from this primary objective. Organized colonies of this type were 
actively advocated by the social idealists of that day in the hope 
of relieving the pressure of poverty on the working class of the cities. 
Many such colonies were planned and begun in Kansas, several in 
the vicinity of what is now Kinsley. Needless to say, they were 
regarded with ridicule and hostility by the hard-bitten realists 9 of 
the Western country, and particularly those whose personal plans 
might be endangered by such altruistic ideas. 

It is to be regretted that all our judgment of Dr. Rodgers must be 
based on the few newspaper clippings and official records that now 
remain to tell of his work, since nothing has been found concerning 
his life prior to August, 1872, or after the spring of 1874. One of 
his colonists said that he was an Englishman, a dark, slender, genteel 
looking, fellow. 10 He was 40 years old in 1874 n and he was from 
Chicago. A check of the directories of that city, show him listed 
as a resident only in 1872 and 1873, the same years in which he was 

8. Kinsley Republican, January 4, 1879. This is a rewrite with interpolations, from 
J. A. Walker's "Early History of Edwards County," which was edited by James C. Malin 
and published in The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 9, pp. 259-284. This particular quota- 
tion is used here since it shows the local contemptuous attitude toward Rodgers and his 
colony. It also reflects the fact that even in Kinsley, Rodgers was better remembered as 
of Ness county. 

9. In the Kinsley Republican, January 4, 1879, there is a characterization of a co- 
operative colony "as an institution founded upon the principle that to secure a quarter of 
land was to transform a poor mechanic into a wealthy prince." An editorial in the Kinsley 
Graphic, May 4, 1878, stated of such colonies, "As a rule they are successful failures. 
That is, as failures they are a success." 

10. Fern Cook interviewed William Lenihan, one of Rodgers' Ness county colonists in 
1935. The article to be written from this interview was never completed, but her notes 
were lent to the writer. 

11. D. W. WUder, The Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), p. 631. 


promoting his Kansas colony, and it is therefore assumed that he 
was resident there only for the purpose of recruiting settlers. 12 

The advent of Rodgers and his town of Petersburg probably 
brought some misgivings to Capt. Henry Booth in Lamed. Rodgers 
must have talked busily as was his wont, with anyone who would 
listen, about the model community, 13 he and his associates would 
build, where workingmen of great cities like Chicago, might attain 
independence and a great future. While to the more experienced 
Booth, the Chicago doctor must have seemed naive and an all round 
tender-foot, still the doctor's appeal to prospective settlers in Chi- 
cago and points east, would conceivably be compelling. At least his 
arrival was a warning that the railroad would bring others with 
similar dreams of building towns and if Larned's lead was to be 
preserved, time was of the essence. 

So in October, Henry Booth, D. A. Bright and A. H. Boyd secured 
signatures to a petition or memorial, asking for the organization of 
Pawnee county. The law passed in 1872 by the legislature, specify- 
ing the procedure for organizing new counties (ch. 106) required 
that such a petition be signed by 40 householders who were legal 
electors of the county. Evidently, there were not 40 legal electors 
in Pawnee county at that time. According to one report, 14 "An imi- 
grant train came toiling by and the men in Lamed rode out, held it 
up and forced the men in the party to sign the petition . 
Notwithstanding the way the signatures were obtained, Henry 
Booth, D. A. Bright and A. H. Boyd, on October 7, 1872, swore 
under oath before George B. Cox, a justice of the peace, that "the 
above signatures are the genuine signatures of householders and 
legal electors of the County of Pawnee." 15 Henry Booth also on 
October 7 wrote Gov. James M. Harvey a letter and the first sen- 
tence of the letter contains the following: "I send you herewith a 
petition of 40 householders and legal electors of this county." The 
letter also bears a postscript in which Henry Booth recommended 
"F. C. Hawkins as a good man to take the census and would be 
pleased to see him appointed." 16 

If there were not 40 householders or legal electors in the county, 
there scarcely could have been 600 inhabitants as were by law re- 

12. Dr. Rodgers was listed as a physician at 277 Clark St., and 318 Clark St. One of 
his colonists said he had an office on State St. 

13. In practically every existing letter or direct quotation of Dr. Rodgers, his model 
colony is mentioned. 

14. Great Bend Tribune, December 24, 1934. From an article written by Dwight B. 
Christy, who was the third sheriff of Pawnee county. 

15. Records of the secretary of state, Topeka. 

16. Ibid. 


quired for the organization of a county. But if the first step in the 
conspiracy succeeded, how much more confidently might the second 
misrepresentation be compounded! According to the law of 1872, 
upon receipt of the petition for organization, the governor should 
appoint some "competent person who was a bona fide resident of the 
county to take the census/' At this point the governor, however 
uninformed he may have been of the true facts in the case, could 
have stopped this fraudulent organization and set up a precedent 
that would have prevented many subsequent ones. He could have 
diligently investigated the qualifications of his appointee his 
census taker and made sure that the census was correctly taken. 
In this manner, as was the plain intent of the law, the whole process 
of organizing the new counties would have been safe-guarded. 
But Governor Harvey did not bother, he appointed F. C. Hawkins, 
the man recommended by Booth. In the Norton county organiza- 
tion of the same year he also appointed without investigation the 
locally recommended census-taker. Governor Osborn followed this 
same loose practice with Harper, Ness, Barbour, and Comanche 
counties in 1873. Thus the door was opened to the fraudulent 

Since the census of F. C. Hawkins is typical of what occurred in 
all these fraudulent organizations, let us therefore consider it some- 
what in detail. On October 19, 1872, F. C. Hawkins took an oath 
before George B. Cox, a justice of the peace in Pawnee county, to 
"take the census of Pawnee county to the best of my knowledge and 
ability. So help me, God." On October 28, 1872, F. C. Hawkins 
finished the census and sent it to the governor with this certification: 
"I certify that the foregoing schedule of bona fide inhabitants of 
Pawnee county is correct. Signed: Francis C. Hawkins, Census 
taker for Pawnee county." 17 The census report showed 674 in- 
habitants in Pawnee county 18 women, 48 children and 618 men 
a rather strangely assorted population. 

All this had been done in the absence of Dr. Rodgers, who ap- 
parently was in Chicago drumming up settlers. When he returned 
to Pawnee county on October 28, he was shocked and surprised at 
what he saw and heard had been going on in his absence. He 
wrote indignantly to W. H. Smallwood, secretary of state, at Topeka: 

Oct. 28, 1872 

Dear Sir 

On my arrival here I found that the most dishonest means are being taken 

17. Ibid. 


to organize this county. Inhabitants of Hodgeman and other counties are 
upon the list. Even persons who are merely travelling by rail have been taken. 

And the names of; the workmen from the pay list the A.T. & S.F.R.R. have 
been taken while many of them are discharged months since. 

Also all the Soldiers names are taken contrary to law. Will you please 
stay all proceeding in the matter till I return to Topeka on Wednesday or Thurs- 
day first. I am now with two men taking the census. 

It will be much to the interest of the state to do so as I am afraid our 
Colony will not come if this proceeds as we want to have a Model Colony in 
regard to Education, taxation and all else which will benefit them. 

We will contest this matter if they persevere in their fraudulent attempts 
to organize the county. 

Most Respectfully 
Your Obedient Servant 

N. B. Hawkins says here in public that he takes the census by Governor Har- 
vey's request in order to get two men to the legislature to vote for a certain 
purpose this winter. SGR 18 

Since the date of this letter is the same as that on the census re- 
port, the letter must have reached the secretary of state at the 
same time as the census report, furnishing to the governor, evi- 
dence that his appointed officer, F. C. Hawkins, was guilty of fraud 
and perjury in the census report that he had submitted. But fear- 
ful perhaps that his letter would not arrive in time, Dr. Rodgers 
sent a telegram to the secretary of state, which was received in To- 
peka, October 29, at 11 A. M.: 

Dated GREAT BEND Ks 28 1872 
Received at Oct. 29 11 am 


Great fraud in taking census please stop all proceedings till I reach Topeka 


From this telegram it is certain that the governor in Topeka knew 
that the census of Pawnee county was not above suspicion. Not- 
withstanding this, Governor Harvey, on November 4, appointed the 
commissioners for Pawnee county and proclaimed the county or- 
ganized. Was there fraud in the census of F. C. Hawkins an offi- 
cer of the governor? Of this there is no doubt. On May 8, 1873, 
A. L. Williams, attorney general of the state of Kansas, filed a quo 
warranto proceedings in the supreme court, to set aside the organi- 
zation of Pawnee county and in .his petition alleged in detail that 

18. Correspondence of the secretary of state, Archives division, Kansas State Historical 
Society. As there is no address given in this letter to show from where it was written, 
it has been carelessly attributed to Rodgers' Ness county adventure. The date and the 
reference to Hawkins, place it without question as referring to the Pawnee county organi- 

19. Ibid. 


the organization "was procured by fraud and perjury and the census 
taken of said county was false and fraudulent." The board of county 
commissioners and the county clerk in their answer to the petition 
admitted all the allegations of fraud. (State vs Commissioners, 
Pawnee County, 12 Kan. 426.) 

Why did the governor ignore this evidence of fraud? Here again 
an honest courageous stand by the governor might have preserved 
the intention of the organization law, rendered helpless the self- 
seeking organizers and protected the future citizens of western Kan- 
sas from the monstrous debts that were loaded onto them without 
their consent and knowledge as a consequence. Timid, intimi- 
dated, complaisant, or corrupt the governor ignored the evidence 
and proceeded with the organization of Pawnee county. 

The record is silent, but considering his telegram, Dr. Rodgers 
must have gone to Topeka. It would be interesting to know what 
Governor Harvey and the secretary of state told him. Did they 
tell him that it was important for counties to be organized now that 
the railroad had come through? Did they tell him that settlers 
would come more readily if organized law had already been estab- 
lished for their protection? These were the arguments later used 
by Rodgers when he was under attack for his organization of Ness 
county. 20 Did they also tell him that as long as the legal formalities 
were fulfilled, they had no power to refuse the organization? In 
1875, Governor Osborn, in his message to the legislature asked for 
a new county organization law claiming that the 1872 law was 
defective in that the governor's "functions are ministerial only," 
and he had no power to deny an organization if the preliminaries 
were observed in the counties and the proper papers presented to 
him. This was the political alibi of gross neglect of duty on the 
part of the governors, in the face of the scandal that broke late in 
1874, which concerned the fraudulent organizations of Comanche, 
Harper, and Barber counties with their $200,000 bonded indebted- 
ness. However, the claim was a misstatement of the law. From 
State vs Sillon, et al, 21 Kan. 207, we quote the following, with 
respect to the fraudulent organization of Pratt county: "Fraud 
and falsehood poison the proceedings throughout, and notwith- 
standing the regularity of the records, ... all of these pro- 
ceedings, being in violation of law, are void, and the pretended or- 
ganization is consequently void." 

True it was that Governor Harvey was merely a ministerial offi- 

SO. House Journal 1874, pp. 445, 446. 


cer of the legislature in the organization of Pawnee county, yet 
when he obtained information that one of his appointees, F. C. 
Hawkins, had committed fraud and perjury in the census, no law 
required the governor to perform a void act. It was the duty of the 
governor to investigate the matter and, if the evidence warranted it, 
lay the matter before the attorney general for investigation and 
prosecution of his guilty appointee. The intention of the legislature 
of 1872 was plainly manifest by the act itself. It determined that 
there should be 600 bona fide inhabitants before a county could be 
organized and, in order to safeguard this requirement, it provided 
that the governor should appoint a "bona fide, competent census 
taker/' thus guarding at every step the 600 requirement, and 
hedging it with a precaution that would have insured such a result 
if the governor had diligently performed his duty. 21 

While in the light of history, there seems to have been no excuse 
for the governor's ready compliance with fraudulent procedures, 
still at the time, Dr. Rodgers was apparently convinced of the 
validity of the governor's action. He later stated before the legis- 
lature of 1874, that he had found it impossible to do anything about 
the Pawnee county organization. 22 It follows also that he was 
persuaded that nothing could stop any other county organization 
along similar lines. 

Besides appointing temporary county commissioners and de- 
claring the county of Pawnee organized on November 4, 1872, the 
governor also designated Larned as the temporary county seat. 
In this regard the law stated that the governor should "designate 
such place as he may select, centrally located, as a temporary 
county seat." Larned was located in the extreme northeast corner 
of the county. Although the organization papers and official ap- 
pointments could not possibly have arrived, the temporary county 
commissioners acted immediately and on the very next day held 
an election, 23 first dividing the county into two townships, a voting 
precinct in each, in strict observation of the organization law. These 
two precincts were located, one at Fort Larned and one at Larned, 
within six miles of each other, in the northeast part of a county 
30 miles long and 30 miles wide. This action practically excluded 

21. The citations of the supreme court and their applications were furnished to the 
writer by Judge Lorin T. Peters who, in 1948, was appointed by the supreme court to 
try the Morton county-seat case probably the last county seat fight in the state. Dunn 
vs Morton County, 165 Kan. 314. 

22. The Commonwealth, Topeka, February 4, 1874. 

23. November 5 was the regular general election day of 1872. In defending the 
Pawnee county organization before the supreme court, 12 Kan. 426, the defendants claimed 
mat a .30 day notice of the election was not necessary as everyone was bound to know the 
general election date. 


the bulk of the county from participation in the election. In the 
first place there was no notice of the election and second, no polling 
place, at which residents in the more remote parts of the county, 
could vote. 

However, Captain Criley and his railroad workers, together with 
members of the Chicago Workingmen's colony, did not accept this 
action passively. Hawkins had listed the railroad workers and the 
members of the colony as inhabitants of the county so they decided 
they had a right to vote and they proceeded to do so. Unfortunately 
we have no unbiased account of this action. Captain Booth recites 
it in detail in his history and his supporters in the legislature pre- 
sented virtually the same story when the election was later being 
considered in the house: 

That on the day of said general election, a large number of men were in the 
employ of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Co., upon the line of its 
road through said county of Pawnee; that the said persons were not legal resi- 
dents of said county at the date of the general election, being there temporarily, 
and with the intention of moving westward with said road; that no families 
were with them, and they have since moved westward; that the said persons 
had their headquarters at a place called Camp Criley, which place was situated 
in Lamed City, 24 the township voting place being at Lamed City; that on the 
day of said general election, about eleven o'clock A. M., certain of aforesaid per- 
sons in the employ of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Co., pretended 
to organize themselves into an election board . . . and received the votes 
of others of said employes or railroad hands until about 4 o'clock P. M. of said 
day, when the persons who were acting as judges and clerks of said pretended 
election, got aboard of a railroad train without ballot boxes and poll books, 
and proceeded west twelve miles to a locality called "Siding No. 2," at which 
place they opened the ballot box and received votes of other railroad hands, 
and did not return to Camp Criley until 9 P. M. . . . 25 

The county commissioners proceedings concerning this election, 
written up later, shows only that the county was divided into two 
precincts for convenient townships with the Larned township poll- 
ing place at Cox & Boyd Hotel in Larned and the Pawnee township 
polling place at Booth's sutler store. While the votes were tabulated 
by townships for state officers, only the total votes were recorded 
for the county offices, indeed the votes for county officers seems 
to have been an afterthought. F. C. Hawkins was elected sheriff, 

24. There is some confusion as to the location of Camp Criley at this time. Booth 
himself states that the camp was moved when the railroad reached a point about 12 miles 
west of Larned, which would have been around the latter part of July or first of August. 
But other sources seem to indicate that the camp was not moved until after the election 
when Criley quarreled with Booth over his refusal to allow the county commissioners to 
canvass the votes of the Criley faction. 

While it is impossible to know how long these railroad men had been in the county, 
it is reasonable to believe that some of them had been there since the railroad came into 
the county. Hawkins himself came with this railroad gang. The Booth faction claimed that 
only four of the electors who voted in this "outlaw" fashion were legal electors. 

25. House Journal, 1873, pp. 417, 418. 


but the election tally omitted any mention of Henry Booth's elec- 
tion as representative. Thirty-eight votes were cast and no mention 
was made of the voting of the other faction. Although Booth said, 
"There was no clamoring for office there were more than enough 
to go around . . . ," he does in the end become more factual 
and names the parties voted for at Camp Criley and points west. 
Among the county commissioners was Captain Criley. 26 Other can- 
didates for office were A. D. Clute, F. V. Neye and Robert Mc- 
Canse, all known to have been members of the Chicago working- 
men's colony. Dr. Rodgers was entered as candidate for represen- 
tative to the state legislature. It is easy to conjecture that the 
Petersburg faction with help from the railroad camp, being excluded 
or lacking a polling place out in the county, took matters into their 
own hands, provided their own polls and did their own voting. It 
was a blundering, straight forward action that would naturally 
arouse the scorn of Booth who, ostensibly at least, appreciated the 
legal niceties. He saw to it that the county commissioners refused 
to canvass these spontaneous votes. 

Later others were not so scornful of the effort of Criley, Rodgers, 
and followers to cast their votes. The state board of canvassers 
confronted by the two sets of election returns for representative 
from Pawnee county, solicited the advice of the attorney general 
of the state and was advised to canvass neither of them. 27 Hence 
when the legislature of 1873 convened, the matter was turned over 
to the house itself for a decision. 

But when the house gathered in January, 1873, the contest for 
representative of Pawnee county was overshadowed by a much 
greater problem. The constitution of the state of Kansas provided 
that the house should be composed of not more than one hundred 
members and that each county should be represented by at least 
one member. 28 As the representation had been apportioned earlier 
and a number of the eastern counties had several representatives, 
each according to population, 99 of the seats were already taken, 
leaving only one seat open to the new counties that had been or- 
ganized since the legislature met in 1872. 29 This seat was to go to 
Norton county 30 as it had been the first of the four new counties 

26. Captain Criley, construction boss of the Santa Fe, was a man of great resource 
and no emergency daunted him. This election episode was undoubtedly of his planning al- 
though there is now no evidence to prove it. 

27. House Journal, 1873, p. 416. 

28. Kansas Constitution, Article 2, Section 2. Also, Article 10, Section 1. Also, The 
Laws of the State of Kansas, 1871, p. 32. 

29. At that time, an election was held every year and the legislature met every year. 

30. Norton county, organized on August 22, 1872, with presumably 600 inhabitants, 
cast 32 votes for representative on November 5, 1872. Another fraudulent organization? 


now coming and asking seats. If the others were to be admitted, 
then some of the larger counties would have to give up some of their 
representatives, as they were not disposed to do. This dilemma 
was gotten around by refusing seats to either of the contestants 
from Pawnee county, the Rooks county representative and the 
Ford county representative, this last having been adjudged illegally 
elected anyhow. Therefore, Henry Booth was correct when he 
stated in his history, "The constitutional limit having been reached 
as to number of representatives, the member from Pawnee, after 
eleven days, was voted out together with members from two other 

The committee on elections did, however, make some investiga- 
tion and a report in the matter of the Pawnee county election. 81 
Their report of February 13, stated: 

The organization of the county of Pawnee was made and completed in the 
city of Topeka on the fourth day of November, 1872, and the pretended elec- 
tion held in said county . . . shows that the will of the people could not 
have been fully and properly expressed at the said election, occurring the day 
after the organization. 

And hence your Committee reports that neither of the persons claiming 
seats, under said pretended election are entitled to be admitted as members or 
delegates in this Legislature. But should this House decide to respect the will 
of the people 32 as so expressed in said election, then your Committee would 
recommend that Mr. Rodgers be entitled to the seat for the reason that he, 
( Mr. Rodgers, ) received 108 votes, and Mr. Booth but 35 votes. 

The minority report of the committee was presented by Simeon 
Motz of Ellis county and as previously stated, retold the Booth ver- 
sion of the election. 33 There was some support in the house for this 
minority report but as related above both the majority and minority 
reports were more or less ignored, due to the preoccupation of the 
house with the problem of keeping the size of the house to its con- 
stitutional limit. It is perhaps indicative of the character of that 
house, that they respected the 100 member limit set by the constitu- 
tion and maintained the status quo, preferring to ignore that other 
provision of the constitution that no organized county should be 
without representation. In this case, the will of the people desiring 

31. House Journal, 1873, p. 416. 

32. There was no consistency in the decisions of the house as to the admission of mem- 
bers. In the report here quoted, the statement is made that the will of the people could 
not possibly have been expressed in so sudden an election and yet goes on to say that if 
the house decided to respect the will of the people. These reports so often started out with 
expressions concerning the purity of election laws and ended up with a recommendation 
of admitting or rejecting members on entirely different grounds. Reno county was organ- 
ized January 6, 1871, and the election held January 8, and yet the representative was 
allowed to sit. 

33. This alignment of the Ellis county representative against Dr. Rodgers marks the 
beginning of the Ellis county animosity that was to harrass the doctor later. 


expression received scant consideration. Both Rodgers and Booth 
were sent home. 

Meantime, down in Petersburg, progress had been made: 
Undismayed, Dr. Rodgers proceeded with his improvements and on the 5th 
day of December 1872 the corner stone of the Buffalo House, (the structure 
now known as the Kinsley Hotel,) was laid in ample form by Dr. Rodgers and 
Robt. McCanse, 34 between where now is Parker's blacksmith shop and the 
railroad track, and the building approached completion as rapidly as the Dr. 
could get trusted for material** About this time the railroad company estab- 
lished a telegraph office at the tank three miles west of Petersburg . . ., 
also A. D. Clute was prospecting about Petersburg, having become a member 
of the "Worldngmen's Colony." 86 

There were several towns in Pawnee county by early 1873; a gov- 
ernment supply point on the railroad southwest of Larned; Garfield, 
established near Camp Criley by a colony from Ohio; and Fitchburg 
farther down the line. Dr. Rodgers' town continued to improve. In 
February the telegraph office and operator had been moved into 
Petersburg, the Buffalo House had been sided, by March 10 it was 
occupied as a hotel and the railroad trains stopped at the town for 
meals. A colony from Illinois and one from Boston, Mass., had 
come into the community. 37 This Massachusetts colony was also a 
co-operative and since it had much the same ideals and objectives, 
seems soon to have merged itself with the workingmen's colony. 
There had been bad luck too. A party of Germans, who had come 
to Chicago bound for Kansas, had been persuaded to settle in 
Petersburg. In the end though, they stopped in Barton county and 
settled on the Walnut and Cheyenne bottoms, about six miles from 
Great Bend. 38 There were 16 families in this party and it would 
have been a sizable addition to the Petersburg community. The 
report of the settlement of this group contains the terms offered by 
the Chicago colony a town lot 50 x 140 for $50 and a quarter sec- 
tion of land for $218. 

Another statement of the ambitions of Dr. Rodgers and his colony 
is given in the Kansas Daily Commonwealth of March 13, 1873: 

34. According to his own account in the Kinsley Graphic, June 14, 1901, Robert Mc- 
Canse was a member of the Chicago workingmen's colony. He paid $25 for this mem- 

Robert McCanse was appointed census taker in Edwards county in 1874, as a preliminary 
to that county's organization. However, he could find but 301 inhabitants and standing 
firm on his census, the organization was stalled, until the governor appointed another census 
taker. The second census taker was able to find one month later, 611 inhabitants in 
Edwards county, which goes to show what the governors might have accomplished had 
they been more discriminating in their appointments of census takers. 

35. The italics are not those of the original writer but of this copyist. They emphasize 
the fact that Dr. Rodgers had little money with which to back his plans. 

36. Edwards County Leader, Kinsley, March 14, 1878, a history by J. A. Walker. 
Walker, himself, was a member of the Massachusetts colony. 

37. Ibid. 

38. Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, February 25, 1873, correspondence from 
Great Bend. 


Dr. S. G. Rodgers, of Chicago, who had returned from a trip over Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe road to the southwest for the purpose of selecting a location 
for a colony of six hundred families, says that he has traveled over Europe and 
America and testifies that Kansas, and especially the Arkansas valley, is the 
most beautiful country he ever saw. He and Messrs. Nye and Redsell had 
received from the directors of the A. T. & S. F. railroad, passes to carry them 
from Chicago and back in order to select the location for six hundred families 
colonist; and he says he never dreamed of such a garden of Eden as that valley 
presents to the settler. He says the vegetable mould is from four to ten feet 
deep; is inexhaustible, and would, if cultivated, raise food for all Europe. He 
thought the people of Kansas were selfish or they would have told the world of 
the great beauty and fertility of the state, but he said it would be a secret no 
longer, as he and Capt. Nye had begun and would not stop until the valley is 
filled with families from Europe and all parts of America. 

He said that from the governor to the railroad constructors at the end of the 
road, every one had vied with each other as to who would show them the 
most kindness, and he would go home to tell the people of Chicago that not 
only is Kansas the most beautiful and healthy and fertile state in the union, but 
her people are the kindest he ever met. 

He said they would bring a steam plow and brick machine, and dig an 
artesian well, and make their colony a model for America. Atchison Guide 

Despite the discouragements suffered in his contest with Booth 
on the county organization and the diversion of his colonists to 
Barton county, Rodgers here still seems brimming with enthusiasm. 
His words, read today, seem astonishingly prophetic. The steam 
plow or its gasoline counterpart did come to western Kansas, the 
Arkansas valley presently did help abundantly to feed Europe and 
truly the inexhaustibility of the soil became the wonder of scientists 

But at the time Rodgers was making his glowing appraisal of 
Kansas and her kind people, Booth and his associates had already 
counted another coup on the doctor and his supporters. A bill re- 
arranging the boundaries of a number of counties, among them 
several along the Santa Fe railroad, was quietly passed by the Kansas 
legislature on March 5, the day before adjournment. 39 As new 
settlers had come into these new counties, the town planners be- 
came increasingly aware that a central location was the determining 
factor when the voters came to choose the county seat. County 
seats, already located, might even lose that honor, if the situation 
was deemed too inconvenient. So the more politically influential 
town planners had the county lines redrawn, a process much simpler 
to accomplish than moving their town and much less painful than 
losing the county seat. 

39. The Law* of the State of Kansas, 1873, pp. 152, 153. 


Henry Booth intimated that he got this idea from the managers 
of the Chicago colony, who instructed Rodgers to go down to 
Topeka and get the lines changed so as to eliminate Larned from 
Pawnee county. This is hard to believe since in the whole course 
of rivalry between Booth and Rodgers, Rodgers seems to have been 
continually several jumps behind the more agile Booth. But how- 
ever the idea originated, Booth, according to his own admission, 
was one of those who implemented it. Although eliminated from 
a seat in the legislature himself, he remained to look after his in- 
terests and so potent was his influence that "the county lines were 
changed by cutting twelve miles off the south leaving Petersburg 
out and adding six miles on the north, which were taken from 
Rush county, and six miles on the east, which were taken from 
Stafford county." This as Booth said frankly, "brought Larned 
nearer the center of the county and strengthened it as the county 
seat." He failed to add that Larned was the stronger, too, because 
not only Petersburg but every other town, was by this same action, 
cut off and cast out of Pawnee county entirely. 40 

More graphically than words, the accompanying map tells the 
story of this rearrangement of county lines and the ensuing benefit 
to county seats of that area. 41 

On January 25, 1874, the Topeka Commonwealth reported that 
two petitions had been presented to the legislature asking that the 
original county lines of Pawnee county be restored. One petition 
was signed by inhabitants living in Pawnee county; the other was 
signed by the inhabitants of the detached part of Pawnee county. 42 
The result was that the legislature again saved Booth and his county 
seat by returning one township to Pawnee the one containing Gar- 
field and creating Edwards county out of the orphan townships. 

Whether by design or unwittingly, the legislature of 1873 did 
Booth and Pawnee another good turn. A law was passed detaching 
Pawnee from Ellis county for judicial purposes and authorizing dis- 
trict courts to be held in Pawnee. 43 This recognition by the legisla- 
ture of Pawnee as an organized county caused the supreme court 
to declare in March, 1874 (12 Kan. 426), that since the legislature 
had the exclusive power to provide for the organization of new coun- 

40. Booth's history, loc. cit. 

41. The Laws of the State of Kansas, 1873, pp. 146-156. 

42. Booth could not afford to have the original county reconstituted. Although Larned 
was voted the county seat at a special election on October 7, 1873, he was worried about 
the county lines and on November 14 wrote to W. H. Smallwood, secretary of state, who 
seems to have been the special friend of all the county organizers, "I wish you would do 
all you can consistently for me and our County. We are in a condition that renders it 
absolutely necessary for us to have someone to watch our interests especially our County 

43. The Laws of the State of Kansas, 1873, pp. 165-167. 












1 ] 
















! i 

I J I 



ties, the fraudulent organization of Pawnee was cured of its defect 
and rendered valid by this recognition of the county organization. 
All in all the legislature of 1873 could not have done more for Henry 
Booth even if it had admitted him to membership. 

Properly for this story, the chronicle of Henry Booth should end 
with the casting out of Petersburg and Dr. Rodgers from Pawnee 
county, but as a contribution to an understanding of the political 
climate of that day, the manipulations of Henry Booth are important. 
Henry Booth never suffered any loss of honor or prestige on account 
of his actions and maneuvers in organizing and maintaining his hold 
over the political affairs of Pawnee county. He became clerk of the 
house in the legislature of 1875 and 1876, later speaker of the house, 
and in 1878 was appointed district land agent at Larned. His- 
torians have never classed him with the other fraudulent county 
organizers of his time, although he used exactly the same methods 


with the exception that he did not perhaps load his county with 
a great burden of bonds as did some of the other organizers. In 
Pawnee and Edwards counties his tactics were expressed, summed 
up and possibly also judged by the phrase, he "out-generaled" his 
opponents. 44 And it is quite likely that his success encouraged other 
opportunists to go and do likewise. 

And what of Dr. Rodgers? Apparently a sincere, well-meaning 
man, obsessed with the dream of founding a model colony in the 
west for workingmen, he had been frustrated and beaten at every 
turn. He had not attracted enough colonists to retain his leadership 
after the more numerous Massachusetts colony had coalesced with 
the few settlers from Chicago. Although he retained his equity in 
the Buffalo House and it was on its way to become one of the most 
important dining stops along the Santa Fe railroad, it had capable 
managers. While we can only conjecture, Rodgers' actions suggest 
that he still retained his faith in the country and his project; that 
he believed that having learned the tactics of the day in organizing 
counties and being given a clear field, where old animosities would 
not interfere, he could apply his hard-won knowledge and still 
build a successful colony. Dr. Rodgers sought a new field for his 

Now other less scrupulous men, desirous of organizing counties 
in 1873, also sought places well off the beaten path, where they 
might, unobserved, complete their plans, vote their bonds and de- 
part to cash them, leaving the payment to the future citizens of the 
luckless county. Some of these conspirators scarcely bothered to 
go into the county which they were prepared to victimize. 45 While 
Dr. Rodgers' organization in Ness county has always been classed 
along with these others in 1873, there were several important dif- 
ferences. 46 For one thing, he insisted on having a population and 
went to great trouble to recruit it from among workingmen of 

44. Walker's history, Edwards County Leader, March 14, 1878. 

45. Harper and Comanche counties were particularly notorious for their illegal or- 
ganizations in 1873. A special session of the state legislature in September, 1874, alarmed 
by the great number of bonds that had been issued in these counties, appointed an investi- 
gating committee of which A. L. Williams, the attorney general, was one. His report 
(House Journal, 1875, p. 72) states: "It is not pretended that Harper county ever had an 
inhabitant; it is doubtful even if the bond-makers of that county were ever in the county." 
Of Comanche, he said: "I visited the county myself, and declare, as the results of actual 
observation, that there are no inhabitants in the county, and that there never was a bona 
fide inhabitant there." 

46. It is believed that much of the ill repute of Dr. Rodgers and his Ness county 
organization is due to the scandals connected with the other counties that were organized 
at the same time. Since practically every county that was organized in the decade of 
1870-1880 was attended by fraud in some particular or degree, the study of any one 
specific county is really a study in the variations and contrast among these several counties. 
Ness county has always been bracketed with Harper and Comanche, but the details of the 
organizations differ greatly, as can be shown. 



Chicago and take it to Ness county. He was even rather particular 
about who was to belong to the colony, enlisting workmen of various 
crafts so the colony would have within itself the skills necessary 
to actually build a model community. It is believed that he still 
held to the co-operative organization, 47 envisioning the group work- 
ing together to build the public buildings the community would 
need. If Dr. Rodgers had larceny in his heart, and that alone, he 
certainly went to a lot of trouble that was totally unnecessary. 

While we have no direct information that Rodgers ever visited 
Ness county to locate a site for his proposed colony, it seems likely 
that he did. 48 For by June, 1873, the plans were laid. In that 
month William Lenihan, one of the colonists, who remained in the 
West afterwards and has been one of our principal sources of in- 
formation concerning the colony, 49 met Rodgers at Rush street 
bridge in Chicago where boys were scattering literature, and be- 
came interested. Later he went to Rodgers' office where he pur- 
chased a town lot in the town-to-be for $30, paying $10 down and 
being trusted for the rest. 50 The depression of 1873 was already so 
severe in Chicago, that Lenihan was able to draw only a few dollars 
a week from his bank account. Acquaintances in Chicago thought 
he was crazy to consider going way out west to a place no one knew 
anything about. 

The Maguires and John Shannon 51 became members of the colony 
later. They stated: 

That in the month of September 1873 and for some time thereto, they 
were residents of the city of Chicago . . . that their attention was at- 
tracted by divers advertisements appearing in the public prints 52 of that city 

47. There is but little information on this point. The colony was so short-lived that there 
remains few details of its community structure. However, there were evidences that the 
colonists were to function in some respects as a group and had certain expectations as mem- 
bers of the group that would imply some co-operative organization. None of the colonists 
was ever questioned on this point as far as is known because Dr. Rodgers' interest in co- 
operative colonies has been but recently discovered, too late to question any of the colonists 
who remained in the west. 

48. George Strong, a Ness county settler in July, 1873, near whose home the Rodgers 
colony located its town, met the first contingent when it arrived in Hays. Hence there must 
have been some communication between him and Rodgers previously. 

49. William Lenihan, a young man of 21 years, was from a farm near Cooperstown, 
N. Y., and had been a carpenter in Chicago only a few months. He remained in Ness 
county a number of years, then moved to Lane county and died in Scott county in 1942. 
Fern Cook interviewed Lenihan in 1935 and he stated at that time that he still had his 
receipt for his town lot. Other garbled, inaccurate interviews with Lenihan on the subject 
of the Rodgers' colony were reported in The Neics Chronicle, Scott City, September 21, 28, 
and October 5, 12, 19, 1939. Also in the Hutchinson Herald, May 28, 1940. Lenihan was 
reluctant to talk about the organization because he did not share the common belief in 
Rodgers' rascality and that was what the interviewers asked about. 

50. As far as can be ascertained this was the only charge for becoming a member of the 
Rodgers colony. 

51. The Maguires were a family group from Ireland composed of the mother with a 
number of her children, grown, several with families. John Shannon also was a family man 
from Ireland. 

52. The Chicago Tribune of May, June, July and August, 1873, and the Chicago Journal 
of June, July and August, 1873, were searched in the hope of finding Rodgers' advertisement 
but there was none that could be definitely attributed to him. 


and in other ways, to a certain scheme of colonizing a portion of the State of 
Kansas which was known under the name of the Rodgers' Colony. 53 

Rodgers enlisted some 20 or more members for his Ness county 
colony 54 some were young single men and some were men with 
families, about two-thirds of them of Irish extraction. 55 By the 
middle of August the plans neared completion and Rodgers asked 
the U. S. army headquarters in Chicago to arrange for an army 
escort from Hays to Ness county upon the arrival of the colonists in 
Kansas. 56 However, the first group of about 15 families did not 
leave Chicago until September. They occupied one whole car of 
the train, thus getting a cheaper ticket rate for the group. It is not 
known whether Dr. Rodgers accompanied this group or not. On 
September 20, 1873, he wrote the Kansas secretary of state from an 
undisclosed location: 

Dear Sir I tried to see you before you left here. Will you please have 
James Lee appointed Justice for Ness Co. at your earliest convenience. 

Will [you] also send me to (Hayes City) in care of postmaster, the exact 
form necessary to the organization of our county. I mean the form of appli- 
cation. Please send it on by first mail if possible, and in due time I will 
thoroughly reciprocate. 

Most truly 

S. G. RODGERS M. D. 57 

Here we have the first intimation that there might have been 
some understanding between Smallwood and Rodgers. While this 
is the only letter remaining of the correspondence of the secretary 
of state that shows Rodgers to have suggested appointments, un- 
doubtedly he suggested others. 58 

53. This statement is from an affidavit made to the officers at Fort Hays when later 
these people were destitute and asking for help. Records of the War Dept., U. S. Army 
Commands, National Archives. 

54. Ellen Maguire, daughter of Charles Maguire, a colonist, compiled and read a 
brief history of Ness county before a Ness County Teachers' Association at Cleveland school 
house, Saturday, January 20, 1894, which gives some detnils on the Bodgers' colony. This 
history remains in the collection of the Ness County Historical Society. Ellen Maguire 
stated that there were 20 families in the colony. Lenihan seems to have implied that there 
were more. 

55. Fern Cook's interview of Lenihan. 

56. According to the Fort Hays letter book, now in the National Archives, the com- 
mander at Fort Hays wrote to the Chicago headquarters in August: 

"Referring to your letter of the 20th relative to sending a corporal and five or six men 
for a limited time to the colony of Mr. Rodgers, in order to give confidence to his immigrants, 
be pleased to say that the wishes of the general will be complied with as soon as Mr. 
Rodgers expresses a wish to that effect. Up to this time, we have no information that any 
colony under his charge has been established on Walnut Creek." 

57. Correspondence of the secretary of state, Archives division, Kansas State Historical 

58. The correspondence files of Secretary of State Smallwood now remaining in the 
Archives division of the Kansas State Historical Society are plainly incomplete. The letter 
book containing the replies of the secretary to his correspondents has disappeared. When 
the conduct of this office was investigated in 1875, the committee stated, "Your committee 
desires to say they believe there had been no intentional wrong done the State on the part 
of Mr. Smallwood but that the administration of this office has been permitted to become 
inefficient, through usages not positively prohibited by law which have become in some 
instances scandalous. The office should be completely reorganized by statute." House 
Journal, 1875, p. 917. 


When the group of colonists arrived in Hays City, their departure 
for Ness county was delayed because there were insufficient wagons 
and teams in the colony to transport them and their belongings. 
Then the commander at Ft. Hays provided them with some wagons 
as well as with the promised escort of soldiers and they started over- 
land for their destination, many of them walking. The weather was 
warm and pleasant and they enjoyed the journey, stopping the first 
night on the Smoky, the second in what is now the McCracken 
vicinity, the third night at John Farnsworth's (near what is now 
Bazine) and finally arriving at the forks of the Walnut on the 
fourth day out. 59 Here they proceeded to immediately establish 
the town of Smallwood and begin the construction of their sod 
houses. One street was laid out with houses alongside, the sod 
for them being dug with a spade. The houses had fireplaces and 
Dutch ovens beautifully laid by the Maguires, from a red stone 
peculiar to the Smoky river region. 60 The town was splendidly lo- 
cated on Section 16, Township 19, Range 23, near the creek with 
an abundant supply of wood and water. There was a large build- 
ing, the store, where elections and other meetings were held. There 
was also a blacksmith shop. 

There remains no record evidence that the colony was to be 
operated in a co-operative manner although there is direct testimony 
that the townsite was to be jointly owned and that in the beginning 
at least, work, tools and, provisions were to come from a common 
pool. A near-by settler, 61 not of the colony, wrote many years after- 

We are told that during the colonization in Chicago, Rodgers and Small- 
wood 62 charged each family quite a sum of money to become members of 
this colony, and that they were promised to be located where land was cheap 
and plentiful and would be given an equal share in the townsite, which would 
become the county seat; that in two or three years it would become a city of 
ten thousand or more; they would all become wealthy and they would live 
a luxurious life on the income from the sale of their land and city property. 

The Maguires later, when destitute and making a good case of 
their necessity for relief, made the following statement: 

That Rodgers at the time of their subscribing themselves as members and at 
various other times did make the following assurances and promises to each 

59. Ellen Maguire's history. 

60. Reminiscences of Claude Miller, who as a boy played among the ruins of Smallwood. 

61. James Litton lived along the Walnut not far from Smallwood. He left Ness County 
in the early 1880's and moved to Oregon. Some 50 years later he wrote his Ness county 
reminiscences which were printed May 31, 1930, in The Ness County News. 

62. Litton names a C. A. Smallwood as Rodgers' right hand man, describes him as a 
tall man and says he heard of him later in, Sprague, Wash. Lenihan also seems to remember 
such a person. But since no such name appears in any of the records pertaining to the 
colony, it is believed that there may have been some confusion of names in this instance. 


of them, viz: that during the first year of their occupancy of the lands which 
he would provide he would furnish them with plow, teams and seed for getting 
the same into cultivation; that money for other necessary articles would be 
provided by him; ( that groceries and provisions for their sustenance and that 
of their families he would furnish as needed; that any of the colonists who 
so desired after their arrival on the lands would be hired by him (Rodgers) 
at the rate of Thirty ( $30.00 ) Dollars per month for the first month and after- 
wards he would pay any such hired laborers at the rate and wages paid in the 
nearest town or village in the vicinity of the colony . . . that he would 
see that themselves, their household goods and baggage were safely transported 
to said lands . . .^ 

While this statement is undoubtedly a magnification of the hopes 
and plans of Rodgers, given by the Maguires in a moment of stress 
and disillusionment, still it probably contains an inkling of what 
Rodgers might have planned to accomplish by co-operative effort. 
The doctor himself apparently had little financial resource. 64 Wil- 
liam Lenihan stated positively that his membership in the colony 
cost but $30 with a town lot thrown in. He stated further that the 
trip on the railroad was cheap because they came in a group in one 
car. It seems unlikely that any colonist paid either to Rodgers or 
any community fund, an amount sufficient to provide the services 
that the Maguires seem to have expected. Certainly Dr. Rodgers 
could not have promised all these things to Lenihan without, in the 
end, disillusioning that young man too. And yet Lenihan, a quiet, 
reliable man, insisted all his life that Dr. Rodgers treated him fine 
and that any short cuts Dr. Rodgers took in the details of organizing 
Ness county were but the necessary expediences that often con- 
fronted Western pioneers. 65 Perhaps Dr. Rodgers actually believed 
that if the county could be organized and the bonds voted, the 
colony could employ itself for a time at building the schoolhouse. 
The make-work idea was not unknown even in those days. The 
Maguires had taken a most active and important part in the building 
of the houses for the community and, as masons, they could expect 
to be employed in any public building that might be done. 

Upon his arrival in Hays City, Dr. Rodgers received the organi- 
zation application which he had requested from the secretary of 
state. It was all written up in the form of a memorial to the gov- 
ernor and read in part, 

Respectfully pray your excellency to appoint a bona fide census taker to 
make census of Ness County as required by law. We have reason to believe 
there are 600 inhabitants. If the enumeration made by said census taker shall 
be satisfactory to your excellency, then we, your petitioners would further 

63. Maguire-Shannon affidavit, Records of the War Dept., National Archives. 

64. His Buffalo House in Petersburg was loaded with liens. 

65. The News Chronicle, Scott City, September 21, 1939. 


pray for the immediate organization of the county of Ness as provided by law. 
To this end we pray for the appointment of three temporary county commis- 
sioners as provided by law, and we would recommend for county seat 
Smallwood. 66 

To this memorial 40 signatures were appended, the number re- t 
quired by law. Since these names include probably all the Rodgers 
colonists, which are to be found nowhere else, they are listed here. 
Samuel G. Rodgers W. S. Grieve George Hayes 

John M. Rodgers Jeremiah Hickel Patrick O'Donel (mark) 

Henry Maguire Patrick O'Donnel Patrick McCleary 

(by mark) Robert Donlop John McBride 

Bernard R. Maguire O. H. Perry Alexander McBride 

Henry Maguire George Morris Patrick Hays 

Charles Maguire William Sultzer James Hayden 

William Meyers Andrew Carrick John Kilfoil 

Henry Myers (mark) Michael (or Nicholas) Carman 

John Shannon John Shannon Anson Carman 

Andrew Carrick (mark) S. Casselman 

Andrew Carrick E. Maroney Erastus Casselman 

Charles Myers James Lee Buck Carman 67 

D. N. Hadden John Lee 

W. H. Gage John O'Toole 

Since there were a number of other families in the county, the 
total of householders in the county was certainly more than 40. 
But here we find Rodgers modeling closely on the pattern he had 
observed in Pawnee county where the whole matter was kept within 
the one tight little group. So it is possible that this list of house- 
holders was stretched a bit. 

The petition was taken to Hays and there before D. C. Nellis, 

Samuel G. Rodgers, Henry Maguire, and Edward Maroney being duly sworn, 
depose and say that they are householders of the county of Ness of the state 
of Kansas and that the signatures subscribed to the above and foregoing peti- 
tion are the genuine signatures of bona fide householders of the unorganized 
county of Ness; and that they verily believe there are six hundred inhabitants 
in said county. 

In due time, John Maroney was appointed census taker, taking 
oath on October 14 to "faithfully discharge the duties of census 
taker for the unorganized county of Ness." On October 22, he made 

66. Records of the office of the secretary of state, Topeka. The memorial seems to 
have been written up in the secretary of state's office since the paper bears the same 
stationer's mark as the sheet on which the governor's proclamation was later written. 

67. It will be noted that Andrew Carrick's name appears three times and John Shannon 
twice. In the first instance it was the last name at the bottom of the sheet and the first 
at the top of the next page. Checked with the later census there seems to have been 
two Andrew Carricks, a father and a son. There were also two John Shannons in the census. 
The last ten names seem to have been added without much care- the two McBride names 
are in the same hand, the next four in another, and the last four in yet another hand. Still 
the Hayden name also appears in Ellen Maguire's history so there must have been a colonist 
bv that name. 


his census return showing 643 names of residents of Ness county. 68 
Tradition has it that most of these names were copied from a Chi- 
cago directory. 69 On October 23, 1873, Governor Osborn pro- 
claimed Ness county temporarily organized and appointed John 
Rodgers, O. H. Perry, and Thomas Myers as temporary commis- 
sioners, Charles Maguire as county clerk and designated Smallwood 
as temporary county seat. 

Grateful and bursting with further plans for his colony, Rodgers 
wrote to Smallwood: SMALLWOOD CITY 

28 Oct 73 

My Dear Friend 

I did not get your Telegram till today, although I got the organization papers 
on arrival. 

Ten thousand thanks to you & Gov. Osborne I shall try to reciprocate the 
very great kindness you have shown me & my Colony. 

I will in due time render you good service in Several ways. We are going 
to make this the nicest Town in Kansas and next autumn when we have got 
up some good buildings, we will have in September a pleasure excursion of 
Gentlemen & Ladies from Chicago We will then ask you to go along & make 
the opening speech, and then you will see our progress, in the city of your 
own name, 70 and I will interest you in it thoroughly. 

Please convey my heartfelt thanks to Gov Osborne also 

Receive my Kindest & best thanks till they are substantially conveyed. 

Most truly yours 


68. Strangely enough this figure is backed up by the assessor's report of Ness county 
in June, 1873. According to a law of that year, the county assessor was instructed to take 
a census of any unorganized county attached to an organized county for judicial purposes. 
Although this assessor's report could not be found in the original, it was quoted in the 
agricultural report of that year on Ellis county. This report gave Ness county 642 people. 
The listing of 643 people in this census of October seems a most unusual coincidence. It 
would seem almost impossible for Rodgers to have influenced that report and he did not use 
it as backing when he later insisted that there was a much larger population in Ness county 
in the summer than in the fall later. In certain other respects also, there would seem to 
have been some more astute intelligence pulling strings that Rodgers scarcely could have 
had access to. But as is made plain in the later stages of his adventure, Rodgers had no 
political backing or influence and when the chips were down in the end, whatever hand 
that had seemed to help, was discreetly withdrawn. 

69. In all the fraudulent organizations of 1873, hotel registers and directories were 
supposed to have supplied names for padded censuses. Wherever some of the names 
came from, the Ness county census was quite carefully made up. Although residents outside 
the Rodgers colony were clearly not consulted directly, their names were all there, and the 
proper number of children were included in families, but the ages and given names were 
guessed. The John Farnsworth family appeared as Robert Farnsworth 38, Mary Farnsworth 
26, and Jane Farnsworth six. The Nelson Peckham family appeared as David Peckham with 
wife and nine children ranging in age from 30 to four years of age. 

70. There is an interesting side light on the naming of the town Smallwood. In 
Comanche county, which Andrew J. Mowry was organizing at almost exactly this same 
time, the county seat was also called Smallwood. The secretary of state evidently thought 
too many namesakes were inadvisable and wrote suggesting that Mowry change the name 
of his town. Mowry's answer to Smallwood remains in the Archives division of the Kansas 
State Historical Society: 


"Oct. 5, 73. 

"I got your letter when I came here. I did not understand you fully in regard to 
changing the name of my town in Comanche Co. 

"I see the point now & if you are perfectly willing that the change should be made I 
will readily consent to change to the name of Wilder I have the Proclamation can return 


The first election in Ness county was held on November 4, 1873, 
the regular election day of that year. The county had been di- 
vided into precincts, perhaps townships this again in accordance 
with the laws governing the organization of new counties. "They 
had regular voting precincts all over the county but only on 
paper." 71 Apparently residents outside the colony took part in 
the election, 72 and John Farnsworth ran for sheriff. He stated that 
he was at the polls at Smallwood all day and 48 votes were cast. 
The same commissioners that had been initially appointed by the 
governor, were elected as was Charles Maguire for county clerk. 
Dr. Rodgers was elected representative and a certified abstract of 
263 votes cast for representative was made on November 7, and 
signed by the commissioners and the county clerk and sent to the 
secretary of state in Topeka. Overlooked perhaps was the vote on 
the amendment which was not reported until November II. 73 This 
was an amendment to the state constitution increasing the number 
of representatives in the house to 125. It was an amendment very 
important to Rodgers, since the limitation of the members of the 
house to 100 had resulted in his being sent home in 1873. In this 
amendment there was also a provision that would in effect, make 
necessary a larger population in a county before it could be rep- 
resented, i. e., "the House of Representatives shall admit one mem- 
ber from each county in which at least 250 legal votes were cast 
at the next preceding general election." 74 Another important propo- 

it and have the name changed if it would not make to much trouble in your OfBce When 
you spoke of your last letter to me I did not think there was one that contained your sug- 
gestion that I had not got owing to Wilders disposition & the County Seat of Ness being 
what it is it may be for the Best to make the change if you do Send me another Proclama- 
tion of the same date & I will return the one I have My Respect to all 

"A. J. MOWHY" 

"P. S. Steps are being taken to organize Clarke Co. I understand it and Hope the 
Parties will succeed I will look out for the Governor interest there the same as in 
Comanche A. J. M." 

What could the governor's interest in Comanche have been? Comanche county turned 
out to be nothing but a base for the issuance of thousands of dollars in bonds. And why 
if the governor's duty was only ministerial in this matter was it so necessary to take care 
of his interests at all times and thank him so devotedly for his help. Here too, it sounds 
as if Mowry already had on October 5 the proclamation of organization of Comanche which 
was dated October 28 and presumably not issued until after the census had been received in 
Topeka. If this letter means what it seems to mean, this most flagrant of rigged county 
organizations was rigged in the state capitol and the governor's interest provided for. 

71. Ness County News, Ness City, May 31, 1930; Jim Litton's reminiscences. 

72. James Litton stated that the other residents did not take part in the election, 
but John Farnsworth in a sworn affidavit said he had been at the polls and Dr. Rodgers 
in a sworn statement said Farnsworth ran for sheriff and was defeated. Hence at least one 
of the other residents took part in the election. 

73. Records of the office of the Kansas secretary of state. This report consisted of a 
hand-written note to Smallwood stating that the vote at the election for the constitutional 
amendment was 263. It was signed only by Charles Maguire, county clerk. 

74. It is interesting to note that in all the new counties where organizations had just 
taken place, the reported vote was over 250. What guardian angel saw to that? In many 
of the older western Kansas counties a lower number of votes were reported: Pawnee 80, 
Hooks 110, Ford 219. 


sition that the Ness county voters approved was the issuance of 
$5,000 in bonds for the building of a school house. 75 

It was chiefly in this matter of voting bonds, that Rodgers failed 
to live up to the pace set in 1873 by his fellow organizers in Barbour 
county, Comanche county and Harper county. In Comanche bonds 
to the amount of $72,000 were voted. In Harper the amount was 
$40,000. In Barbour the total was $141,300. 76 The improvements 
to be built in these counties ranged from courthouse, bridges and 
several schools in Comanche to a courthouse and a railroad in Bar- 
ber county. 77 It is to wonder that historians have thought fit to 
put Ness county with her $5,000 schoolhouse in such a financially 
superior class. 

The county organized, the election held and the bonds voted, 
Rodgers soon left Ness county. By November 18, he was in Chi- 
cago and applying again to his friend Smallwood: 

206 Twenty Sixth Street 
Nov 18 -73 

Dear Friend 

I have sent you the vote on the amendment. I am anxious to hear whether 
it is carried or not. 

I came here to Negotiate Some School Bonds which we voted for the pur- 
pose of erecting a School House in Smallwood. I will likely have to go to 
New York as money is yet hard to get since the crash. If it necessary I will 
refer the parties who purchase to you. Or if you would please drop me a few 
lines stating what School Bonds sell for in Kansas generally. So that I may 
use it if necessary as I am a stranger in New York. 

I would like to know How the Amendment has resulted also. A reply at 
your earliest convenience will oblige. 

Your Friend truly 


Here again Rodgers looks the awkward amateur among his 
fellow county organizers. W. H. Homer, chief organizer of Har- 
per county sold his $40,000 worth of bonds in St. Louis for $30,000 

75. Ellen Maguire said that $15,000 was voted for the construction of a courthouse, 
schoolhouse and a bridge across the Walnut, but no such bonds are mentioned anywhere 
else. The Hays Sentinel, May 11, 1878, in speaking of Ness county bonds, reported the 
sum as $5,000. There is every reason to believe that this newspaper was well informed 
on this matter since D. C. Nellis, the editor in 1878, as a notary in 1873, notarized various 
documents having to do with the Ness county organization and also in 1874, as Ellis county 
attorney pressed the criminal case against Dr. Rodgers. 

76. Laws of the State of Kansas, Special Session, 1874, p. 5. These were the amounts 
of bonded indebtedness reported by the state auditor to the special session of the legislature 
called in September, 1874. This session was called for the purpose of voting relief to the 
people of the state whose crops had been destroyed by grasshoppers. But by that time the 
bond scandal was so great that the special session voted for an investigation. 

77. House Journal, 1875, pp. 70, 71. 

78. Kansas State Historical Society, Archives division, Topeka. 


without any need of help or recommendation from the secretary 
of state. 79 The Comanche county bonds seem to have been passed 
out generously to anyone who might happen to think he could sell 
a few bonds. 80 However, the Comanche county group, captained 
by A. J. Mowry, lured by the ease and size of their profits, began 
issuing school bonds and thereby came to grief. Mowry took $2,000 
worth to Topeka and sold them for $1,750 to the permanent state 
school fund. W. H. Smallwood, secretary of state, and the state 
superintendent of education both approved this purchase and it 
was planned to load the school fund with more had the attorney 
general not stopped it. 81 

On the other hand, Rodgers had no connections through which 
he could sell his comparatively modest Ness county bonds. Per- 
haps he tried in New York but even there as far as can be ascer- 
tained he could not sell the bonds. While there is no record of any 
statement by Rodgers that he did not sell the bonds, they were 
certainly never registered at the state auditor's office nor were they 
ever presented for payment to Ness county. 82 In all other counties 
with so-called "bogus organizations," the bonds had to be paid by 
later settlers of the county and the courts upheld the purchasers in 
their right to collection. It is impossible to believe that the bonds 
of Ness county were sold and then not presented for payment. 

But this is getting ahead of our story. While Rodgers was away 
trying to sell the bonds, the colony was getting along as best it 
could. As the winter deepened in Ness county and Rodgers did 
not come back to provide the work and assistance expected, the 
colonists began to believe that he had deserted them. They were city 
people, carpenters, masons, and blacksmith and probably people 
of no great resources. They had arrived too late in the fall and had 
had no chance to sow and reap a crop. The loneliness and empti- 
ness of western Kansas must have been frightening to these city 
dwellers. Under these conditions it is remarkable that so many 
were able to take care of themselves. Some went buffalo hunting, 
others found employment in Hays or elsewhere. When the army, 
keeping its customary eye on the frontier settlements, made a trip 
to Smallwood on December 20, only the Maguire and Shannon 

79. T. A. McNeil, When Kansas Was Young (New York, 1922), p. 47. 

80. House Journal, 1875, p. 78. Minority report by Atty. Gen. A. L. Williams. Alex. 
Mills, treasurer of Comanche county, told Williams that he did not know exactly how 
many bonds were outstanding. Some men had taken bonds to sell but returned them unsold. 

81. T. A. McNeU, op. cit., pp. 63, 64. 

82. Hays Sentinel, May 11, 1878. Also a letter to R. J. McFarland of Ness, September 
12, 1878, from Governor Anthony: "There is no evidence in the auditor's records of the 
existence of any bonded indebtedness in your county." Governor's correspondence, Archives 
division, Kansas State Historical Society. 


families were found, "shirtless, shoeless and nearly destitute of 
clothing, their appearance cadaverous and very emaciated appar- 
ently from hunger." 83 When this was reported to Col. James Oakes 
at Fort Hays, it was decided by a board of officers called for the 
purpose, to issue rations to these people for 12 days. When the 12 
days were past and Rodgers had not returned, the troops came 
with wagons and removed the Maguire and Shannon families to 
Hays. These families comprised six men, six women and nine 
children and were not the whole colony by any means. 84 A number 
of the other families were still in Ness county on January 12 when 
John Farnsworth took his census. William Lenihan, who spent 
the winter in the county, said that the settlers lived mostly on game 
which was plentiful enough but tiresome. There was never much 
at the colony store but flour, coffee, and sugar and that only in the 

The Maguires, in all appearances the most whole-hearted sup- 
porters of Rodgers in the beginning, were his most bitter detractors 
when things went wrong. If the organization of Ness county was 
a conspiracy with intent to defraud, then the Maguires were in it 
up to their necks. But when their hopes were blasted, they laid 
all their troubles onto Rodgers. In their statement to the army 
officers at Hays they accused Rodgers not only for failing to keep 
his many promises but stated that he had acted "dishonestly in that 
he failed to pay over to the Railroad company, a certain sum of 
money which was paid into his hands by a colonist," 85 for the pur- 
pose of paying freight on certain baggage still held by the railroad 
company. This seems to be a duplicate accusation as Rodgers had 
already been accused of being responsible for transporting their 
baggage to Ness county for the sum of money paid to him when 
they joined his colony. If the colonist had already paid, why was 
he paying a second time? When the army investigated the matter, 
baggage was found held for non-payment of freight. This incon- 
clusive accusation is the only definite charge of dishonesty made 
against Rodgers. Another rather unreasonable Maguire grievance 
was that lumber had not been furnished them and they had "been 
compelled to dig dug-outs to protect themselves from the inclem- 
ency of the winter/' 86 There was at that time no single stone, 

83. Records of the War Dept., U. S. Army Commands, National Archives. 

84. Ellen Maguire's history. Ellen Maguire tells this story as if the whole colony had 
to be taken to Hays by the troops. According to the army record it was only the Maguire 
and Shannon families. The statement made by the heads of families was signed by Bernard 
Maguire, Charles Maguire, Henry Maguire, Henry Maguire, Jr., and John Shannon. 

85. Here again Ellen Maguire intimates that the baggage of all the colonists was held 
by the railroad. 

86. Maguire-Shannon affidavit, loc. cit. 


brick or frame house in Ness county or in any adjoining county. 
Everybody lived in sod houses or dug-outs, as did the Rodgers 

Other forces in Hays besides the army, were interested in Rodgers 
and his colony for reasons not so altruistic as that of the army. The 
composition and motives of these antagonistic forces are not clear. 
Perhaps the "crowd" at Hays had intended some day to organize 
Ness county as they had organized Ford county. If so, such intent 
would explain certain previous actions in regard to Ness, that have 
remained inscrutable to the historian. In 1873 when the boun- 
daries of other counties were changed, why was the western line 
of Ness county also pushed over one whole row of townships? 87 
Who could have arranged that assessor's census report of 642 in- 
habitants in Ness county in June, 1873, but some one in the county 
clerk's office in Hays? While there were probably more Ness resi- 
dents in June than in October, all sources indicate that the popula- 
tion could scarcely have been 642. What these two preparatory 
moves presaged, we can only guess. But that Rodgers' organiza- 
tion of Ness county was deeply offensive to someone, we now know. 

On November 13, when Rodgers had scarcely left the colony, an 
attorney, A. D. Gilkeson, of Hays City, wrote to W. H. Smallwood, 
"Will you be kind enough to inform me what parties were appointed 
by the Governor to act as County Commissioners and County Clerk 
of Ness County (newly organized) and also who took the census of 
said county upon which Proclamation of Organization was made." 88 
The next inquirer was N. Daniels, agent for the land department of 
the Kansas Pacific railway, who wrote on November 17, 1873, to 
the "Hon. Sec. of State," "Please send me a certified copy of the 
papers from Ness County sent by Doctor Rogers for the organization 
of Ness County with your fees and I will properly remit the 
amount." 89 

On December 9, 1873, N. Daniels swore to a complaint against 
Dr. Rodgers. The case was filed before George R. Jones, a justice 
of the peace in and for Big Creek township in Ellis county and in 

87. In March, 1873, when the county lines were rearranged, Ford county received not 
only a row of townships on the west from unalloted territory but also a row of townships 
on the north taken from unorganized Hodgeman. Since Hodgeman was deprived of town- 
ships on the south, it seemed only reasonable that the county should in lieu, acquire the 
townships of Range 26 on the west. But why Ness county should also have been gifted 
with that same range of townships on the west, has never been understood. Laws of the 
State of Kansas, 1873, p. 148. 

88. Secretary of state's correspondence, Archives division, Kansas State Historical 
Society. Gilkeson was later an attorney in the case for perjury against Rodgers. He was 
elected representative to the state legislature in 1876. 

89. On this letter, found in the correspondence files of the secretary of state, is written 
"Sent Nov. 26 See Letter Book." It is this letter book, strayed or stolen, that prevents 
a complete appraisal of Smallwood's part in these various organization intrigues. 


the appearance docket of the justice of the peace we have the fol- 

N. Daniels personally appeared before me, who being duly sworn deposes 
and says: 

That on the day of A. D. 187 at the county of and state 

of Kansas, Samuel G. Rodgers did then and there unlawfully and feloniously 
commit the crime of perjury, the same being contrary to law made and pro- 
vided against the peace and dignity of the state of Kansas and deponent prays 
that process may be issued against the said S. G. Rodgers and that he be dealt 
with according to law. 


A warrant was issued on that same day for the arrest of Dr. 

The files in the case are missing, likewise files in the district court 
are missing. Since neither the complaint nor the information can 
be found, the exact charge of "perjury" made by Daniels cannot be 
obtained. It will be remembered that the only papers Dr. Rodgers 
signed in the process of organizing Ness county, was the memorial 
stating that the signatures attached were those of householders 
of Ness county and that he believed there were 600 inhabitants. 
This memorial was also signed by Henry Maguire and Edward 
Maroney, both of whom were on December 9 residing in Ness 
county and easily available to plaintiff, N. Daniels or anyone else, 
who wished to establish that the county had been fraudulently 
organized. The census taker, who had undoubtedly padded the 
census, was also in Ness county. Too, there was Charles Maguire, 
the county clerk, who had certified to 263 votes that had not been 
cast in the election. 

It is plain, however, that it was not so much the fraudulent or- 
ganization that bothered N. Daniels and the other interested Hays 
men as it was Rodgers. So they made ready for him if and when 
he should return. 

On January 7, John Farnsworth, who Rodgers claimed was a de- 
feated candidate for sheriff, made an affidavit in Hays before the 
notary, D. C. Nellis, testifying in part: 

That he has been a resident of Ness county for ten months past; that on 
December 22d and 23d, 1873, he took a census of all the inhabitants of Ness 
county and that the number . . . did not exceed one hundred forty, 
including men, women and children; that he was at Smallwood City, the 
temporary county seat, on the evening of the day of the election, 
and saw the record of votes cast, and the poll books showed 48 votes cast; that 
he was well acquainted with all the legal voters of the county of Ness, and that 

90. City clerk's records, Hays. 


on the 4th day of November, 1873, there were but 14 legal voters in the 
county who had resided in said county for thirty days or more. 91 

On January 10, 1874, J. W. Hickel of the Rodgers' colony also 
made affidavit, stating, 

That he is a resident of Ness county and has resided there for four months 
last past; that he is well acquainted with all the inhabitants of said Ness 
county and knows the number does not exceed 200; that he knows all the 
legal voters who were in the county at the election of November 4, 1873, 
and that the number does not exceed fifteen. 92 

A week later, John Farnsworth took another census in two days 
finishing on January 13, listing the heads of families by name and 
finding 79 inhabitants. 93 This census was also furnished to the 
interested men at Hays, whose representative, John McGaffigan, 
was preparing to confront the legislature and Dr. Rodgers with 
all these documents in case he should come back to sit in the legis- 
lature when it convened in January, 1874. 

Rodgers did come back to sit in the legislature. Perhaps he did 
not know of the measures taken against him. And even had he 
known, he probably could not imagine that they would matter. 
Had not practically every county in western Kansas been organized 
in the same way he had organized Ness and had not the organizers 
earned thereby a reputation of shrewd maneuver? He had but fol- 
lowed others' footsteps with the co-operation of the secretary of 
state and the governor and just like his fellows, he could expect to 
be taken into the house even if there were objections. He had not 
been able to sell the bonds, but that was no offense to anyone except 
his poor workingmen who had been deprived of the work they had 

The legislature assembled on January 13, 1874, and 

the member from Ness Co., S. G. Rodgers, was duly sworn in but had no 
more than got his seat warmed nicely before he was summoned before Sheriff 
Ramsay, Sheriff of Ellis County at the door who informed him that his county 
had only 23 voters and upon his signing certain papers for its organization and 
election returns he had laid himself liable for arrest. 94 

This report from the Hays newspaper continues, stating that 
Rodgers secured a lawyer and "endeavored, we understand, to en- 
list the sympathy of the candidates for Senator but they would not 

91. House Journal, 1874, p. 442. 

92. Ibid. 

93. This census is particularly interesting to the historian trying to compile a list of 
the first settlers of Ness county. There were 28 heads of families, only five of which are 
identifiable as members of the Rodgers colony. Several were not included that are believed 
to have settled in the county earlier, notably the Nelson Peckham family and James Litton. 
Probably these settlers had gone east or to Hays for the winter as was customary with many 
early settlers. They went to find work and to send their children to school. 

94. Hays Sentinel, January 22, 1874. 


listen to him." The House Journal shows Rodgers present on Jan- 
uary 13, 14, and 15, but absent for several days thereafter. Ap- 
parently he went to Hays with Sheriff Ramsay. The warrant for 
Rodgers was returned to the issuing court on January 15 with the 
notation that it had been served and S. G. Rodgers was in court. 
On the 16th a preliminary hearing took place. Rodgers waived a 
hearing and was bound over to answer in the district court. 

And now, to wit: on the 16th day of January 1874, this cause being called 
for hearing, the defendant waived examination and in lieu of bail, which was 
fixed at $1,000, S. G. Rodgers was committed to the county jail of Saline 
County, there to remain until discharged by due course of law. 

Justice of the Peace 95 

Serving the warrant .75 

Bring prisoner to court 1.00 
Mileage 666 66.00 

Total $67.75 

The Hays newspaper adds detail to this incident: 

In default of $3,000.00 bail he was remanded to jail and brought to Saline 
county. There was another good reason for his coming to Saline county. Just 
before the time for his departure, his constituents in Ness county . . . 
assembled about the hotel where he was lodged and proclaimed that they 
had been swindled by their representative to the amount of their entire cash 
and that he had left them to winter in the plains without food nor the where- 
with to purchase food. Being in this condition, some of his constituents had 
nearly starved to death. It was to avenge this wrong that they had assembled 
and made some demonstration which indicated that they thought hanging was 
his just desert. 

That this account is exaggerated in the amount of the bail we 
know. Other details may also be exaggerated. The Maguire and 
Shannon families were in Hays and this report seems to repeat their 
complaint. But there has remained no tale or tradition in Ness 
county that Rodgers ever came back to Hays. Ellen Maguire says 
nothing about it in her history nor did John Farnsworth apparently 
leave any word-of-mouth story of such an occurrence. This seems 
strange as certainly this return of Rodgers under guard, and the 
threat of mob action by the colonists would have added much 
drama to the story of the "bogus" organization. 

Once in Salina, Rodgers attempted to arrange bond, the deputy 
sheriff going around town with Rodgers for this purpose. 96 After 
several days, due perhaps to the persuasiveness of Dr. Rodgers, the 
two embarked by train for Topeka. Sheriff Going then went to 

95. Records, clerk of the court, Ellis county. The cost of bringing Rodgers back to 
Ellis county is an interesting item of this record: 

96. Hays Sentinel, January 22, 1874. 


Topeka to look into the matter and being dissatisfied with the bond 
that had been put up there by Rodgers, he rearrested the doctor. 
Rodgers thereupon asked for a writ of habeas corpus and was 
immediately freed by the district judge. Sheriff Going of Saline 
county, then took the bond back to Sheriff Ramsay of Ellis county. 97 

Meantime, the house of representatives was going through its 
usual contortions deciding who was eligible to sit as representatives 
in that eminent but strangely inconsistent body. At this distant 
time, it is impossible to know or gauge the cross currents that agi- 
tated and influenced this group. Particularly difficult circumstances 
surrounded this meeting. Decisions in the suits asking the dis- 
solution of fraudulent Pawnee and Ford county organizations were 
announced by the supreme court in January. The new amendment 
to the constitution had passed, thus allowing 125 members in the 
house but specifying, that "from and after the adoption of the 
amendment the House of Representatives shall admit one member 
from each county in which at least two hundred fifty legal votes 
were cast at the next preceding general election/' A number of the 
counties among them Pawnee, Norton, Rooks, and Ford had re- 
ported less than 250 votes in that next preceding general election. 98 
What should be done about them? Under the amendment, they 
should be sent home. The charges of fraud against Dr. Rodgers in 
his Ness county organization had been spread over the newspapers 
for all to see. And there must have been some bad odors seeping 
into Topeka about the recent Comanche and Harper organizations. 

As early as January 15, a resolution was introduced in the house 
to investigate the "settlement, organization and rights of Represen- 
tatives in this House of the counties of Harper, Comanche and 
Ness." 99 But this was laid over under the rules until January 20 
when it was taken up and referred to the judiciary committee. 100 
This was the committee that was also defining the intent of the 
amendment which if taken literally "would practically disenfran- 
chise all members of this House in excess of one hundred." The 
report of the committee came in on January 27 and stated: 

97. The Commonwealth, Topeka, January 25, 1874; Saline County Journal, Sclina, 
January 29, 1874. 

98. Amendment of Article II, Sec. 2. In order to comply with the provision of the 
constitution that each organized county shall have at least one representative, this amend- 
ment also provided that "each organized county in which less than two hundred legal 
votes were cast at the next preceding election shall be attached to and constitute a part of 
the Representative District of the county lying next adjacent to it on the east." The 200 
figure was believed to be an error but so it was passed and published. This left counties 
with from 200 to 250 voters with no provision for representation. At it turned out this 
part of the amendment was ignored at this session. 

99. House Journal, 1874, pp. 56, 57. 

100. Ibid., p. 91. 


It is the opinion of the committee that all members now occupying seats 
in this House, in excess of one hundred, and holding certificates of election 
from counties in which two hundred and fifty legal votes were cast at the 
general election held in November A. D. 1873, are entitled to seats as members 
of this House. . . . 

The committee further report that from the official records, it appears that 
the counties of Comanche, Harper and Ness were regularly and properly 
organized; and the committee are of the opinion that the question of the 
fraudulent organization of said counties, and whether two hundred and fifty 
legal votes were cast in either of these counties at the last general election, 
are matters of fact, which your committee deem proper subjects of investiga- 
tion upon evidence. 

And we therefore recommend the questions of the fraudulent organization 
of each of said counties, and as to the number of legal votes cast in each of 
them at the last general election, be referred to the Committee on Elections, 
together with the petition and affidavits in relation to said county organizations 
and elections now in possession of your committee; and that said Committee on 
Elections examine said matters, take evidence in relation thereto, and report 
thereon to this House at the earliest possible day. 101 

Despite this report, some were not content to let the committee 
on elections decide this matter. On February 3, 1874, Mr. McGaffi- 
gan, 102 gentleman from Ellis, offered this resolution: 

Resolved, that a special committee of three be appointed to inquire into 
the organization of Ness county, and that said committee be authorized to 
administer oaths, send for persons and papers, and to visit Ness county if 
deemed necessary for the prosecution of this inquiry. 103 

This resolution did not pass. On the same day, Mr. A. J. Mowry, 
gentleman from Comanche, offered a resolution. At that time it 
was not known that his county had no residents whatsoever, and 
he did not therefore anticipate any such difficulties as had befallen 
the gentleman from Ness. 

Resolved, That this House will not consider any question of the rights of 
members to seats in this House, unless there is a contest filed or some good 
evidence of fraud produced from the county where a member was elected, 

101. Ibid., pp. 266-268. 

102. It would seem that Mr. McGaffigan was not exactly a fair knight battling for right 
against wrong in this instance. A short time before, the supreme court of the state had 
handed down a decision that the Ford county organization was void because of a fraudulent 
petition and census. (State vs Ford County, 12 Kan. 441. See footnote). And yet at the 
moment McGaffigan was making his proposal, the gentleman from Ford county, James 
Hanrahan, was still sitting in the house and voting. The potent group at Hays that kept 
a jealous finger in all western Kansas affairs, was not at all alarmed about Ford county's 
fraud. Under these circumstances, the limitation of McGaffigan's concern to Ness county 
was a measure of his honesty of intention. 

McGaffigan came with the famous or infamous "Judge Joyce" from Leavenworth county 
to Hays and was active in the organization of Ellis county in 1867. He served at one time 
and another in most of the early offices of the county. It was as probate judge of Ellis 
county that he found the site of Dodge City to be worth just One Dollar that being the 
price he decreed the government should be paid for the quarter section of land on which 
Dodge City was located. James Hanrahan lived at Hays first but later made the first set- 
tlement in Dodge City he opened a saloon in a tent and was a prominent citizen from 
then on. Ford county was attached to Ellis county for judicial purposes at the time. 
Hanrahan later kept a saloon at Adobe Walls. 

103. House Journal, 1874, pp. 328, 329. 



believing it to be unwise to contract expense to the State upon mere assump- 
tion alone. 104 

Suspension of the rules being necessary for the consideration of 
this resolution, it was not considered. Later in the day, these mat- 
ters again came up for discussion and the following report of the 
action that ensued is taken from Topeka Commonwealth for Febru- 
ary 4, since it follows closely the report of the House Journal 105 but 
adds certain detail that is not given in the House Journal: 

Mr. Mason 106 offered a resolution that the committee on elections be au- 
thorized to take testimony by deposition in relation to the number of inhabitants 
in the counties of Harper, Comanche and Ness. 

Mr. Horner 107 offered an amendment that the committee also inquire into 
the organization of the counties of Reno, Pawnee, Ford, Rooks, Phillips, Barber, 
Billings and Labette. 

Mr. A. H. Horton offered an amendment that the investigation should only 
be had where a sworn statement, or affidavit, is made of some fraud in the 
organization of such counties. He said his object was to save expense, and only 
in cases where there was some charge made, should this door be opened, which 
would entail a vast expense on the state. 

Mr. Mason proceeded to say that the question before the judiciary commit- 
tee in relation to this matter, was one of law, and they had decided that 

The question now is whether there were actually in the counties of Ness, 
Harper and Comanche, 250 legal voters, and this is what the committee on 
elections have to decide on the evidences that may be presented to them. He 
did not believe that the committee had any right to inquire into the organization 
of any county unless on some sworn statement. In regard to these three 
counties there are some complaints and he protested against adding to the 
burden already on the committee, and he hoped the amendment by Mr. A. H. 
Horton would prevail. 

Mr. Horner wanted the facts in relation to the county of Harper judged 
fairly and calmly. It was not his intention to call up the question of the or- 
ganization of any of the counties of the state; but if it should be gone into 
he was certain that many of them would be found improperly organized. Many 
false reports have been circulated about him and his county and he believed 
it was done to influence in some way the vote for U. S. senator. He occupied 
some time and went into the question of organization of several of the older 

104. Ibid. 

105. Ibid., beginning p. 334. 

106. Mr. Mason was from Franklin county and was chairman of the committee on 

107. Mr. Horner was the gentleman from Harper county, whose fraudulent organization 
of the county was later revealed by investigation and subsequent suit in the supreme court. 
At this moment his guilt was not known. He says here in effect, if the house is sincere in 
this matter, it should investigate all the fraudulently organized counties and he named a 
number of them. Some of these were subsequently investigated, e. g., Barber. Others not 
investigated, need but a casual look at the record to demonstrate their probable fraudulence: 

Reno, organized January 1, 1871; election, January 8, 1871; 61 votes cast. 
Norton or Billings, organized August 22, 1872; election November 5; 32 votes cast. 
Pawnee and Ford had already had their fraudulence spread before the world by cases 
before the supreme court. 


counties, and insisted that under the usage which has heretofore prevailed no 
investigation should be permitted. 108 

Mr. S. G. Rodgers had no objection to any committee making a full investi- 
gation of the county of Ness. He had tried last year to disorganize Harper 
[Pawnee] 109 but he found it impossible to do so. He was proceeding to give 
a history of the whole business, but was decided to be out of order, the question 
being on Mr. Horton's amendment. 

Mr. A. J. Mowry rose to a question of privilege and asked that the journal be 
read showing where the question had been taken from the judiciary committee 
and given to the committee on elections. 

The chair decided that the gentleman was too late that the matter was 
referred to the committee on elections, in the regular order of business, and 
then would have been the time to object. 

In reply to a question by A. J. Mowry, Mr. Mason said there was no sworn 
statement relative to any county but Ness; but that by a resolution of the house 
the committee on elections were directed to investigate the organization of 
Ness, Comanche and Harper. 

The amendment offered by Mr. Horton was adopted. The resolution [Mr. 
Mason's] as amended then was adopted. 

Hence the matter went into the committee, which was authorized 
to take depositions in the matter of the number of inhabitants in 
the counties of Comanche, Harper and Ness only in case there was a 
sworn statement alleging fraud in the organization. This very neatly 
isolated Dr. Rodgers and restricted investigation to Ness county, 
should other statements not be presented. 

C. B. Mason, chairman of the committee on elections, submitted 
his report on February 12, concerning Harper and Comanche, stating 
that they had awaited statements on these two counties and none 
having been presented they might return their papers without com- 
ment but would make certain conclusions for the information of 
the house. The organization and election papers from Harper were 
in perfect order and so far as anything contrary was shown, Mr. 
Homer was entitled to a seat as member of the house. In regard to 
Comanche the report was much the same except that the county 
was declared organized October 28, 1873, and the election was held 
December 3, 1873. The election being held on December 3, it did 
not appear that the necessary 250 votes recorded had been cast 
at the general election next preceding the present session, as required 

108. Horner here undoubtedly presented the understanding that prevailed among all the 
later organizers of counties. "According to the usage which has heretofore prevailed no 
investigation should be permitted." The portion of the above in italics v/as selected by 
the author for emphasis. 

109. The newspaper reporter plainly made a mistake here. It was Pawnee not Harper. 
Dr. Rodgers must have embarrassed the governors and other officials when he tried to tell 
publicly how he had tried to stop the Pawnee organization. Although he was pulled up 
short before he could tell his story, here we have ample evidence that he was persuaded 
that under the law such organizations could not be prevented. 


by the constitutional amendment. Therefore, Mr. Mowry was not 
entitled to a seat in the house. 110 

The next day, however, this matter was regarded in a more toler- 
ant light. Mr. Hodge offered a resolution that there being no evi- 
dence of fraud or corruption in the election of the representative 
from Comanche county but only a technical point of law in regard 
to his election, and since the previous legislature had set the prece- 
dent of allowing members under the same circumstances to hold 
their seats according to the expressed will of the constituents, 111 
the member from Comanche be entitled to his seat. There was 
some discussion of this resolution, Mr. Mason sticking to the letter 
of the law and other members stating they thought the election 
illegal but the resolution was adopted 31 to 30. Mowry, on his 
part, was so confident of the outcome, that he had already intro- 
duced a bill to organize two new counties, Webb and Wilder. 

The election committee finally brought in its report on Ness 
county on February 17. The report included not only the affidavits 
by Farns worth and Hickel 112 concerning the number of inhabitants 
and electors in Ness county as already given earlier in this article, 
but also the statement offered in reply by Dr. Rodgers. This state- 
ment was made after Dr. Rodgers had been arrested and charged 
with perjury at Hays and was undoubtedly made with the advice 
of legal counsel and therefore may be depended on to contain only 
statements that could be proven. 

I am the Representative from Ness county, Kansas, and was duly and law- 
fully elected to said office on the 4th day of November, A. D. 1873. At the 
time of my said election, the county of Ness contained, according to the oath 
of census taker, within its boundaries the lawful number of ... voters 
duly qualified. At the time of the petition for organization, the said inhabi- 
tants desired to avail themselves of the benefits of county organization, and 
of police regulation for the better protection of their families and as an induce- 
ment for emigrants to settle upon the fertile lands of said county. 

This affiant states that he has read the affidavits of Mr. Farnsworth and 
Mr. Hickel, filed in this matter, and now before this committee, and waiving 
the manifold objections which appear on the face of such papers, and the 

110. For a few days it seemed Mowry had out-smarted himself. By waiting 30 days 
after the organization to hold the election, he had ignored the proviso that the 250 votes 
were to be cast on the general election date of November 4, 1873. 

111. Atty. Gen. A. L. Williams commented on these constituents in his report on 
Comanche county, published in the House Journal, 1875, p. 72: 

". . . If Marius sat amid the ruins of Carthage and wept, I camped upon the town 
site of Smallwood (the county seat), and feasted upon wild turkey, with no (white) man 
to molest or make me afraid. In Smallwood there are two log cabins (both deserted, of 
course), without doors, windows, sash or blinds; about a mile off is another deserted ranch; 
and these compose the houses of the 'householders' of the county. In this county there is 
not an acre of land or a dollar's worth of personal property subject to taxation; its sole 
inhabitants are the Cheyennes and the coyote, the wolf and the Araphoes, and its organiza- 
tion is, and always has been, a fraud." 

112. Ibid., 1874, p. 442. 


inconsistencies which are therein contained, he makes answer to them on their 
merits, and states: the said Farnsworth makes oath that he took the census of 
Ness county in two days, to wit, on the 22d and 23d of December, 1873. This 
affiant states that the county of Ness is 36 miles long by 30 miles wide, and 
states as his judgment that no man can ascertain what is here claimed in that 
short space of time. The census so alleged to be taken was not by authority 
nor was he duly qualified to take a census, and it is entitled to no consideration 
at the hands of this committee. This affiant states that at the time the census 
was taken, under the seal of this State, in Ness county, here were, as shown by 
census taker's returns, a requisite number present and resident householders 
therein. 113 Deponent states that since that time many have removed to other 
localities to wit: some have removed to Denver, some to Illinois, some to 
Massachusetts, and some to other parts of Kansas, so greatly decreasing the 
number of bona fide residents there in October and November. This affiant 
further states that the polls were open at the first precinct from 9 A. M. to 6 
P. M. and that said Farnsworth was there present but two or three hours, and 
was not able to, and in fact, did not, know the number of votes cast at the said 
precinct. Hickel was one of my colony, and shortly after coming to said county 
he received an injury which confined him to his bed, and so he was for nearly 
two months, and is, in fact, ignorant of the matters whereof he wishes to speak 
to the detriment of affiant and the residents of Ness county, who desire to 
retain the county organization. Said Hickel swears that the total number of 
inhabitants in Ness county on the 10th of January, 1874, is but 200; this affiant 
states that this was long after the lawful census was taken, and after numbers 
had gone away for the winter, as hereinbefore set out. 

Mr. Farnsworth does not swear that the number of bona fide inhabitants in 
Ness county in October, 1873, was not a requisite number for organization as 
required by law, and this affiant knows that there were a requisite number. 
This affiant further states that he verily believes that Farnsworth has 
been induced by malice to affiant to make these false statements. Affiant knows 
that said Farnsworth was a candidate for sheriff, and only received twenty- 
seven votes; affiant opposed his election, and on this account, he, Farnsworth, 
seeks to annoy affiant. Said Farnsworth before 4th of November worked hard 
at said precinct No. 1, to get the support of the colonists; but received only 
twenty-seven votes as aforesaid. 

This affiant has no other or further objection to the affidavit of J. W. Hickel, 
than has already been urged against that of Farnsworth, and he states that the 
matters averred herein are true of his own knowledge, and those things other- 
wise alleged he believes to be true; and affiant further saith not, except that 
this honorable committee weigh the matter in its proper light, and by the 
strict rules of evidence dismiss the papers of said Farnsworth and Hickel from 
their consideration, and restore to him, this affiant, all things lost by reason 


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 13th day of February, 1874. 

ELIAS SHULL, Notary Public. 

113. Rodgers apparently did not know of the Ellis county assessor's census report of 
June that might have been cited to support the census of October. 


The report of the committee on elections was long and did not, 
except in a few instances, make much reference to the facts offered 
by Farns worth and answered by Rodgers. The findings are im- 
portant, however, in that they did make some inquiry into the 
fraudulence of the Ness county organization as well as determine 
whether 250 votes had been cast in the Ness county election of 
November 4, 1873. The findings are also important in that the 
committee was the only official body that ever in any way con- 
sidered the organization of Ness county. 

The report first took up the fact that there had not been a 30-day 
notice before the election, discussed it at great length but, after 
pointing out that there should have been a 30-day notice, made no 
finding that Rodgers was not entitled to his seat 114 because of the 
lack of a 30-day notice. 115 

The report next devoted one short paragraph to the clause in the 
Farnsworth and Hickel affidavits relating to the falsity of the sworn 
statement of Rodgers and others claiming 600 inhabitants. This 
is the only part that bears in any way on the accusation that the 
Ness county organization was fraudulent because the census was 
false in claiming 600 inhabitants in October, 1873. The Farns- 
worth statement was: 

Deponent says he has seen the copy of the affidavits of S. G. Rodgers, 
Maroney and others, who testified as to the number of inhabitants of said 
Ness county, which were filed in the office of the Secretary of State . . . 
Deponent saith that the contents of the said affidavits, as to the number of 
inhabitants in said county, and the number of householders, is false, and an 
over-estimate, and were given he believes, to fraudulently obtain an organi- 
zation of the said county of Ness. 

The only affidavit that Rodgers signed pertaining to the organi- 
zation of Ness county was the affidavit attached to the memorial or 
petition to the governor, which was also signed by Henry Maguire 
and Edward Maroney. The exact words were, "They verily believe 
there are six hundred inhabitants in the county/' The petition 
requested the governor to appoint a census taker to find out if 
there were 600 inhabitants. 116 

The election committee in its report disposes of this charge of 
fraud made by Farnsworth against Rodgers in the following words: 

114. As has been explained before, this was often discussed by committees on elections, 
but as the house was the sole judge of the qualifications of its own members, seats were 
customarily not denied for this reason. 

115. Apparently the reporter for the Topeka Commonwealth stayed only long 
enough to hear this part of the report as his newspaper stated the next day that Rodgers 
was denied his seat on this account. 

116. One wonders if the charge of perjury entered in Ellis county against Dr. Rodgers 
was not on this same basis. 


Both of the foregoing affidavits [Farnsworth and Hickel] also set forth 
that the sworn statements of S. G. Rodgers, John Maroney and others, claiming 
six hundred inhabitants and asking a census taker to be appointed, are false. 
These later statements concerning the application for organization being made 
merely upon belief of S. G. Rodgers and others, the committee have not at- 
tached any importance to the statements of Farnsworth and Hickel contro- 
verting them. 

It is bel